THE ROLE OF TELEVISION IN THE FIGHT AGAINST GENDER BASED VIOLENCE. A CASE STUDY OF CITIZEN TELEVISION
A PROJECT PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELORS IN COMMUNICATION AT ST PAULS UNIVERSITY.
This research project report is my original work and has not been presented for any award of a degree in any other university.
Stella Wanjira Gachoki Date
This research project report has been submitted for examination with my approval as university supervisor
Department of Business and communication
St Paul’s University.
I dedicate this project to my parents for their tireless efforts to see me make a breakthrough in my academics. With their limited resources I have found success in my education. To my dearest daughter Krystel Amoo because of you I know that life is what you make it and to succeed you need motivation plus hard work.
I thank God first and foremost for giving me a normal mind that will lead to success in my life through my education. I also give thanks to all my lecturers for teaching more knowledge in the field of communication. Special thanks to my supervisor lecturer, Madam Susan Mwangi for your tireless efforts, your advice and most importantly your guidance in taking me through the research paper
Television in Kenya plays a big part in giving the general public information and news. However, despite the media playing a role of disseminating information, societal ills such as gender based violence is still happening. The study looked at the role of television in not only creating awareness about gender based violence but also educating the community of the societal ill.
Television communications has the capacity to reach a large audience hence having the potential to play a positive role in curbing the social ill. This study sought to assess the extent at which television media was being used to fight against the physical abuse against women using a case study of citizen television. The researcher sought to determine factors which were influencing the use of television media in fighting gender based violence and challenges of the same. The study used a quantitative research approach, an exploratory research design and analyzing the data using content analysis.
Television plays a big role in the community by creating awareness on most issues in the society and hence priming and agenda setting of the news was important in bringing up the problems the society needed to address. The study therefore, was guided by agenda setting theory. Data was collected through a content analysis of Citizen Television news for a period of December to the month of February. The results indicated that there are several types of Gender Based violence and the most prominent news articles were on physical violence while those that occupied the least space were on rape, prostitution and Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Data was presented using charts and graphs.
From the findings, there is need for Kenyan Media to be part of the solutions in the fight against the women violence. While news often does offer information of the societal ills happening, it is important to also have strategies to encourage them to in put more context and analysis when reporting about Gender Based Violence.
Table of Content
TOC o “1-3” h z u DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc508375071 h 2DEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc508375072 h 3ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PAGEREF _Toc508375073 h 4Abstract PAGEREF _Toc508375074 h 51.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc508375075 h 7Background of the study PAGEREF _Toc508375076 h 9Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc508375077 h 9Specific objectives PAGEREF _Toc508375078 h 10Research questions PAGEREF _Toc508375079 h 10Scope and Limitation of the study PAGEREF _Toc508375080 h 11significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc508375081 h 11Assumptions of the study PAGEREF _Toc508375082 h 11Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc508375083 h 12LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc508375084 h 132.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc508375085 h 132.2.1 Television Media PAGEREF _Toc508375086 h 142.3 Issues arising on violence against women PAGEREF _Toc508375087 h 172.4 Forms of Gender Based Violence PAGEREF _Toc508375088 h 192.4.1 Poverty as a main form of gender based violence PAGEREF _Toc508375089 h 192.5 Factors contributing to violence against women PAGEREF _Toc508375090 h 202.6 Women abuse in relation to media coverage PAGEREF _Toc508375091 h 222.7 Theoretical frame work PAGEREF _Toc508375092 h 222.8 Conceptual Framework. PAGEREF _Toc508375093 h 233.0 METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc508375094 h 253.1 Research design PAGEREF _Toc508375095 h 253.2 Target population PAGEREF _Toc508375096 h 253.3 Data analysis PAGEREF _Toc508375097 h 253.4 Sampling Techniques PAGEREF _Toc508375098 h 263.5 Data Collection Procedures PAGEREF _Toc508375099 h 263.6 Data Collecting Tools PAGEREF _Toc508375100 h 263.7 Data analysis and Presentation PAGEREF _Toc508375101 h 274.0 REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc508375102 h 274.1 Role Played By Television Media In The Fight Against Gender Based Violence: A Content Analysis Of Citizen Television Media. PAGEREF _Toc508375103 h 30
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: News section ………………………………………………………………………………………37
Table 2: Type of Gender Based Violence reported in Citizen Television News…………38
Table 3: Placement of Gender Based Violence Story in Minutes …………………………….42
Table 4: Main actors in the news story………………………………………………………………….44
Table 5: Type of Gender Based Violence and the format of the news story……………….46
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. 1: Gender of reporter ………………………………………………………………………………………39
Fig. 2: Format of news article …………………………………………………………………………………40
Fig. 3: Frequency of stories between the month of December to the month of February…41
Fig. 4: Type of story………………………………………………………………………………………………..43
Fig. 5: Victims as covered in the story……………………………………………………………………….45
According to the UN (United Nations), physical violence and conflict against women is an act of gender based violence that results in physical, sexual, psychological harm to a woman whether it’s in public or private, Declaration on the Elimination of violence against women, (1993).
