THE COPPERBELT UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
DIRECTORATE OF DISTANCE AND OPEN LEARNING
AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF TRAINING AND PERCEIVED ORGANISATION SUPPORT ON JOB SATISFICATION
A CASE STUDY OF THE IMMIGRATION DEPARTMENT
Research Submitted In Fulfillment for the Award of the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Business Administration
DECLARATIONI, MULENGA KASONTEKA, hereby declare that this dissertation is my own work and that it has, to the best of my knowledge, not been presented for any academic purposes in Zambia or elsewhere. Other people’s works have been duly acknowledged.
Author’s Signature Supervisor’s Signature
Mulenga Kasonteka Mr. J. Bwalya
ABSTRACTThis study investigated the effect of training and perceived organisation support on job satisfaction at the immigration department. The main objective of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between training and perceived organisation support and job satisfaction. In most parts of the public sector, employees are blamed for performing poorly and being dissatisfied with their jobs. This study endeavours to see if studied done in other sectors and departments of the Public services are similar to what is happening in the immigration department.
A descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. The research used survey method to select the staff at immigration department as the population was less than 200. A questionnaire was designed and used to collect data. A sample of hundred and twenty respondents was used for the study. A five point Likert scale was used to measure the variables which affect job satisfaction at immigration department namely; Training and perceived organisation support. The collected data was analysed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were considered when presenting the collected data according to the way the questions were designed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses significance of relationship of (independent) variables with (dependent variable) Job satisfaction.
Results from the hypotheses tests showed that the organisational variables; Training and perceived organisation had a significant relationship with job satisfaction.
It was recommended that the immigration department management to improve in the implementation of both training and organisation support because the results showed that they are related to job satisfaction. The recommendations were; Implementing supportive workforce that are discretionary, be fair and equitable in enforcing management policies, benefits should be offered to individuals, further, it should be ensured that the supervisors and management staff employed are supportive
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTFirst and foremost I would like to thank God almighty through Jesus Christ and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit for the grace he has bestowed upon me to reach these heights.
I would like to express my deep gratitude to my Supervisor Mr. Justice Bwalya for guiding me and pushing me so hard through the entire project. I am so grateful and truly indebted to you Sir.
I wish to thank various people for their contributions to this research work; Macfallen, Kalima, Festus, Kapasi and Martin thank you all for your help throughout the entire project. Finally, I would like to thank my parents and entire family for their support and encouragement throughout the study.
THANK YOU ALL!
DEDICATION I dedicate this research to my Father who at all times provided me with moral, spiritual, and financial support from the time I was a child until this far. I extend my dedication to my brothers Remy, Stanley, Pinga and Nkole who have always been there for me. Not forgetting Aunty Idah who has always provided me with encouragements and inspiration to attain this level of academic qualification.
Without you all I wasn`t going to reach this far.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o “1-3” h z u DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc526702801 h iiABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc526702802 h iiiACKNOWLEDGEMENT PAGEREF _Toc526702803 h 5DEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc526702804 h 6CHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc526702805 h 10INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc526702806 h 101.0Introduction PAGEREF _Toc526702807 h 101.1 Background to the Research Problem PAGEREF _Toc526702808 h 111.1.2 Statement of the Research Problem PAGEREF _Toc526702809 h 131.3 The General Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc526702810 h 131.5 Scope of the Research Study PAGEREF _Toc526702811 h 131.5.1 Conceptual Scope PAGEREF _Toc526702812 h 141.5.2 Geographical Scope PAGEREF _Toc526702813 h 141.6 Significance of the Research PAGEREF _Toc526702814 h 141.7 Definition of Key Terms PAGEREF _Toc526702815 h 141.7.1 Training PAGEREF _Toc526702816 h 141.7.2 Employee Engagement PAGEREF _Toc526702817 h 141.7.3 Job Satisfaction PAGEREF _Toc526702818 h 141.7.4 Motivation PAGEREF _Toc526702819 h 151.7.5 Employee Performance. PAGEREF _Toc526702820 h 151.8 Summary of Chapter PAGEREF _Toc526702821 h 15CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc526702822 h 15LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc526702823 h 152.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc526702824 h 152.1 Training Programs and Job Satisfaction. PAGEREF _Toc526702825 h 152.2 Effects of Perceived Support Programs On Satisfaction PAGEREF _Toc526702826 h 192.2.1 Optimising Perceived Support PAGEREF _Toc526702827 h 212.3 Review of Empirical Studies PAGEREF _Toc526702828 h 212.3.1 The Effect of Training and Perceived Organisational Support on Job Satisfaction PAGEREF _Toc526702829 h 21CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc526702830 h 24THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK PAGEREF _Toc526702831 h 243.