Name : Sravan Devarangula.
Id number :547249
The term Virtual organizations is used to describe the network of independent companies that usually meet to produce services or products. The common organization is associated with such terms as real office, virtual teams and common leadership. The main purpose of the organization is to provide quick and advanced creative products and services that meet customers’ needs (Borrajo ; Corchado,2018). The common word, in this sense, is rooted in the computer industry. If a computer seems to have more storage capacity than it is, it’s called normal memory. When the organization collects resources from several companies, the visible organization has more potential than it really does.
Globalization and the considerable increase in intercultural contacts between individual organizations and between global cooperation organizations have led to new methods of web-based communication and the creation of virtual organizations. Virtual organizations have evolved in many shapes and sizes(Ding & Zhao.2017). For example, as a specific organizational design created by different organizations with more or less temporary goals to achieve a specific goal. Or as the “ability” to combine basic skills, outsource or meet production requirements through the use of alternative personnel. It is obvious that virtual organizations differ from traditional organizational structures (hierarchical or matrix), but why? What is a virtual organization and how are they structured?
Virtual organizations have six main functions:
1. It is an organization without borders, in the cyberspace (in the Web)
2. Geographical improvements (various locations)
3. Interchangeable with a similar corporate culture
4. A combination of complementary resources to achieve a specific objective
5. Distribute power among partners
6. Electronic communication through ICT
Virtual organizations can also be identified through four basic administrative tasks that depend on the separation of satisfaction requirements:
• Formulation of summary requirements (eg request for information)
• monitoring and analysis of specific satisfaction (eg information services)
• Dynamic assignment of concrete satisfaction to abstract requirements based on explicit criteria and:
• Exploration and analysis of the allocation criteria (related to the objectives and objectives of the organization)
Virtual organizations are structured and connected through virtual connections through the use of computers. It is also associated with a variety of seemingly different phenomena, such as virtual memory, virtual reality, virtual classes, virtual machines, and virtual desktops. Virtual teams are, in this sense, “teamed” together in an “office”. Virtual teams allow administrators to gather groups of employees to meet unforeseen and temporary needs.
A good example of a very successful virtual organization is Airbus. Airbus is an aviation consortium operating in a commercial aviation market. This organization is characterized by strong and comprehensive cooperation to maximize market opportunities and competitive advantages through shared capabilities and capabilities.
Virtual organizations can be understood as distributed and independent organizational units that are compatible, structured, and interconnected through the use of information technology through virtual circuits. Virtual organizations focus on virtuality, which means “anytime, anywhere.” A conceptual organization is abstract, not visible, and exists in the minds of those who form a particular organization. Virtual networks are a particular case of the network of organizations that are structured and managed so that they can act as a complete and identifiable organization of customers and other stakeholders, dynamic, agile and sharing their website. These organizations are committed to working together on a large scale to maximize market opportunities and gain competitive advantage through shared resources and resources to deliver products and services globally.
Since the notion of virtual distance is not specific to the IT sector, but will eventually affect all industries where the demands and opportunities are global, it is important to think through the notion of virtual distance carefully. The main problem in terms of output for organizations that cannot handle virtual distance is a substantial loss in productivity as opposed to those which understand what is involved in ‘mitigation techniques’ to reduce, if not totally eliminate, virtual distance. This process of mitigating virtual distance has been found to not only reduce the productivity losses due to the various forms of employee dissatisfaction in virtual teams; but has also made it possible for virtual teams to take the lead in increasing the levels of innovation, effectiveness, work satisfaction, trust, and in promoting the overall clarity of the goals of the team; and the roles that individual members will play in the team as a whole. The notion of virtual distance has three dimensions. It obviously involves the physical and operational elements since these things have a logistical element to it. But it also involves the problem of affinity as represented in the traditional idea of ‘so near and yet so far.’ The importance of the third dimension is related to the fact that if the notion of virtual distance is well understood, then, we will have to learn to spot the moments when such forms of distancing emerge in traditional organizations even if they do not seek to be globally integrated enterprises and are content to be whatever or wherever they are. Or to put it theoretically: organizations might work with the notion of the ‘actual’ as opposed to the ‘virtual’ if they are all physically located in the same facility, but the moment they recognize the notion of virtual distance they will not make the mistake of essentializing spatial proximity with the modalities of establishing or recognizing intellectual or emotional affinity. In order to spot and diagnose the dangers in virtual distance, the authors have developed a technique to map the amount of distance along with a set of subcategories to solve the problem. Managing the problem effectively involves working out the modalities necessary to reduce the forms in which virtual distance expresses itself. These forms include the amount of cultural, social, relational, and interdependence distance. Categorizing and classifying virtual distance under these four headings is a simple way of situating and correcting the problem.