Violence against women(VAW) also known as gender based violence are acts of violence committed to women, it is one of the most widespread abuses of human rights all over the world and it’s affecting a third of women in their lifetime. It is the leading cause of deaths and disability of most women and it brings health complications such as a woman turning deaf or turning blind. Violence against women is a fundamental barrier to eradicating poverty and building peace in a community. The UN also defines violence as one of the most systematic and widespread human rights violation which is rooted in gendered social-economic, educational and geographic boundaries. UN General Assembly, (2006).
A survey carried out by the Kenya’s National Family Health Survey-III (Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 1998), found out that every married couple be it male or female have faced violence at some time in their lives. The survey showed that 38% women experienced violence after marriage whereby central and western counties were the most affected. Funny enough, the most affected areas was in the urban areas rather than the rural areas.
In most cases women who are not economically advantaged fall victim of such incidents although in recent times a few men also fall victim. Hence by empowering these women they stand a better chance of fending for themselves and their children.
Violence emerges from different factors affecting the social society structures. These include, characteristics passed down from parents and ancestors which could be physical or hereditary health issues, development history which means ways in which persons met and how they connected on a social emotional level, fear and shame in human beings which is indicated in the relationship dynamics, personality of a person for example, their character traits, norms in a culture, resources availability and relative standing of women and men.
A survey done by National Organization for women, 1996 shows that most media give gender stereotypes that can cause negative attitudes in the society towards gender based violence against women. For example, in Morocco during the eve of the start of a sixteen days activism to end violence against women in November 28th 2016, a TV channel, Moroccan state TV channel aired a Programme entitled, ” The Camouflage Traces of Violence” showing how women can use makeup to cover up their marks of domestic violence. Although they later apologized, the damage had already been done and this gave the society a negative attitude of addressing the issue against violence in women.
Nonetheless, television communications reach and influence large number of people hence it is a very influential medium in promoting the end of gender based violence among families. Mass media has the potential to pay a positive role in the struggle against violence against women (Pickup et al, 2001)
The role played by television media in the society is creating awareness that the vice is happening and women don’t have to remain hush about it anymore. The media also hold shows to air struggles women go through in relationships and also have victims of violence who are not shy to speak about it on TV. This gives the viewer’s opportunity to give feedback on how they feel and come up with solutions on what can be done by the community and the government.
Background of the study
The study looked at how gender based violence issues are covered in Kenyan Media particularly the Citizen Television. The television media in Kenya plays an important role in curbing gender based violence. One, it influences public attitudes on information such as violence against women. “Physical abuse and violence against women should be given considerable coverage in news and feature shows to trigger ‘media frenzy’, followed by a public outcry, calls for accountability and expectations of statutory reform” (Connolly& Doolan, 2007)
In Kenya, gender based violence is gendered and culturally ordained. Within the prevailing norms, it can be argued that the husband has the right to control his wife as he deems appropriate (Amnesty International, 2002; IRIN, 2007). For the societal ill to be curbed, root causes of the problem should be addressed such as changing social attitudes and beliefs. Challenging the social attitudes and beliefs is of great importance in solving the problem of gender based violence. (GVRC, Annual Report 2011-2012)
Globally, the television media is being used to expose these societal ills, causes and challenges which give it the name the ‘fourth estate’. Television media is becoming a powerful tool in the society especially in Kenya since technology is becoming widespread and affordability of the commodity is reasonable.
Gender based violence has become so common in our day to day lives in Kenya and this makes it necessary for different communication channels such as TV, Radio, internet, social media and print media to expose such violence and ensure women are protected from such people. Physical violence in women can be very damaging to their health, emotional and mental capabilities and also damage them sexually which can lead to death.
The myth about media is that it is neutral and mostly guided by the code of conduct in reporting cases of gender based violence. Media does not pass information passively to the society and it is a source of information that comes with value. Despite media trying to address the issue, such violent cases are still common today. This research sought to show how television media was being used to fight gender based violence.
The general objective of this study was to review media reporting of gender based violence in television with an exact focus on citizen television news.
The study sought to;
Establish the nature and types of gender based violence covered by citizen television news in Kenya.
Establish the priming and agenda setting of gender based violence news articles in citizen television for the month December to February for the year 2017 and 2018.
To establish challenges faced in the use of television media in fighting gender based violence.
The study addressed the following questions;
What is the nature and type of gender based violence covered by citizen television news in Kenya?
What is the priming and agenda setting of gender based violence news articles in citizen television for the month December to February for the year 2017 and 2018?
What are the challenges faced when using television media in fighting gender based violence?
Limitation of the study
The study was based on analyzing all video shows done on television media for three months (December-January) in Citizen Television media. One of the limitations is not being able to compare the shows in the whole year due to time limitations. Secondly, the fact that the study is using only one television media there will be no room to compare with other television media.
Significance of the study
The findings of this research are significant because they will assist other scholars undertaking studies in the communication and public relations and also gender based violence victims. The results of the study will assist the women facing the violence by giving the government solutions on how to curb the vice through television media. The research will also be of help to Media owners, Stake holders to assess the effectiveness of television media in showing the vice to the general public.