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc526702832 h 243.1 Theoretical Framework PAGEREF _Toc526702833 h 243.1.1 The Hierarchy of Need Theory PAGEREF _Toc526702834 h 243.1.2 Herzberg et al.’s Two Factor Theory PAGEREF _Toc526702835 h 243.2 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc526702836 h 253.2.1 Relationship between Training and Job satisfaction PAGEREF _Toc526702837 h 26CHAPTER FOUR PAGEREF _Toc526702838 h 28METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc526702839 h 284.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc526702840 h 284.1 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc526702841 h 284.1.1 Experimental Designs PAGEREF _Toc526702842 h 284.1.2 Correlational Designs PAGEREF _Toc526702843 h 284.1.3 Survey Designs PAGEREF _Toc526702844 h 284.1.4 Grounded Theory Designs PAGEREF _Toc526702845 h 294.1.5 Ethnographic Designs PAGEREF _Toc526702846 h 294.1.6 Narrative Research Designs PAGEREF _Toc526702847 h 294.1.7 Mixed Method Designs PAGEREF _Toc526702848 h 294.2 Justification of Selected Research Design PAGEREF _Toc526702849 h 294.3 Population, Sample Size and Sampling Techniques for the Study PAGEREF _Toc526702850 h 304.4 Sources of Data PAGEREF _Toc526702851 h 314.5 Proposed methods of analysis. PAGEREF _Toc526702852 h 314.6 Reliability and validity issues PAGEREF _Toc526702853 h 314.7 Ethical considerations PAGEREF _Toc526702854 h 31CHAPTER FIVE PAGEREF _Toc526702855 h 32DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS PAGEREF _Toc526702856 h 325.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc526702857 h 325.1 Level of Response PAGEREF _Toc526702858 h 325.2 Data Preparation PAGEREF _Toc526702859 h 325.5 Demographic (Background) Information PAGEREF _Toc526702860 h 335.7 Discussion of Findings and Implications PAGEREF _Toc526702861 h 375.7.1 Discussion of the Results PAGEREF _Toc526702862 h 375.9.4 Summary PAGEREF _Toc526702863 h 39CHAPTER SIX PAGEREF _Toc526702864 h 40CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc526702865 h 406.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc526702866 h 406.1 Summary of Research Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc526702867 h 406.2 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc526702868 h 406.3 Future Research PAGEREF _Toc526702869 h 416.4 Summary PAGEREF _Toc526702870 h 417.0 REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc526702871 h 42APPENDIX: QUESTIONNAIRE PAGEREF _Toc526702872 h 45
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDYIntroduction
This chapter provides the background to the topic under study. Further, the Chapter presents the Problem Statement to the Study, research questions as well as the research objectives, Scope and significance of the study.
In recent years job satisfaction has received a great deal of attention from economists and policymakers. Traditionally, economists had distrusted the use of subjective and attitudinal variables, but early papers established that job satisfaction was related to a number of objective job features and was able to predict consequences such as absenteeism and quits (Hamermesh, 1977; Freeman, 1978; and Borjas, 1979). In this research, analysis is done by addressing two main questions. Training is one means of improving manpower utilisation and thereby potentially raising job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction is defined as “how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. Essentially, it is the extent to which people like or dislike their jobs” (Spector, 1997, p. 2). Perceived Organisational Support refers to how an employee perceives the degree to which their organization values their contribution to the workplace and cares about their wellbeing (Eisenberger et al., 1986; Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002).
Researchers have argued that both training and Perceived Organisational Support are important factors that could enhance job satisfaction in the workplace (Baldwin and Ford, 1988; Cheng and Hampson, 2008; Elangovan and Karakowsky, 1999; Thayer and Teachout,1995).
1.1 Background to the Research Problem
In today’s world, organisational processes, relationships with stakeholders and human capital are fundamental pillars of organisational success. Due to its intimate association with value creation, employee job satisfaction is an important consideration for any organisation (Daft, 2015). The satisfaction level of employees with their jobs should be assessed incessantly in order to drive positive actions, feelings and thoughts from them.
Researchers have postulated different definitions of job satisfaction. According to Spector (1997, p. 2), “job satisfaction is related to how people feel, think and perceive their work.” Robbins et al. (2013) describe job satisfaction as an employee’s attitude and general behaviour towards his or her work. There are several benefits in studying job satisfaction in the workplace. According to Oshagbemi (2013), satisfied employees increase productivity and enhance inherent humanitarian value. Additionally, other advantages like decreased absenteeism (Hardy et al., 2003), decreased counter productive work behaviour (Meier and Spector, 2013), increased life satisfaction (Judge et al., 2000) and enhanced organisational citizenship behaviours (Organ and Ryan, 1995) can be observed in highly satisfied workers. Eventually, all of these factors lead to superior organisational efficiency.
As it is evident, job satisfaction has an impact on organisational performance, and factors that drive or determine job satisfaction need to be understood. Previous studies propose various individual and organisational factors that could affect job satisfaction. Researchers such Speers and Hann also separate the variables affecting job satisfaction into soft (less measurable and subjective) and hard (measurable and concrete) categories. Soft variables include individual’s perceived value to the organisation, relationships with co-workers and communication; while “hard” variables include employer’s commitment, salary and benefits (Speers, 2004). Another categorisation looks at intrinsic factors that are related to the job itself (e.g. control, achievement, success, sense of autonomy and the ability to develop one’s skills) and extrinsic factors not that are not directly associated with the job (e.g. relationships with colleagues or salaries) (Hann et al., 2010).