DEPLOYING VIRTUAL TEAMS
The second part of the book involves a description of the traditional categories and the arguments in favor of rethinking and redefining these in order to make possible the development and deployment of virtual teams in global enterprises without any unnecessary losses in productivity( Ding & Zhao,2017). The authors begin by asking where the notion of teams is coming from, how they relate to what were known as ‘guilds’ in Europe, and what the needs, demands, and wants of teams are in the workplace. They also discuss issues involved in recognizing and compensating teams for the work that they do in organizations and the role that was played by ‘quality circles’ in redefining the role expectations of teams members in the context of TQM and the role of team work and cooperation in pursuing quality goals such as Six Sigma( Ding & Zhao,2017). It is also important to understand the impact of the resource-based theory of the firm through the notion of core competence in dividing the work of the organization into those which it must do itself and those it should try and outsource whenever possible as a way of increasing both quality and productivity and by doing only those things that it is likely to excel in( Ding & Zhao,2017).This has interesting implications for the development of virtual teams in globally integrated enterprises since the pace of development of outsourcing would not have been possible, but for the emphasis laid on the difference between the core and peripheral activities in the resource-based theory of the firm( Ding & Zhao,2017).The traditional forms of social and workplace bonding in organizations therefore has changed in virtual teams which can be reassembled at short notice as opposed to teams that work together but usually in the same physical facility. In order to understand these emerging forms of team work, the authors argue that it is a good idea to invoke the analogue of a musical ensemble, where musicians assemble for a short period of time to spontaneously improvise and work out new compositions.
LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS
In addition to a revised notion of teams it is also necessary to work out a new model of leadership, which the authors define as ‘ambassadorial.’ As opposed to the usual model of leadership which is transactional, the ambassadorial model attempts to incorporate the charismatic and transformational elements from the repertoire of leadership styles and techniques( Ding & Zhao,2017). This style is not reducible to somehow getting the work done, but incorporates features such as the need to understand the modalities of influence on the ideal plane, it deploys an individualized notion of consideration where the development of the team and its members takes on the form of coaching, it also serves, when necessary, as a role model to sustain motivation levels, and stimulates the team intellectually by making possible a systematic engagement with new ideas and possibilities( Ding & Zhao,2017). The goal is to create a team based notion of ownership. This is increasingly becoming the norm rather than just another option in knowledge based industries where team members seek to be recognized and not merely rewarded for the work that they do.The proof that a virtual team is able to work without splitting into fragments; or working at cross purposes occurs when there is a substantial increase in the levels of organizational citizenship as opposed to self-serving behaviors. The modalities involved in leading such virtual teams are known as the ambassadorial form of leadership. An interesting case study of such a form of leadership that is discussed at length in this book is that of Karen Sorenson at Johnson & Johnson (J&J). The main features of her leadership style include knowing when to lead and knowing when to let someone else take the lead and in knowing the importance of balancing the demands of task responsibility with those of relational responsibility effectively by understanding what is necessary for teams to succeed in virtual environments. This also has implications for the levels of creativity and innovation that is possible in organizations which work with virtual teams. The greater the virtual distance, the greater the loss in productivity on these two dimensions.
Examples of virtual organizations
The entertainment industry, which has collaborated with the computer industry, communications, electronics and publications of changing movies, books and other programs, is an industry known to its partners and partnerships in a digital format
More companies are continuing towards these new forms of organization. Corning and ceramic manufacturer Corning is one of the most specialized companies that work in their co-operation. Corning worked with companies such as Siemens, German conglomerate and Vitro, a large glass factory in Mexico. Fellowship is crucial to Corning’s corporate strategy, defined as a network of organizations. IT organizations that successfully implemented the form in this new system include Apple Computer and Sun Microsystems(Priego-Roche ; Rieu,2016). With Apple Computer combining its easy-to-use software with the ability to manufacture miniaturization, Apple can quickly launch its products and get market parts in part of PC laptops.
