Universal Health Coverage

Universal Health Coverage(UHC) is defined as access to the quality health service with out the risk of financial hardships or without being pushed to extreme poverty due to catastrophic health expenditure. Even if, the system design to provide universal access to the quality health service, it also has significant effect in poverty reduction and increasing social stability.
Beside the pressure from High prevalence of disease in Africa the other reason for investing in UHC is a moral one: it is not acceptable that some members of society should face death, disability, ill health or impoverishment for reasons that could be addressed at limited cost.
Accepting and integration of UHC in the national policy level is not enough, the national polices should be translated in to the ground. still Africa is facing challenge in despite of the national UHC police, with regard to health insurance and financial protection, mobilizing internal resource and quality health service delivery.
There is no single fit model to achieving universal health coverage in Africa. All policies and strategies should consider each country local conditions. Even though , Africa is highly diversified continent most of problems are common for all countries. Africa should work on the basements of universal health coverage temple. such as peace, good governance and health financing. In addition, Africa should also give attention on strengthening the pillars of UHC temple such as Health information, health human resource, medical products(health technologies) and service delivery.

Methods
Internet review
?Literatures
?International and national policies
?Guidelines
Search Engine
?Google
?Google scholar

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Chapter one
1. Introduce
Universal Health Coverage(UHC) is the foundation for population stability in terms of health, sustained economic and social development. UHC was brought in to the table by Alma-Ata declaration before 30 years. With a central idea of ”Health for all”. which believed to produce better quality of life as well as prosperity and stability in the world (2).
Universal health Coverage is a service package in the health sector that design to give a quality health service and financial protection to the entire population in a given country. The aim and objective of universal health coverage is financial risk protection, improved access to quality health services, and improved health outcomes(1).
In most country people prefer health one of their highest priorities, in another countries,they rate health before only economic concerns, such as unemployment, low wages and a high cost of living. Due to high health priority in the society, universal health coverage become a social and political concern(2).
UHC is defined as access to the quality health service with out the risk of financial hardships or without they being pushed to extreme poverty due to catastrophic health expenditure. It is all about quality health service ,accessibility as well as financial risk protection.
Even if, the system design to provide universal access to the quality health service, it also has significant effect in poverty reduction and increasing social stability(3). Because of the political and social nature of the system, the universal health coverage able to attract the attention of all UN state members.
Achieving UHC is an important objective for all countries to attain equability, accessibility, accountability, resilience and sustainability health structure. Health system strengthening is a means to progress towards UHC. A functioning UHC is organized around the people, institutions and resources that are mandated to improve, maintain or restore the health of a given population.
1.1 Global Initiative Towards Universal Health Coverage
The World Health Assembly resolution 58.33/ 2005 says ”everyone should be able to access health services and not be subject to financial hardship in doing so”. Our world failed to achieve both promises of the resolution.
Sustainable Development Goal(SDG) is the 2030 agenda by UN state members for governments and the international community to renew their commitment for improving social and political stability. SDG has 17 goals with a defined priority areas of action. Of them Goal 3 is to ”ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”. UHC has special attention in goal 3 target 3.8 with a promising initiative for all people and communities having access to quality health services without risking financial hardship(4).
At least half of the world’s population still do not have full coverage of essential health services. About 100 million people are still being pushed into “extreme poverty” (living on 1.90 USD (1) or less a day) because of health service payment. Over 800 million people (almost 12% of the world’s population) spent at least 10% of their household budgets to pay for health care(5). In 2015 as a part of Global sustainable development goal the UN state members agreed to renew their commitment to achieve UHC.
In some setting income is not the only factor influencing service coverage but also illiteracy, location, migrants, ethnic minorities and indigenous people use services less than other population groups, even though their needs may be greater. The other side of the coin is that when people do use services, they often incur high, sometimes catastrophic costs in paying for their care. Only one in five people in the world has broad-based social security protection that also includes cover for lost wages in the event of illness, and more than half the world’s population lacks any type of formal social protection, according to the International Labour Organization (ILO), Only 5–10% of people are covered in sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia, in Ethiopia only

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