Scope of the study
The study was based on analyses of news articles on gender based violence for a period of three months (December 2017- February 2018) covered in Citizen Television.
Limitations and assumption of the study
One of the limitations is not being able to compare data on news articles from previous months due to time limitations. Another was the fact that the study was only on citizen television news hence there was no comparison between different media platforms such as social media, print or radio. The study assumes that all respondents watch citizen television news as their preferred mode of communication.
Definition of Terms
CMG -Citizen Media Group
GBV -Gender Based Violence
UNDEVW -The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women
KDHS -Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys
WHO -World Health Organization
FIDA – Federation of Women Lawyers
CT – Citizen Television
Violence against women also known as gender based violence. Violent acts that is primarily committed against women. It is gender based meaning that the acts of violence are committed against women specifically because they are women.
Violence against women fit into broad categories; violence carried out by individuals e.g. rape, domestic violence, sexual harassments; violence carried out by the state
Intimate partner violence
Any behavior within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological or sexual harm to those in the relationship, including acts of physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and controlling behaviors.
Action taken by an organization, individual in improving a difficult situation, it is the action or process of intervening.
Mechanisms that deals with the effect of outside forces on something in this case a relationship for example when one partner is angry, it really means they are hurt and are just defending themselves with no intentions of hurting their partner.
Violent beating that usually involves the act of striking someone repeatedly or heavily in order to cause injury to the person’s body.
Federation of women lawyers in Kenya.
Television media plays a very important role in influencing perceptions and attitudes of the audience. Attitudes can be seen inform of showing the ones responsible for the victimization what violence does to the victims, shaping the communities mentality about gender based violence and influencing them on the actions and responses to take. Media plays a major role in giving information about gender based violence and in doing so the community gets to understand about such matters happening in the society.
Most of the developed countries including Kenya, will not be able to eliminate gender based violence if they do not identify factors that are affecting the violence, causes of the violence that are most rampant in the society.
Currently it is difficult to compare data with other counties and this is due to lack of statistics being collected well across most countries. This is because violence in most countries is defined differently and in most cases that are reported, gender based violence are under assault cases making it difficult to know the population of women who face GBV (Gender Based Violence). Most women Groups are not able to collect statistical data for example, UNIFEM says, most women groups have no means of providing the level of statistical evidence that is needed to build a valid record (Johnson, 2004).
35%of women in the world have experienced either physical or sexual abuse from their intimate partner this is according to 2013 global reviews on data of women faced with gender based violence. However, research showed that physical violence is accompanied by sexual abuse in a third to over half of the cases (WHO 2002). Studies among Kenyan women showed that marriage to them tends to spoil a relationship by giving the man too much power control over the woman (Kariuki, 1989). To support the theory further women have been forced out of their homes after the death of their husbands just to keep them from inheriting property that they may have contributed towards establishing (Terry, 2007). In Kenya, the law bared women from inheriting property such as land from their fathers only sons should inherit land owned by their fathers although in recent times this law is changing.
Gender based violence involved rape and domestic violence against women in social cultures. Communication experts mostly forgot an important factor related to gender issues which are cultural and social norms which shape behaviour n men and women. Domestic violence according to WHO (World Health Organization), is one of the most common form of gender based violence in Kenya. ” Intimate Partner violence is behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes physical, sexual or psychological harm, including act of physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and controlling behaviour ” (Butchart et al., 2010:11)
Violence as explained in the introduction can be physical, mental, emotional or verbal abuse to a partner. According to IGWG, 2006, domestic violence is a type of gender based violence that involves physical, mental or social abuse directed against a person by their spouse or boyfriend.
2.2 Theoretical frame work
Agenda Setting Theory
Agenda setting, according to McCombs ;Shaw (1972), describes it as a powerful influence of the media to share information and influence the community to either act up to end it or find a solution to curb it. Price and Tewksbury (1974) sums up agenda setting, as a determinant of public perceptions of issue importance and, indirectly through priming, evaluations of political leaders. This means that the media as a powerful tool can make issues known and hence influencing the attitudes of the community about the issue. Price and Tewksbury argue that agenda setting is memory based and therefore information processed is retained in the audience memory.
Wilson et al. (2001) gives emphasize that mass communication has an important role to play in the community with a main aim of informing the public of current issues or past events. In the process of news making or airing stories on Television, there are gatekeepers who control what can be watched and what should not be aired. Littlejohn (2002) says that communication takes place in two phases. The first phase passes the important information to the audience which will be the most important and the second phase passes what part of that information is most important.
Agenda setting theory is divided into three parts.
The importance of the issues meaning how important is the issue being discussed by the media
Public agenda which means if the issues being discussed will have any impact on the public.
Policy agenda which is influenced by the publics
McCombs and Shaw, (1972) found the importance of agenda setting to be the agenda issues found in the news media and the publics is what sets the agenda for the media. In their research they found out there is a relationship between media agenda and public agenda. Researcher Cohen quoted that “press may not be successful much of the time by telling people what to think about but it might be successful in telling its viewers what to think about.”