There is no literature on the determinants of job satisfaction in the context of Zambia. For instance, researchers in other countries evaluate personality traits (Ijaz and Khan, 2015), time pressure, job description, working environment, rewards, supervision, training opportunities (Kumar et al., 2013), employee motivation, positive expectations (Saleem et al., 2012), relationship with co-workers, fairness and job security (Saeed et al., 2013) for their association with job satisfaction. However, there is little evidence on the factors affecting job satisfaction in these countries, Zambia inclusive. Regardless of restructuring of the Immigration Department through the decentralisation process by the Government, the Zambian Immigration Department has continued to face challenges in terms of training and support of its employees which in turn affects job performance of its employees. The study therefore investigates the effects training and perceived organisational support has on job satisfaction.
The recognition of the importance of training in recent years has been heavily influenced by the intensification of competition and also the relative success of organizations wherever investment in worker development is significantly stressed (Sultana, Irum, Ahmed and Mehmood, 2012). Further, training is important to ensure there is an associate degree of workers that will adequately provide the technical and social competence there by been capable of career development into specialist departments or management positions (Sultana et al. 2012).
Despite the robust assumptions that geographical point coaching influences worker outcomes (e.g. motivation, commitment, withdrawal behaviour and work performance), there’s a restricted range of studies in field settings addressing these problems through empirical observation (Dysvik and Kuvaas, 2008). These sentiments are supported by Burgard and Görlitz (2011). The United Nations Agency argued that non-monetary returns to coaching are less examined within the empirical literature. Equally, Agyemang and Ofei (2013) argue that despite worker engagement and worker commitment and their determinants received a good deal of attention within the last decade in tutorial circles, the ideas stay new with comparatively very little tutorial analysis conducted on them particularly in geographic region. Most studies on the topic of coaching and the way it impacts on worker and structure performance are majorly confined to the developed world at intervals the context of individual countries and organizations raising the question on whether or not their findings may be generalised to alternative sectors, countries and also the developing world.
More expressly, Dysvik and Kuvaas (2008) explored different relationships between coaching opportunities and worker outcomes within the Norwegian service organizations. The study showed that the connection between perceived coaching opportunities, and each task performance and citizenship behaviours were totally mediate, and that the connection between perceived coaching opportunities and turnover intention was partly mediate by worker intrinsic motivation.
1.1.2 Statement of the Research ProblemIn all these studies above, although their findings might matter in an essential way since the findings may apply in certain situations in terms of countries and sectors, it is not that clear whether these results would uniformly persist for other countries or sectors as well all classes of employees which present a knowledge gap especially that there are no recent published Zambian literature concerning the topic of the research of the study. Hence, the motivation to explore the effect of training and perceived organisation support on job satisfaction in the Zambian Immigration department.
1.3 Research QuestionsIn light of the research problem highlighted above, the study will be guided by the following research questions;
What is the effect of training on job satisfaction?
What is the effect of perceived organisation support on job satisfaction?
1.4 Research Objectives
To address the question above, this study will aim at achieving, the following objectives
To determine the effect of training on job satisfaction.
To evaluate the effect of perceived organisation support on job satisfaction.
1.5 Scope of the Research StudyThe study will be confined to the information that will be provided by the workers from the Immigration Department in Lusaka Province of Zambia and the information that is provided by other writers.
1.5.1 Conceptual Scope
The study will focus on the effect of training and perceived organisation support on job satisfaction in the Immigration Department. It is therefore that the variables; training and perceived organisation support are (independent variables) while job satisfaction is the (dependent variable).
1.5.2 Geographical Scope
The study will be carried out at the Zambian Immigration Department with focus in the Lusaka Province.
1.6 Significance of the ResearchThe study findings are significant for the following stakeholders:
1.6.1 Human Resource Management
The Human resource department will be able to know how to design programs that would involve employee training and support to the workers who then will be motivated depending on the outcome of the results, and a motivated worker is one who is satisfied on the job.
1.6.2 Academic Researcher
There could be several researchers who would wish to know if training and perceived organisational support had any effect on job satisfaction.
1.7 Definition of Key Terms1.7.1 Training
These are programs that provide workers with data, novel skills and career development opportunities (Elnaga &Imra, 2013).
1.7.2 Employee Engagement
Employee engagement is the positive, affective psychological work-related state of mind that leads employees to actively express and invest themselves emotionally, cognitively, and physically in their role performance (Agyemang&Ofei, 2013).
1.7.3 Job Satisfaction The extent to which people like or dislike their jobs (Adesola, Oyeniyi&Adeyemi, 2013).
Viewed as those psychological processes that determines the level and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed (Kreitner&Kinicki, 2006)
1.7.5 Employee Performance. This is the measure of output through the input. It shows effectiveness and efficiency that make a payment to organizational goals and may depend upon many factors like performance appraisals, employee motivation, employee satisfaction, compensation, job security, organizational structure and others (Saeed&Asghar, 2012).
1.8 Summary of ChapterIn spite of the recent increase by Zambia’s central government supporting as well as support from cooperating partners and private sector, the Department has continued to have issues in managing its workers with little or no support to training and support. This chapter revealed several studies that were done on job satisfaction. In addition, the chapter explained the research objectives, problem statement and key terms.CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.0 IntroductionThis chapter presents a review of the literature on the topic of effects of training and perceived organisation support on job satisfaction in Department of Immigration which is under the Ministry of Home Affairs. The chapter is structured on the basis of the research questions. The first section reviews literature on the effects of the training programs on job satisfaction. The second section is on the effects of perceived organisation support programs on Job satisfaction. The chapter will end with a summary of the aspects covered under the literature review and a brief introduction to the next chapter.
