The word “codification” refers to the style and process. By which the language had made these methods followed by the creation and the use of language guides, the grammar textbook, style and dictionaries. It is very important to know that “Codification” is continues process. The most important thing in the codification of English was in the 18th century. It was specialized with the publication of 100’s of dictionary and grammar. This contains dictionaries like Samuel Johnson’s monumental dictionary in 1755.
Although the people who have made the dictionaries in the 17th century and the 18th century had released some dictionaries, Samuel Jackson’s dictionary which is called “Dictionary of the English language” which was published in 1755. His dictionary has made the standards for dictionaries in America and England. His dictionary also made a massive change and transform in language authority from grammarians (who study grammar and writes grammar books) into lexicographers (who write dictionaries). Dictionaries in the past in the 17th century considered as and unskillfully written list of definitions synonyms that was not pretty well developed definitions to translate foreign language suck as the French and Latin languages. But the grammar texts contain many components of the words like the definitions, pronunciation, spelling, usage notes and entomology. The grammarians were mainly on charge for any decisions about the English language and the decisions they take were consulted by Latin grammars that maintained a long traditions of its power and authority.
In the 18th century, the choices about the language fell under the interest of the dictionary writers (the lexicographers). While the grammar writers kept in focusing on grammar related materials the lexicographers have more comprehensions in dictionary. Samuel Johnson was capable to write his big dictionary in 1755 because he used his skills and many techniques that who writes grammar used in grammar text. Like: make decisions in correctives, to explain meaning with quotations, Etc. Johnson has the skill to use the best ways of grammarians as the lexicographers.
The English language dictionary is published on the 15th of April 1755, written by Samuel Johnson. The dictionary was sometimes called as “Johnson’s dictionary” it’s one of the most effective or influential dictionaries in the history of ‘English language’. But there was discontent with the dictionaries of the time. So a group of London booksellers in June 1746 commissioned Johnson’s dictionary. Because they were hoping that a book like his would really help to fix the rules influencing the English language. In the introduction of the book Johnson writes of the “energetic’ difficult of the English tongue, in his opinion, the English was on a deep problem or a mess, and was in need of some discipline. However, in the process of gathering the dictionary he recognized that there is no way to fix the language, due to its constant changing so his role was to make it on the language of the day not to form a language. And they bayed for him to write a dictionary for money of 1500 “Guineas” it was their money at that time. It’s equals to 220 thousand pound, in 2017. It took him a time of seven years to complete the dictionary although he said he can finish it in 3 years. And remarkably, he did it by himself with only clerical help to copy out the illustrative quotation that he had highlighted in books. He made many revised editions during his life career. Until the completion of “Oxford English dictionary” one hundred seventy three years later, Jonson’s dictionary was viewed as the surpassing English dictionary.
The words are put in the dictionary when it is used a lot by many people and when a word has more than one meaning some words has like a 100 meaning it has to be put on a dictionary so people would know its meaning.
What are the criteria used for including words in the dictionary Descriptive dictionaries, it describe the language. They contain words that are used daily or a lot even if they are not standardized. They will often include nonstandard spellings. “Ain’t” is a descriptive dictionary. Like oxford dictionary
While Prescriptive dictionaries seems to be more worried about proper or standard English. They give the proper usage and spelling of the words. Like Samuel Johnson’s dictionary, he was afraid to lose the old English because the English language is international and it changes daily.
List of references
Mitchell, L. C. (2005) ‘Johnson among the early modern grammarians’. ‘International journal of lexicography’ vol. 18, no 2, pp. 203-16.
Johnson, S., ; Lynch, J. (2003). Samuel Johnson’s dictionary: selections from the 1755 work that defined the English language. New York: Walker & Co. available at https://studymoose.com/johnsons-dictionary-and-the-language-of-learning-essay