Most scholars have shown interest in the effect of media agenda setting on public opinion and government policy. This theory shows that media can influence public opinion in the gender based violence issue in that the public will be taught on what causes violence and how they can curb it. It also influences the policy makers to make laws that deal with sexual assault firm so that issues that are concerned with women are not thrown away.
Willnat (1997) differed with the theory especially on agenda setting and its behaviour listing it as not well developed. However, with the association of priming and agenda setting, he says it has strengthened the theory by giving a better understanding of how media not only tells us what to think but also what to think about.
2.3 General Literature Review
It is important for Media and development organizations to work on solving the gender based violence issues in the society. Studies and surveys have been done by researchers on women and how the media influences the societal vice. ISIS international, 1998, examined codes of conduct on the media on the representation of women in relations to gender based violence. The findings showed that cultural practices tend to reinforce this vice.
Therefore, it is important to address issues pertaining Gender in regard to gender based violence.
2.3.1 Importance of gender in fighting gender based violence
Gender plays a big role in the existence of gender based violence and it causes depression against women in the society. Gender refers to societal created traditions of women and men for example, societal norms and roles such as how they behave and how they should interact with people. When the certain individuals do not fit the societal gender norms they face stigmatization and discrimination from the community members. This is according to WHO, (World Health Organization, 2014). Alston, 2013, writes that gender refers to the different ways women and men operate within socially constructed, sanctioned roles that subsequently shape the ways individuals 14 respond to circumstances and events.
Gender controls women and men access to owning of power and resources and other roles in the community. Hence, gender based violence is seen as a great contributor to gender based violence. Due to this attitude, women create an attitude to the violence against women. This attitude cause depression in most women facing the gender based violence. Astbury (2001) notes that gender is a structural determinant of mental health and mental illness and due to the high numbers of women experiencing depression throughout the world, urges that causes of this depression be identified and eradicated. Astbury believes that for this to happen there needs to be a gender related approach and also a gender sensitive service for the victims involved.
2.3.2 Importance of television in Curbing Gender Based Violence
Television is one of the most influential, pervasive and most powerful influence on how we view men and women. In most cases, it communicates messages into our consciousness creating images that leave an impact in peoples mind. There are three themes that describe how television represents gender based violence. One, women are underrepresented, second, women and men are portrayed in stereotypes in our societies, third, traditional roles normalize gender based violence in the community.
Underrepresentation of women
A major way in which the television undermines women is underrepresenting them in most activities that take place in the media platform. For example, in the prime time news the number of men reporting outnumbers women also in most stories men are included ten times more than the ones about women. (Study Reports Sex Bias, 2004).
Stereotypically, men are depicted as powerful and sexually aggressive just as culture views of gender shows women as objects who are dependent on the men and are incompetent and dumb. Since media diffuse our lives, the way they misrepresent genders distorts how people see themselves and what we identify as normal between men and women.
Stereotypical portrays of men and women
In movies such as ‘superman’ men are depicted as being powerful and women are weak such stereotype shows extreme masculinity. Media images of women reflect cultural stereotypes in airing programs which shows that women’s role is in the house chores and child rearing.
Television media today can play a big role in curbing violence against women in Kenya. Since media is the fourth estate; it is the ears and eyes of the society, they could be of big help in fighting Gender based violence.
However, due to the insensitivity of the issue, women tend to think that the media is their enemy and all they want is to get news coverage and bring shame to them. Television media should be more rigid in exposing this social ill and come together with other media forms and discuss the issues concerning gender based violence.
Television media should report the social ill accurately and should be sensitive when reporting about gender based violence. Media also has a duty in reporting in a correct manner and stressing on creating awareness in the community so that the victims can have rights to protect themselves.
Studies done by Amnesty International show that most countries are not protecting women and that is why millions of women are facing gender based violence in their home or in the community. Quoting a study from 50 surveys done by them, ‘It’s in our hands to stop violence against women’ shows that women are exposed to gender based violence at their own home or in the community.
It is also important for the media to cover about the violence in women and also used as a medium of communicating to create awareness among the community to curb the social ill. Pratyoush Onta (2005), states that “The main stream media is very much prioritized and it picks up women issues according to the political interest of patron political parties.” Television media of late airs women issues such as prostitution and trafficking just to create sensational stories and not airing stories which involve women violence and their rights. This proves that television media should have resources and trained journalists so as to have staff who are sensitive to such issues.
Non -governmental organizations should also put a foot forward and involve media in the projects they work. Since it is not enough to tell people about gender based violence, it is also important to show them ways to curb the violence and the actions that should be taken on a person in case of the violence.
Due to some actions being accepted in the society such as a woman should not go out, it makes some offences look unnecessary of which should not be the case. Media in this case has a role to play by taking up such issues which are considered less of violation and make them aware to the women and the community.
Beena Sarwar, (2002), a reporter in Pakistan said local media does nothing in combating gender based violence. It is not until international media plays the role and airs such stories that they get impact from the audience. She said that media should pressurize and initiate the community and get them talking about the social ills.
Therefore television media has a role of creating strong communities, showing high level of confidentiality when handling such women cases, assisting the government in improving law enforcements and policies by airing out the violence issues and lastly develop stories that create impacts and promote positive attitudes towards women in the community. Television media should do coverage on women in all sectors either in sports, business, health education and politics.