2.1 Training Programs and Job Satisfaction.Landy (1985) de?ned Job training as “a set of systematically planned activities on the part of an organization to increase the job knowledge and skills or to modify the attitudes and social behaviour of its members in ways consistent with its goals and job requirements”. (p. 306). In addition, Quresh (2010) defines training as functions that comprise all procedures of activities learning experiences whose aim is to influence and increase performance and other behaviour through skills, attitudes, new knowledge and beliefs.
Furthermore, (Farooq ; Khan, 2011) defined Training as a learning method offered to individual with a clear explanation and understanding of the performance standard and value of the organization. The significance of employee training is to identify and distinguish the skill gaps of the organization. The gap will be the skills and capabilities that current individuals have within an organization and the skills and capabilities that an organization would like to have or required (Farooq ; Khan, 2011).
Many improvements to service quality have been attributed to employee factors and organizational factors. In regard to employee factor, a number of studies have found that employees’ job behaviour such as organizational citizenship behaviour (Morrison, 1996), job satisfaction (Glisson & Hemmelgarn, 1998) and organizational commitment (Hung, 2006) have a positive influence on service quality. However, the majority of previous studies tend to regard organizational factors as more important determinant of service quality. The organizational factors that have an influence on service quality are include the support from management and supervisors, positive work group relationships (Batt, 1999) and constructive team culture (Glisson & James, 2002), Furthermore, researchers believe service quality can be improved through human resource management practices such as an appropriate manpower planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, job design, pay and rewards, performance appraisal, career development system, managerial coaching and empowerment (Chand, 2010).
One of the most core concepts in Human Resources literature for employers is the retention and development of the human resource to enable a competitive advantage (DeYoung 2000). The management of labour turnover has become a growing challenge particularly in professional organizations like in health and academic institutions (Cappelli 2000). Increased employee turnover results in instability, additional workload and stress on staffs escalate job dissatisfaction which potentiates the turnover cycle (Moseley et al. 2008). Schuler and Jackson (2006) also state that recruiting employees to meet the organization’s human resource demands is only half of what is needed in talent management. The need to keep these people is another issue. Organizations that have lower labour turnover rates gain a competitive advantage through reduced overall costs of labour and productivity increase.
According to Horwitz (2008) shortages of skills present a threat to the growth of the economy. He further argues that retention strategies are essential in a global market that is faced with the shortage of skilled workers. The skills shortage challenge is not a South African occurrence alone. It is therefore important for business, government public and private sector leaders to address this important component of employee retention for competitiveness and service delivery.
Moseley et al. (2008) states that employee retention is very important if organisations are to reduce increased turnover which result into instability important and puts additional workload and stress on remaining staff, reducing job satisfaction and therefore potentiating the turnover cycle. Recent trends also show that employees now have a wish to obtain new skills. Particularly in technical skills because acquisition of skills provides job security as compared to seniority (Chaminade, 2007).
As a result, employees look for organisations that are prepared to provide them with training and development opportunities. This can be in the form of subsidies on the job training and ongoing development opportunities. This results in effective commitment because the employees will strongly recognize with the organization if their personal goals are being met by the organisation (Coetzee and Schreuder 2013).
It is important for organisations to provide their workers with enough training and keep monitoring their level of satisfaction. Coetzee and Schreuder (2013) points out that it is therefore important that organisations have both hygiene factors and motivation factors to keep their employees satisfied so that they will not leave the organisation. Motivation factors are often said to lead to high retention but the absence of hygiene factors may result in increased turnover (Coetzee and Schreuder 2013).
Studies show that organizations that are committed to training their workers have facilitated improvement of worker’s skills, enhance job satisfaction, and develop organizational commitment (e.g., Burke, 1995; Chambel & Sobral, 2011; Costen & Salazar, 2011; Mathieu, Tannenbaum, & Salas, 1992; Roehl & Swerdlow, 1999). The benefits and value of training are definitely critical to an organization’s success through maintaining acceptable standards and consistency as well as keeping up-to-date of the fast-changing and growing external environment. Efforts have to be made to make training accessible to workers, such as hiring training professionals, providing training materials, allowing employees to participate in training and making changes in scheduling, and so forth. Training positively affects trainees’ attitudes and behaviours at workplace if they apply newly learned knowledge and skills on the job. When employees feel they are valued by their organizations, they are motivated to do their best at work (American Psychological Association, 2012) and obliged to reciprocate through means, such as modifying their behaviours and performing the tasks the way they are trained (Bulut & Culha, 2010; Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986).
Kirkpatrick (1959, 1967) developed the four-level model to evaluate training;
(1) Reaction: measuring what the trainees feel about various aspects of a training program, such as speaker, schedule, topic, etc.