Sun Microsystems was considered to be a powerful organization that incorporates independent companies. The sun focuses on information systems as one of the key priorities for quick and effective communication. For most Sun Team members, it works for some time, space and organizations to solve important issues. Sunlight observers recognize key customer issues and then create teams with skills and skills to solve the problem. This team may involve distributors, marketing staff, finances and activities in various parts of the world; Customers and sellers can become members of the group as mandatory. Weekly meetings can be organized during teleconferences. The key to team success is to organize the talent of the organization, to set an open goal for the team’s efforts and to establish communication links between team members.
Sun has tried to develop technology such as EDI (Electronic Data Exchange Interchange) and RFID Technology (Frequency Radio Identification Technology). EDI and RFID will affect information sharing around the world and in many areas.
Virtual organizations can be very difficult. The corporate challenges involved include plans for strategic planning, mixing limits, loss of control and the need for new management skills. The strategic plan presents new challenges as companies actually determine the integration of key efficiency(Balaji, Edison & Shabu,2015). The common vision of partners is the failure of co-operatives. Given the common goal, companies continue to close units, which makes it difficult to determine the end of one business. Defining the boundaries requires that these boundaries be effectively implemented. Planning plans are important to support these collections of unusual communities.
Virtual passwords cause loss of control of certain activities. This regulatory deficiency requires communication, coordination and trust among different partners, as well as new management skills. Employees are well represented by the organization in honor of the members, responsibilities and responsibilities, functions and relationships between managers and assistants. This complexity requires leadership to reexamine the benefits, staff development, staff and other issues related to staff. Developing competent leaders to build and maintain these organizational types is important.
What are the forms of communication technology that are available for leading virtual teams? What must team leaders remember about the more effective forms of communication to enhance the productivity of their respective teams? The authors discuss the pros and cons of using the different forms of communication technology available including email, telephones, video conferencing, etc and the misunderstandings that are generated in both interpersonal and intercultural situations especially when not all the members of these virtual teams and those who they work with will be from the same place or speak in the same register. These communication technologies, they remind us, are also cultural technologies, which affect not only how we communicate but also become essential forms of social and cultural cognition. Understanding the differences then between how communication technologies are deployed in a varied set of organizational contexts is absolutely necessary to negotiate and reduce the hazards of virtual distance in team work. Learning to differentiate the implications of the different forms of communication and cultural technology is therefore important as a necessary skill-set in both team members and team leaders. The eight categories that the authors introduce to help virtual teams assess which type of communication technology is necessary are the following: audibility, copresence, cotemporality, reviewability, revisability, simultaneity, sequentiality, and visibility.
A telling feature of this analysis arises when the same content is expressed in different forms such as email as opposed to a face-to-face meeting to gauge the respective effectiveness of these media. The sheer number of misunderstandings that are generated through email because of the absence of contextual and paralinguistic cues can be quite shocking for the reader given the levels of dependence that we owe to email as a medium of organizational communication. Another problem with processing email is the sheer number that virtual teams may have to go through on any given day making it difficult to process them with as much attention as they probably demand. The modalities of audio-conferencing and video-conferencing are also discussed along with the ‘practical implications’ of using such technologies in everyday life in organizations, especially in terms of whether they increase or decrease virtual distance in organizational and virtual team communications. How will the notion of ‘context,’ which defines the cognitive frame in any act of communication, be understood in such situations? The retroactive element in this analysis pertains to the fact that once we understand the attributes of virtual distance, we can develop a non-essentialist model of social and organizational cognition to incorporate the demands that it makes on the communication situation; it will also be possible to incorporate cultural differences within such a virtual model of communication.
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Ding, M. A., & Zhao, L. I. (2017). Stability Analysis of the Virtual Organization in Big Data Era——Based on Evolutionary Game Theory. Industrial Economic Review, 5, 003.
Balaji, P., Edison, A., & Shabu, S. J. (2015). Equal Service Providing Virtual Organization Formation in GRID. Academic Journal of Accounting and Economic Researches ISSN 2333-0783, 4(2).
Priego-Roche, L. M., & Rieu, D. (2016). A framework for virtual organization requirements. Requirements Engineering, 21(4), 439-460.
De la Prieta, F., Rodríguez, S., Bajo, J., & Corchado, J. M. (2014). + Cloud: A Virtual Organization of Multiagent System for Resource Allocation into a Cloud Computing Environment. In Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XV(pp. 164-181). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.