There are two types of antigen that could be present on the surface of the red blood cell and it is the A and B antigen. If the surface of the red blood cell has antigen A, it is under blood group A. The presence of antigen B means the blood is under blood group B. The presence of both antigen means the blood falls under the blood group AB and the absence of both antigen means the blood falls under blood group O.
Based on the experiment that have been carried out, two out of six members in the groups are under blood group A+. Whereas, the remaining four members falls under blood group B+. None of the group members having blood group AB or O.
The results are read directly from the slide. Subject 1 and 2 are under blood group A because agglutination occurred with the Anti-A test serum. They have A antigens on their red cells and antibodies against type B antigens in their plasma. However, subject 3,4 5 and 6 are under group B because agglutination occurred with the Anti-B test serum. Those with type B have B antigens on their cells and antibodies against blood group A in their plasma. People who falls under blood group AB, agglutination will occur when tested with Anti-A, Anti-B and Anti AB. Whereas, people with blood group O will not form agglutination when tested with Anti-A, Anti-B and Anti A.
Blood Group Antigens present Antibodies present
A A antigen Anti-B
B B antigen Anti-A
AB A and B antigen No antibodies
O Neither antigens Anti-A and Anti-B
Table 2: Antigens and antibodies present in different blood group.
The presence of antibody in the serum means that if the corresponding antigen is found in the body, there would be an agglutination reaction because the antibody is against it. For an example, blood group A has anti-B antibodies in the serum, because of this, Subject 1 and 2 cannot receive blood from a B or AB group because of the presence of antigen B on their blood which will be attacked by the anti-B antibody of the person of blood group A.
Likewise, subject 3,4,5 and 6 with B blood has anti-A antibody in the serum and cannot receive blood from either blood group A or AB. AB has no antibody in the serum and can receive blood from all the blood group types because the antigen would not be attacked while blood group O, which has no antigen, will have both anti-A and anti-B antibody in its serum, and this makes them unable to receive blood from any other group besides blood group O. Therefore blood group AB are known as universal recipients, as they can receive blood from all other blood groups, while blood group O are known as the universal donor as they can donate to all blood groups.
The ‘+’ and ‘-‘ sign refer to rhesus factor. The Rhesus blood group system is the second most important blood group system after the ABO grouping system. This system is also defined by the presence of antigens on the surface of red blood cell (M. Asmau,2017). The Rh system consists of 50 defined blood group antigens among which 5 are the most important. These five are the antigens D, C, C, E, and E (M. Asmau, 2017). The most common classification of Rh blood group is based on the D antigen. The terms Rh positive and Rh negative refer to whether the Rh Antigen D is present or absent on the surface of the blood. Besides it is vital in compatibility for blood transfusion, the D antigen also determines the risk of erythroblastosis fetalis (hemolytic disease of the new born) in pregnant women and their babies (M. Asmau, 2017).
The Rh factor is usually associated with the ABO blood group system when one is determining their blood group. It is usually indicated by the Rh positive or Rh negative suffix to the ABO blood type. Rh+ have the antigen present on the red blood cell whereas Rh- does not have antigen present. For example, a person with blood group A+ has both the antigen A, based on the ABO system, and the Rhesus Antigen D based on the Rhesus system, present on the surface of their red blood cells. Likewise, a person said to be A- has only the antigen A and not the Rhesus Antigen D on the surface of their red blood cells (M. Asmau,2017).
If a person with Rh+ blood is transfused to someone having Rh-, the body of the Rh- person will develop antibodies against the Rh factor after the first transfusion and most times there is no reaction and bring no harm. However, the subsequent transfusions will be dangerous because antibodies have already been developed against the Rh factor. Due to this, people with blood group O- are the real universal donors while people of AB+ blood group are the actual universal recipients.
The most common cause of transfusion related to fatal is acute hemolytic reaction due to ABO incompatibility. Hemolysis of donor or recipient red blood cells during or after transfusion can result from ABO/Rh incompatibility, plasma antibodies, or hemolyzed red blood cells. Hemolysis is most common and most severe when incompatible donor red blood cells are hemolyzed by antibodies in the recipient’s plasma. Hemolytic reactions may be acute (within 24 h) which can lead to fatal or delayed (from 1 to 14 days).
ABO typing is a test that determines a person’s blood type. The test is important if someone need a blood transfusion or if he wants to donate blood. This is because not all blood types are compatible. Receiving blood from donor that is incompatible with reciever blood type could trigger a dangerous immune response.
“D positive” and “D negative” refer to the presence or absence of D-antigen/Rh factor on the surface of red blood cells. If “D positive” it means that a D-antigen is found on the surface of your RBC. “D negative” means that there is no D-antigen on the surface of red blood cells.
The study of immunohematology is essential and it is a branch of medicine that primarily deals with ?the ?processes and complications related to blood transfusions. It helps to develop safer and more reliable method for blood transfusions and also reduce the risk of several blood-related disease ?that involve the interaction between antibodies and antigens.
?When the red blood cells in a body encounter foreign red blood cells ?that have ?certain ?antigens on their surface, ?the cells will create antibodies.?These antibodies will destroy the ?foreign cells. ?Immunohematology contain as much as possible knowledge about the hundreds of different antigens that exist so there will be a way to transfuse blood without causing antibodies to be produced.
In Islam,the one from whom blood is taken, the process must not bring harm to him because Prophet said: “There should be no causing harm or reciprocating harm.” Thus the study of immunohematology is crucial to make sure any blood ?transfusion will not cause unnecessary complications.