(2) Learning: measuring knowledge acquired, skills improved, or attitudes changed due to training;
(3) Behaviour: measuring on-the-job behaviour changed due to training; and
(4) Results: measuring the final results due to training, including increased sales, higher productivity, bigger profits, reduced costs, less employee turnover and improved quality. Due to its complexity, evaluation of training has been normally limited to the first two levels (Blanchard, Thacker, & Way; 2000; Bramley & Kitson, 1994). The other extreme is that many practitioners skip level 1, 2 and 3 and only measure the ultimate fourth level (Kirkpatrick, 1996). Even though training has been credited for involvement in productivity and organizational performance (Scott & Meyer, 1991), very little research has evaluated the effect of training on temporary employees’ outcomes.
Therefore, training reproduces activities that are planned to affect the capability and inspiration of employees. Researchers concluded that employee training has a positive impact on job satisfaction; such as, increasing productivity where employers and employees were able to contribute their performance through employee training and share the benefits from training. Training comprises management development, education, traditional training and vocational training (Batool ; Batool, 2012).
Employee training will assist a business management in order to meet requirements and needs, also enhancing business ‘market value. Training provides an added value to individuals who will be trained as well as to the organization itself. The aim of the training is to obtain the capability which links to the group or an individual within an organization in order to achieve an effective performance.
Human capital is considered as a core of the business’s success, such as employee’s experience, capabilities, knowledge and skills. Consequently, it is enormously significant to frequently educate the individuals and develop them through training and support. Training goals mainly focus on increasing performance standards and efficiency by changing individual’s behaviour within an organization, the process of training contains development, analysis, design, execution and assessment (Jehanzeb ; Bashir, 2013).
2.2 Effects of Perceived Support Programs On SatisfactionEder and Eisenberger (2008) defines perceived organizational support as an employee’s belief that their organization values their efforts and cares about their well-being. In addition, Sluss et al (2008) explains that employee’s relationship with an influential individual in an organisation is representative of their relationship with the organisation. Social exchange theory implies that an organization’s willingness to reward increased work effort, and to meet socio-emotional needs, is determined by an employees’ ability to develop strong beliefs concerning the extent to which the organization values their contributions and shows a genuine interest in their welfare (Hutchison et al. 1986). Perceived organizational support, as suggested by (Rhoades and Eisenberger 2002), manifests when an employee believes the organization will provide the necessary, and even additional, resources when they are required to successfully perform their role efficiently and effectively.
Keeping employees in today’s competitive world enables organisations to successfully compete. Human capital is viewed as one of the most important assets for most organisations especially those that specialise in service operations because of the advantage of providing successful services (Evans et al., 2003: 71) as a result, the need to keep employees. Besides, employee retention saves costs such as training costs. Kusluvan (2000), states that making of loyal and satisfied customers depends on the attitude and performance of the employees. From this statement it can be seen that organisational success solely depends on good employees. This was pointed out by Ghani (2006).
Organisations strive to keep employees and organisational support as one of the most important organisational concepts that retains employees in the organisation. This is because organisational support is an important factor known for improving job satisfaction and commitment. In addition, Zhang (2003), points out that organisational commitment and job satisfaction are equally important to the satisfaction of customers. Balay (1999) defines organizational commitment is influenced by leadership, culture, values and norms subsequently. This is very important to service industry such as retail, hotel and airlines where customer build relations with workers. Similarly, Robbins and Judge (2009:123) explains that service based organisations such as hotels and airlines understand that the satisfaction of an employee will contribute massively to goal achievement and making the customer happy.
Often, an employee tends to compare their organisation with the previous one they had and compare in the future with the current one they have, this usually makes workers feel less supported (Kanaga, 2007). This method has a mental effect on the employee’s perception concerning if the organisation supports them. When examining perceived organisational support as a concept, it is expressed as a perception of what degree of importance to contribute to employees by the organisation. Employee’s expectations of this perception is in their mind. Employees supported by their organisation feel valued and appreciated.
Several studies have shown that employees who are supported by their organisation are satisfied with their job (Buchanan, 1974; Tansky and Cohen; 2001; Riggle et al., 2009).
In addition, studies done in the past have also demonstrated that organisational support given to employees by their organisation creates improvement of positive behaviours and attitudes like affective and normative commitment (Eisenberger et al., 1986; Settoon et al., 1996; O’Driscoll and Randall, 1999; Rhodes and Eisenberger, 2002; Yoon and Thye, 2002; Fuller et al., 2003; Aube et al., 2007; Riggle et al., 2009). Perceived organisational support sometimes has an effect on continuous commitment, either insignificantly (Randall et al., 1999) or negatively (O’Driscoll and Randall, 1999; Aube et al., 2007; LaMastro, 2008). More studies have revealed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment are linked, but have different attitudes (Porter et al., 1974; Reed et al., 1994). Besides, many studies, considered job satisfaction as an originator of organisational commitment (Currivan, 1999; Gaertner, 1999; Schwepker, 2001; Yoon and Thye, 2002; Silva, 2006; Chen, 2007; Yang, 2010; Gunlu et al., 2010).