2.3.3 Issues arising on violence against women
Despite the issue concerning gender based violence being sensitive, information which can be gathered from the women who faced the violence can be of help to curb the social ill by finding preventative measures and solution for the violence.
WHO, (1999), wrote down the ethics and safety measures media should be guided with. They included; guaranteeing confidentiality of the women’s stories and providing emotional support when interviewing the women. Ellsberg and Heise (2002) reported that ethical principles should be taken into account when giving research on gender based violence. The principles included, interviewing one woman in the household to avoid everyone been aware of what the interview is about, interviewing women separately from the men, having the interview done in a private place, using sweets to distract children from the mothers, telling the victims on services available to protect themselves.
Journalists should also have empathy when interviewing such stories from victims and giving them support by telling them a problem half shared is half solved. ‘Telling the story of violence is considered a transforming experience for the women, since they did not have an opportunity to talk about it before.’ Ellsberg& Heise, (2005).
Methodological considerations should also be put in place for example, interviewer’s sex, and their attitude during the interview, how they empathize with the victims and the trust they give to the victims. Another consideration is that the findings should be able to be translated in a way that will lead to social change. According to Ellsberg ; Heise, (2002), researchers have ethical obligation in helping to figure out the findings, interpret them well and used to advance policy and intervention development.
Another important ethical principle is that of respect for the victims or respondents. There should be respect for the protection of the respondents giving information if they are faced with threats before giving or after giving the information. The interviewer should also make sure that the respondents have given consent to providing such information.
According to the studies done by Straus ; Gelles, (1977, 1978), ‘the gender neutral view of intimate partner violence became popular, which suggested that females are equally violent as males in a relationship.’ In previous research done by different authors, they measured that women are more likely to fall victims of violence and injured by their partners in a relationship. Dobash R.E ; Do-bash R. P., (1978); Bograd, (1984); Dobash R. P., Wilson; Daly, (1992), quote that, ‘gender violence is rooted in gender inequality and male dominance and there is no gender symmetry between the violent acts of men and those of women.’
2.3.4 Forms of Gender Based Violence
According to Johnson, (2004), gender based violence is categorized into five main types: physical violence which is the main form includes severe beating or any form of being hit intentionally to cause harm by an intimate partner, sexual violence which includes rape and prostitution, emotional and mental violence which include threats and humiliation inform of verbal abuse, traditional practices such as female genital mutilation, socio economic violence which may be caused by poverty and illiteracy.
Poverty as a main form of gender based violence
Most of women around the world find themselves in positions whereby they are faced with poverty and violence issues at the same time. Poverty, according to Bowker ; Maurer, (1987),is shown by daily experience of human rights abuses that lead people into deprivation, insecurity, exclusion and voiceless.
In Kenya, all girls have rights to education but due to poverty cases from majority of the families they lack school fees or sanitary towels to able them study well. Chasin, (2004), says that, ‘while all girls have the right to education, which is vital in allowing them to choose their futures, this right is often curtailed by violence and poverty.’ Some girls in Kenya will sell their bodies in order to get extra money to either pay their school fees or buy personal items. Others who cannot afford light in their homes search for public places with light to do their homework. It is in such areas that they are raped by gangs or thieves in that area. As a result of the sexual assaults the girls may fall pregnant and they would end up dropping out of school.
UNESCO, (2003), reports that as with other matters both public and private that has been demonstrated to be inextricably connected, domestic violence and current economic globalizations repercussions are connected. More women are coming under attack physically and emotionally because of the financial downturn.
2.3.5 Factors contributing to violence against women
According to FIDA, (2008), there are different kinds of gender based violence and they include socio-cultural factors, socio-economic factors, political and legal factors. Most of the women who have faced gender based violence have reported that when they report their cases to the police they lack access to the p3 form of which is considered a right to everyone. When a victim is denied the form then such cases are dismissed. Terry, (2007), says that, limitation of women from public life and lessening their participation in decision making processes at all levels increases their vulnerability to violence, since it cuts them off from support.
4916170127460270The inability of criminal law to enshrine specific measures to protect women from violence and to punish perpetrators presents an unlikelihood that an effective framework for the reduction of violence against women will be created (Pickup, 2001). These types of measures included having support systems for women faced with violence, government providing financial help to the Non-governmental institutions that try to curb the social ill.
Socio-economic factors include illiteracy and poverty from the women. Illiteracy or low levels of education from the women may lead them to lack of knowledge to access any legal action or in early ages it may lead to early marriage due to school dropout. Hence, illiterate female-headed families often face breakdowns and once widowed they will end up in informal settlements like kibra, Sue, (1991).
Women who have no source of income, are left at the mercies of their husbands whereby they have to beg for everything that they need and if the husbands reject their proposals it may lead to disagreements and leads to physical violence. Due to women’s inability to negotiate for property and any other means of generating income, her dependency on the mercies of her abusive husband’s relations is perpetuated and subsequently makes it difficult for her to set out on her own(Terry, 2007).