Porter et al., (1974) explains that, the primary reason for this fundamental order appears to be that a greater amount of time would be required for an employee to determine his/her level of commitment to the organisation than would be the case with his/her level of job satisfaction. Since the degree of one’s job satisfaction appears to be largely associated with specific and tangible aspects of the work environment and may represent a more rapidly formed affective response than commitment. For this reason, it is suggested that job satisfaction is an originator of organisational commitment in this study Considering the relationships among all the three concepts, perceived organisational support, job satisfaction and organisational commitment, it is realized that job satisfaction is not only the result of perceived organisational support but also an origin of organisational commitment. Most researches have proposed causal models of organisational commitment in which the effects of various variables such as bureaucratic culture, innovative culture, supportive culture, leadership style, pay, promotional chances, distributive justice, peer support, supervisory support, work load, role conflict, role ambiguity, autonomy, adoption of routine, reemployment expectation and perceived job characteristics on commitment are mediated via their effects on job satisfaction (Williams and Hazer, 1986; Gaertner, 1999; Lok and Crawford, 2001). However, the independent variable (perceived organizational support) used in this study is different from the previous research.
2.2.1 Optimising Perceived SupportOne method of increasing perceived organisational support by employees is through giving employees, supervisors who are so supportive. Perceived supervisor support has also been shown to have a significant influence on favorable organization-level and individual-level outcomes (DeConinck and Johnson 2009; Eisenberger, Stinglhamber, Vandenberghe, Sucharski, and Rhoades 2002). This can be done by giving employees supervisors who are perceived to be understanding, communicating and thus creating a social perspective. Shanock and Eisenberger (2006) postulates that employees consider the support from their supervisor as a sign of support from the organization, either positively or negatively orientated toward them. DeConinck and Johnson (2009) explains that, although perceived organizational support and perceived supervisor support are highly related, research has shown that they are distinct contrasts. Perceived supervisor support is supported by social exchange theory and commonly defined as “the extent to which the supervisor values the employee’s contributions” (DeConinck and Johnson 2009, p. 334).
2.3 Review of Empirical Studies2.3.1 The Effect of Training and Perceived Organisational Support on Job SatisfactionMost of the literature in the area of training has focused on the impact of education and skills on job satisfaction rather than the effect of training and organisational support as such. One exception is Siebern-Thomas (2005) who, analysing 13 countries in the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) 1994-2001, found that job satisfaction tended to be higher where there was access to workplace training and support.
The relationship between skill acquisition and job satisfaction is not straightforward. First, there is the distinction between general and specific skills. The portability of general skills may raise job satisfaction as it is easier to move to other jobs where satisfaction is higher. In contrast, specific skills bind the worker to the firm and may reduce satisfaction by creating a barrier to exit as workers will lose a portion of the return on such skills if they move. This leads on to the question of the matching of individual skills and levels of education with job requirements. If workers are mismatched in terms of skill and education requirements, this may lower job satisfaction, as evidenced in the earlier literature.
In fact, most studies have focused on over- and under-education rather than over-skilling and under-skilling. Thus, Hersch (1991) found for the US that over-educated workers were less satisfied than adequately educated workers and (1995) that over-educated workers received less on-the-job training, but were more likely to be promoted. Yet Battu et al. (2000) found a negative relationship between over-education and promotion for UK graduates and no evidence of employers upgrading tasks given to the over-educated. The same authors (1999) found that over-educated graduates had significantly lower job satisfaction than those who were in graduate-level jobs. Green and Tsitsianis (2005) likewise found for a cross-section of workers that job satisfaction was lower for both over-educated and under-educated workers in their British sample, while for Belgium, Verhaest and Omey (2004) reported that after controlling for educational attainment, over-educated workers were less satisfied, more mobile, participated less in training and earned less than adequately educated workers. In contrast, Buchel (2002) found no significant difference in job satisfaction between overeducated and adequately educated employees in his study of German firms.
In one of the few studies to focus on skilling, Allen and van der Velden (2001) differentiated between education and skill mismatches, finding only a weak relationship between the two.
Importantly, they found a significant negative relationship between skill mismatch and job satisfaction, while the link between education mismatch and job satisfaction was insignificant. Bauer (2004), using the European Survey on Working Conditions covering all EU member states, found that involvement of workers in High Performance Work Organisations (HPWOs) was associated with higher job satisfaction. Further, a skill index, derived from information on the number of days of training paid for or provided by the employer had, with the UK being an exception, a positive and significant effect on the 15 countries overall.
CHAPTER THREETHEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK3.0 IntroductionThis chapter presents the theoretical and conceptual framework of the study. The theoretical framework will encompass different theories that are relevant to this research. On the other hand, the conceptual framework attempts to establish and to show the relationship of variables under study.
3.1 Theoretical FrameworkThis section presents the theoretical framework guiding the study. A number of theories were identified that can be used to explain the relationships in the conceptual framework.
3.1.1 The Hierarchy of Need Theory
Maslow hierarchy of need is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1954 book “Motivation and personality”.
Maslow hierarchy of need is often portrayed in a shape of pyramid (Maslow, 1954) with the largest and most fundamental level of needs at the bottom, and the need for self-actualization at the top. In ascending order, beginning with the most basic need, the needs are psychological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization needs. According to Maslow, people are motivated to satisfy the lower needs before they try to satisfy the higher need. Maslow contended that by making the effort to satisfy the different needs of each employee through organisational support, organizations may ensure a highly motivated workforce which would be satisfied on the job. The important aspect of Maslow’s model is that it provides for constant growth of the individual.
3.1.2 Herzberg et al.’s Two Factor Theory
Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman’s (1959), two-factor theory is heavily based on need fulfilment because of their interest in how best to satisfy workers. They carried out several studies to explore those things that cause workers in white-collar jobs to be satisfied and dissatisfied. They classified Hygiene factors as dissatisfied and motivating factors as satisfied. The hygiene factors are company policy and administration, technical supervision, salary, interpersonal relationship with supervisors and work conditions; they are associated with job content. The motivating factors are those factors that make workers work harder and classified them as follows: achievements, training, recognition and support, work itself, responsibility and advancement.
3.2 Conceptual FrameworkA conceptual framework is very important in any research study being undertaken. It shows the relationship between the dependent variables and the independent variable. A conceptual framework is a research tool intended to assist a researcher to develop awareness and understanding of the situation under scrutiny. And to communicate this, it is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to an idea or thought. According to Bogdan and Biklen (2003) a conceptual Framework is a basic structure that consists of certain abstract blocks which represent the observational, the experiential and the analytical/synthetical aspects of a process or system being conceived. The interconnection of these blocks completes the framework for certain expected outcome. This study conceptualises the relationship between training and perceived organisational support on job satisfaction.
Figure 3.1 The Conceptual Framework
Independent Variables Dependent Variable
Perceived Organisational Support
While the importance of trainee characteristics to the success of Job satisfaction has been established by many studies ( Baldwin and Ford, 1988; Cheng and Hampson,2008; Elangovan and Karakowsky, 1999; Thayer and Teachout, 1995), the effect of Training on Job satisfaction remain somewhat unclear. Reviews of the Job satisfaction literature reveal that relatively few studies have empirically examined the impact of Training on Job satisfaction (Jodlbauer et al., 2012). Training is one of the most studied employee attitudes in organizational research primarily due to the intuitive nature of the construct’s importance (Bai et al., 2006). Research show that Training is positively associated with a number of meaningful outcomes such as enhanced employee pride in the organization (Arnettet al., 2002), loyalty (Glaveli and Karassavidou, 2011), self-esteem and organizational commitment (Back et al., 2011), work performance (Suliman, 2007) and team performance (Politis, 2006). It has been postulated recently that trainees who are dissatisfied with their job, transfer fewer skills and less knowledge to their work than trainees who are more satisfied with their job (Jodlbauer et al., 2012). There are two likely explanations for this effect. First, highly satisfied employees have been seen to demonstrate positive improvement in terms of their job knowledge and skills following the training (Veladaand Caetano, 2007). The improvement of an employee’s knowledge and skills concerning the particular content addressed in training is an important requirement for Job satisfaction to occur in the workplace (Olsen, 1998; Pineda, 2010). Second, satisfied employees may be potentially more motivated to transfer the trainingoutcomes back to their job (Kontoghiorghes, 2004). Previous studies have shown that the level of motivation to transfer was a key variable in determining the level of Job satisfaction in the workplace (Axtell et al., 1997; Nijman and Gelissen, 2011).
Based on the discussion, it is posited that if employees have high satisfaction levels with their job, they are more likely to apply the knowledge, skills and attitudes that they gained from training to the workplace. Thus, the following hypothesis is proposed:
H1: There is a positive impact of Training on job satisfaction.
3.2.1 The Hypothesis Relating to Perceived Organisational Support
There are a number of factors that could influence employee work behaviour and attitude (Armstrong-Stassen, 1998), one of which is Perceived Organisational Support (POS). According to Eisenberger et al. (1986, p. 501), individuals tend to “form global beliefs concerning the extent to which the organisation values their contributions and cares about their well-being.” The perceptions and beliefs emerging from the connections between the organisation and employees are called POS.
Studies reveal that high POS could lead to high satisfaction level among employees (Bogler and Nir, 2012; Burke, 2003; Hakkak et al., 2014; Karatepe, 2012; Peterson, 2015). Studies carried out on different types of employees, including part-time employees (Cropanzano et al., 1997), sales people (Stamper and Johlke, 2003) and nurses (Filipova, 2011), show that POS and job satisfaction are positively related because employees trust and believe that their organisation will reward and recognise their work. Spence et al. (2012) and Eisenberger et al. (1986) found that POS is important in making employees satisfied, leading to increased organisational commitment and fulfilment of organisational goals. POS also enhances employee loyalty (Purang, 2011) and employee performance (Bagherzadeh and Mofidi, 2015). These findings are consistent with social exchange theory, which postulate that when employees perceive the organisation to be caring about their well-being and value their contribution to the workplace, they are likely to get involved and participate in the activities that could enhance organisational productivity (Eisenberger et al., 1986).
Thus, in the light of prior literature and theory, the following hypothesis can be formulated which will be tested by the researcher in the research.
H2: There is a positive impact of perceived organisational support on job satisfaction.
CHAPTER FOURMETHODOLOGY4.0 Introduction
This chapter describes the methodology that will be used for the study. The main issues to be discussed here are the research design, research population, sample size and sampling technique, source of data and data collection methods, and method of data analysis.
4.1 Research Design
Research designs are features that a researcher uses to collect, analyse and interpret data using quantitative and qualitative research. There are eight research designs frequently used in educational research as postulated by Creswell (2014). The first three are quantitative, the next three qualitative and the last two are a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches.