Cultural factors include how the society has instilled beliefs and cultures on how men should behave and how women should behave. Women are trained by the society that they are the head and they should discipline their wives if they go wrong. Women on the other hand have been made to believe that if they get a beating from their husband they either disobeyed him or did something in adequate. Women are educated to see their self –esteem as being attached to the satisfaction of the needs and desires of others and hence are encouraged to blame themselves as inadequate or bad if men beat them (Ondicho, 1993).
In some religion, cases of women violence are taken to the clan members from the courts underestimating the abused woman. In some cultures men believe that if a woman is not battered then she is not a good wife. Mc Evoy, (2012), male interviewees in certain parts of Kenya’s informal settlements says that the main reason why men beat their wives is cultural. For some tribes, ‘unless you beat… she can’t be a good wife.’
Most violence that is happening around the world is ignored by the media, the police and even in some extent by the government.
2.3.6 Women abuse in relation to media coverage
A Survey conducted By Tanzania Media Women’s Association, 1994 showed that the Media in Tanzania was playing a major role in discouraging women who face this social ill hence giving the society a negative attitude towards the society about gender based violence.
The media and development organization, Isis International, conducted a survey in 1998 in ten countries which was entitled ‘The state of Women and Media: which researched on the codes of conduct of the media and how they represent the gender based violence in television media, radio media, newspaper media, advertising media and the internet found out that the practices which occur to women are born from the traditional and cultural values and beliefs of the society.
2.4 Conceptual Framework.
2505075279134Social cultural factors
Social economic factors
Social cultural factors
Social economic factors
18190091679681474450167968 Dependent Variable
1591945120650 Intervening Variable
-2949711840Other forms of GBV
00Other forms of GBV
This chapter consists of the research design, Target population, sample population, sampling techniques, research instruments, data collection procedures and ethical considerations.
3.1 Research design
This study was a content analysis of Citizen Television in Kenya in relation with gender based violence. The use of content analysis enabled the researcher to facet communication through television media and get different interactions with women precisely which was important in the study. Content analysis is a research technique that involves a systemic analysis of text, including images and symbolic matter, which makes replicable valid inferences from the material examined (Krippendorf, 2004)
The researcher analyzed content from you tube videos specifically citizen television news videos that has been aired on gender based violence since December 2017 to February 2018. Through analyzing the videos specifically the news articles to check on cases of gender based violence, there was use in interpreting data in coded form which was useful in the research.
3.2 Target population
The study target population was Citizen Television News for a three month period, and on all news on gender based violence. A content analysis on video news dealing with gender based violence was conducted from December 2017 to February 2018.
The existing video materials compromised the target population.
3.3 Sample Population
The sample population of the research was on news articles on citizen television for a period of three months (December 2017- February 2018).
3.4 Sampling procedures
The researcher used content analysis technique to get the data and information needed. For this research, a systematic random sample of you tube videos on citizen news for a period of three months was analyzed and looked at how women were portrayed in regards to gender based violence. Themes were determined and coded each instance on a code sheet.
3.5 Data Collection instrument
The researcher used content analysis to collect data from documentary sources from you tube videos specifically, Citizen News by extracting major themes, key words or features from the source. The analysis will be converted into quantitative information.
3.6 Data analysis
Data analysis in this study was the news items on gender based violence, stories told by women victims on gender based violence, attributes and the amount of time given in the news coverage.
Mugenda and Mugenda, (1999) says that ‘The unit of analysis is the individual unit about which or whom descriptive or explanatory statements are to be made. The content will be examined in terms of number of article news item, their size (In minutes), the type (News article), placement of the story (first fifteen minutes, last fifteen minutes), importance (beginning, middle or ending), main actor (international organizations, NGO).
3.7 Sampling Techniques
The researcher used computer aided text analysis to support a quantitative content analysis. The data will be gathered through systematic sampling prior to coding. The study targets news video on citizen television from the moth November 2017 to February 2018 that covers stories about gender based violence. This will compromise daily and weekend editions. The information will be inform of news stories done on citizen television media.
3.8 Data Collection Procedures
Citizen media group library has videos on you tube which the researcher will access with ease. Keywords that will be used by the researcher to search for the videos to do with gender based violence. Data will be collected in a qualitative procedure. Marshall and Rossman, 1989 states that content analysis is a research method aimed at recording the salient features of texts using a uniform system of categories.
3.9 Data Collecting Tools
A code sheet will be used to collect data from citizen television media group then the data collected will be analyzed using Microsoft Excel on news stories. The date and the month when the video was done will also appear and the main actor involved. The code sheet will include; month and date of the production, importance of the video publication or news story and how long the story was.
3.1.1 Data analysis and Presentation
Data collected will be placed in a code sheet then compared and analyzed. From the analysis, graphs, pie charts will be drawn as a diagram representation of the data to make it easier to understand without reading the figures.
Qualitative data will be used to narrate to explain media preparedness in citizen television media.
3.1.2 Ethical considerations
Confidentiality was maintained throughout the research and the names of the respondents in the videos have not been revealed since the researcher had no consent with them.
DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
There were a total of 60 articles mined from the month of December to the month of February. The articles related to gender based violence were identified and put on the code sheet. Citizen television classified the news articles in the manner in which they were aired. Some of the articles included the main news on the first segment and the featured stories. The timeline of the article, the placement, prominence as well as the actors were also considered.
4.1.1 News Section
Table 1 indicates the news section where the articles on gender based violence were found. Findings showed that most articles were under the second section of the news, opinion polls and features. The violence articles were the majority with 51% followed by opinion polls with 7% and feature stories with 42%. There were 31articles in the month of December, 19 in the month of January and 10 in the month of February. There was little feedback from viewers regarding the issue on gender based violence as indicated by the opinion polls.
Table 1: News section where the articles were placed
News section Percentage Frequency
Main news 51% 40
Feature Stories 42 % 17
Opinion polls 7 % 3
4.1.2 Type of Gender Based Violence reported in Citizen Television News
Table 2 represent the type of gender based violence reported in citizen television news. The findings showed that there were eight types of GBV based on Citizen Television. However, some articles were not clear on the type of gender based violence. The news articles on physical violence and rape were the most cases with 28 and 17 consecutively translating to 46% and29%.The other articles on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and all other forms of GBV, prostitution, kidnapping and child abuse constituted 10 and 5 consecutively translating it to 17% and 8%.
Table 2: Type of Gender Based Violence
Type of Gender Based Violence Frequency Percentage
Physical Violence 28 46%
Rape 17 29%
FGM 10 17%
All forms of GBV 5 8%
Total 60 100%
4.1.3 Gender of the story reporter
Figure 1 is about gender of the reporter and shows that there were more male reporters at 70% than female who were at 24%. There were 6% news articles that were reported by both genders. In most cases, children were the majority of the victims at 57% followed closely by women at 37%. Male victims fell on the minority with 6%. This shows that regardless of the women victims’ percentage being high, there are few female reporters who report on GBV.
Fig 1: Gender of reporter
Both women and men-6%
4.1.2 Format of news
Figure 2 is in the format of the news, 51% of the articles on GBV were on the main news, 7% was on feature stories and 42% was on opinion polls. The findings showed that physical violence was 46%, Rape violence, 29%, FGM 17% and all other forms of violence being at 8%.
Fig 2 Format of news
4.1.5 Frequency of stories between the months of December to the month of February
Fig 3 is on frequency of the news stories from December to February. During the month of December, 31 news stories which were 51% on Gender Based Violence were reported on Citizen Television. 31% was reported on January listing it to 19news stories. In the month of February, 10 news stories were reported in citizen news stories which are 18%.
Fig 3 Frequency of stories between the months of December to the month of February
4.1.6 Placement of Gender Based Violence story in minutes
Table 3 shows the type of news story that was given a lot of airtime on the news segment in terms of minutes. While those categorized on all other forms of gender based violence was categorized as the least placement 2 minutes 34 seconds, physical violence and rape was aired longer minutes, 4minutes 55 seconds. There was an article on 16 days of activism against all forms of gender based violence which was aired for 3 minutes 44 seconds. In the main news segment, cases of men who had battered their wives and later killed them was common and appeared at most four to five times in a week. Rape cases mostly in young girls also appeared in the main news segment three to four times in a week. FGM cases were reported mostly during the month of December 2017.
Table 3: Placement of the Gender Based Violence story in minutes
Physical violence- 4min 55 sec
Rape -3 min 20sec
Child abuse-2min 34sec
4.1.7 Type of the story
Fig 4 represents nature of the story. Three quarter of the stories were start up stories and a quarter were follow up stories. The start -up stories was recorded at 86% while the follow up stories taking up the least of the percentage at 13%. The remaining 1% could not be distinguished as either a start -up story or a follow u story. Rape, FGM, Prostitution, Kidnapping and Child abuse were the most cases on follow up stories.
Fig 4: Represents type of the story
Follow up story
Start up stories
4.1.8 Main actors in the news story
Table 4 represents the main actors in the news story. There were six main actors, NGO, International organizations, Members of the public, religious organizations, FGM activists and the Government. In the 60 news articles, NGO organizations and international organizations sponsored 30 and 11 news articles respectively, followed by members of the public with 10 stories, religious organizations, FGM activist and Government with 3,1 and 5 news stories.
Table 4: Main actors in the news story
Main Actors Frequency Percentage
-58420222168NGO 30 50%
-58420235196Members of the Public 10 16%
Religious Organizations 3 5%
-58420245601FGM activists 1 2%
Government 5 8%
International Organizations 11 18%
4.1.9 Victims as covered in the story
Figure 5 represents the victims whom in this case 57% was news articles on children and 37% were on female gender based violence. Male victims were the minority with 6%. The reason as to why the male victims were the minority could be explained by the fact that men fear coming out and reporting the violence mainly because of the societal cultured norms according to scholars as indicated in the literature review.
Fig 5: Victims as covered in the story
4.1.10 Type of Gender-based violence and the format of story
Table 5 is a representation of type of gender-based violence and the format of story. The types of gender based violence analyzed were physical violence, Rape, FGM, and others which included prostitution, kidnapping and child abuse. News on child abuse were covered under feature stories, physical violence and rape were the main ones featured in the main news. Child abuse had 27 news articles, physical violence had 23 news articles, rape was at 6, FGM had 2, prostitution and kidnapping had 1 and 2 respectively.
Table 5: Represents type of Gender Based Violence and the format of the story
Types of GBV December January February Total
-38735271678Physical violence 12 6 5 23
-38735171020Rape 5 1 0 6
-38735157685FGM 2 0 0 2
-38735144002Prostitution 1 0 0 1
-38735132305Child Abuse 10 11 5 26
-97728168419Kidnapping 1 1 0 2
TOTAL 31 19 10 60
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study.
The media is a powerful tool that is used in fighting most of the societal ills in the community. This is because it not only shows the community what to do but also what to think about, about situations. It helps to shape the community’s attitude, behaviour and perceptions on the topic of interest. This study used an effective media platform, Television. Television is considered broad and it reaches a wide number of audiences. Nevertheless, there is doubt that television covers matters and is very important in shaping most of the society’s perception.
5.1 Key Findings and Conclusions
The study found out that there are six types of gender based violence as reported during the period of December 2017 to February 2018. They include, Physical Violence, Child abuse, Rape, Kidnapping, Female Genital Mutilation and Prostitution.
Physical violence was 23 and it consisted of 38% of the news articles analyzed from the study it is evident that majority of the reporters in the news articles was male with 70% while that of the female was 24%. 6% of the news articles reported was on both genders.
Most of the victims were children with57 % followed by female with 37% and the male with the minority at 6%. This showed that although there were a large number of victims who were females, most female reporters did not take up the news articles on Gender Based Violence. The main actors in the study include, NGO, International organizations, Members of the public, religious organizations, FGM activist and the Government.
The placement of stories on Gender Based Violence was more prominent on physical violence, Rape and child abuse. Physical violence occupied 4 minute 55 seconds video, Rape being 3 minute 24 seconds, Child abuse 2 minutes 34 seconds, FGM 3 minutes, Prostitution 2 minutes 15 seconds and Kidnap 2 minutes 24 seconds.
From the analysis, majority of the victims were children at 57%compared to female at 37%. Men occupied 6%in the news articles analyzed. This showed that men were afraid of coming out and speaking of the social ill too. This is because of how the society has given different responsibilities of how a man should act and how a woman should behave. The study findings showed that while most of the male journalists take up the news articles on gender based violence, most of them did not seem to gather much information from the male victims.
The largest number of news article on gender based violence was recorded in December with 31 news articles followed by January with 19 news articles and February with 10 news articles.
The findings show that there is need for the Television to engage in the fight against Gender Based Violence. Television news offers information that is memorable to the viewers. Therefore, journalist should be more rigid in inputting more context and analysis when reporting on the social ill. It is also important for women journalist to be more vibrant in reporting the gender based issues since when it is reported by a woman it tends to be more believable.
The government of Kenya needs to have strong policies that will ensure prosecution of the culprits that are involved in such cases. Also there should be strong laws that protect the girl child and the women that face the violence in families in order to ensure that the families do not suffer in case the victim is not dependent.
The following are recommendations based on the study; Journalist should give a credible source in their stories, for example having a victim give their voice. This will make the story more believable.
Stakeholders in the media should have new strategies to improve on media reporting on gender based violence. This will enable the reporters to have skills on how they should handle such cases or victims when they are interviewing them.
School systems such as universities should provide proper training for the journalist students to enable them grow their skills when reporting. The prominence of Gender Based Violence news stories should be prioritized and more stories should be in form of feature stories to enable the viewer’s understanding on the social ill.
Main actors should involve victims in their campaigns to make it more credible and believable.
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The Role of Television in the fight against Gender Based Violence. A case study of Citizen Television
Women are portrayed as being subject of interest in the media in cases such as Gender Based Violence. This study uses quantitative content analysis to analysis how women who face Gender Based Violence are depicted in Citizen Television news. Three research questions are related to how the portrayal of GBV on Television Media has changed with time and they include, one, the nature and type of Gender Based Violence, Priming setting of Gender Based Violence news articles and the challenges the media face when airing news stories concerning Gender Based Violence. More questions analyze why Gender Based Violence is not portrayed by the media today, one it could be because of the legal factors, fear of coming out, lack of journalistic ethics and no strategies in reporting about gender based violence.
The coding unit is victims of gender based violence, the main actors, placement of the stories in the news segment. The code sheet defines the type of Gender Based Violence, the gender of the reporter in the news article, the date and the month in which they appeared and the type of the story.
Research findings showed that regardless of majority of male reporters reporting on Gender Based Violence, few men are coming out to end the societal ill. The government is doing little about addressing the violence against women issue and the media industry is having poor strategies in reporting about the vice.
According to authors in the study, television media should serve as an important body to the society and should address the vice by not only telling people what to do but what to think about. Code sheet for Television Coverage on Gender Based Violence: A Content Analysis of Citizen Television
Type of Gender Based Violence Television Part Gender of the reporter Format of the story
Date/Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Type of story Placement on the news Story headlines Main actors Victims
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18