4.1.1 Experimental DesignsIt is the traditional approach to conducting quantitative research. In an experiment, you test an idea (or practice or procedure) to determine whether it influences an outcome or dependent variable. This design can be used when one wants to establish possible cause and effect between your independent and dependent variables. This means that you attempt to control all variables (extraneous variables) that influences the outcome except for the independent variable.
4.1.2 Correlational Designs
This research design relates variables rather than manipulating them. It provides an opportunity for you to predict scores and explain the relationship among variables. In correlation research design, investigators use the correlation statistical test to describe and measure the degree of association (or relationship) between two or more variables or sets of scores.
4.1.3 Survey DesignsSurvey research is a popular design in education. Survey research designs are procedures in quantitative research in which investigators administer a survey to a sample or to the entire population of people to describe the attitudes, opinions, behaviours or characteristics of the population.
4.1.4 Grounded Theory DesignsThis research designs enables you to generate a brand theory about your qualitative central phenomenon “grounded” in the data. Grounded theories are used when a researcher needs a broad theory or explanation of a process.
4.1.5 Ethnographic Designs
The word ethnographic means writing about groups of people. This research design is a qualitative research procedure for describing, analysing, and interpreting a culture – sharing group’s shared patterns of behaviour, beliefs, and language that develop overtime.
4.1.6 Narrative Research DesignsIn this research design, researcher describe the lives of individuals, collect and tell stories about people’s lives, and write narratives of individual experiences.
4.1.7 Mixed Method DesignsThis research design collects analyses and mixes both quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or a series of studies to understand a research problem (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011). An understanding on both qualitative and quantitative research designs is key when using this research designs.
4.1.8 Action Research Designs
This research design when compared to others is the most applied practical design. Action researchers explore a practical problem with an aim toward developing a solution to a problem. Similar to mixed method research, action research uses data collection based on either quantitative or qualitative methods or both. However, it differs in that action research addresses a specific, practical issue to obtain solutions to a problem.
4.2 Justification of Selected Research Design Firstly, Saunders et al. (2007), defines research design as the general plan of how the research questions would be answered. It is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted. It constitutes a blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. A survey is a method of collecting data in which people are asked to answer a number of questions (usually in the form of a questionnaire). The reliability of a survey’s results depends on whether the sample of people from which the information has been collected is free from bias and sufficiently large (Encarta, 2009).
The research design that this study intends to use is the survey approach to assess the relationship between the effects of training and perceived organisational support on job satisfaction. This is therefore qualitative and quantitative in outlook. Research tools are the methods of data collection (e.g. questionnaire, observation, document analysis). The research tool for data collection for the study will be questionnaire.
4.3 Population, Sample Size and Sampling Techniques for the Study
Sekeran (1990), reported that population refers to the entire group of people, events or things of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate. Quite often we select only a few items from the population for our study purposes. The items so selected constitute what is technically called a sample. Sekeran (1990), defines a sample as a portion of the population that has attributes as the entire population. The target population for the study consists of all staff of Zambian Immigration Department working in the Lusaka Province of Zambia.
A sample is a subset of a particular population. Sampling is the process of selecting a sample from a population. According to Mugenda (2003), the ideal sample should be large enough to serve as an adequate representation of the population about which the researcher wishes to generalize. It should also be small enough to be selected economically in terms of subject availability, expense in both time and money, and the complexity of data analysis. In determining the sample size, the confidence level to be used and the allowable sampling error were considered.
The sample size of 120 was determined for the study from the sampling frame of 148 employees in the Immigration Department.
4.4 Sources of Data
The study will involve both primary data collected from the staff and secondary data. The primary data will be collected from the field survey using questionnaires and interview schedules. Secondary data will be sourced from the reports, journals, books and publications and by other writers that are of relevance to the study.
4.5 Data Analysis.During the process of data analysis, both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used. The data that will be collected by use of the questionnaire and will be processed by editing and computing using Social Package for Statistical Science (SPSS), Excel and computing. Descriptive analysis of the data was done through calculation of means scores and standard deviation, proportions, frequency distribution tables and cross tabulation. Correlation and regression analysis was employed to analyse relationship on variables and to test the appropriateness and reliability of the model results.
4.6 Reliability and Validity IssuesA good research is a viable approach to a problem only when there is data to support it. Therefore, during this research, the data collection instruments in this case questionnaire were pretested. A reasonable number of respondents were part of the sample to ensure reliability.
All respondents filled and returned their copies. The questionnaire was edited to remove mistakes and a final copy was presented to the supervisor for approval.
4.7 Ethical Considerations
Ethics are moral principles that guide our behaviour or actions and are based on shared values and beliefs about what is good or bad. Ethical issues will be considered during the research because a number of people will be involved.
CHAPTER FIVEDATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS5.0 IntroductionThis chapter presents the findings of the study from the analysis of the data that was collected. The analysis of the research findings was based on statistical methods. The chapter shows the sample characteristics of the respondents, descriptive statistics for the items, correlation and regression results for the variables under study. The dissertation was based on a quantitative research approach.
5.1 Level of ResponseOne hundred and thirty (150) questionnaires were distributed and one twenty (120) were returned giving an 80% response rate. The thirty (30) did not respond at all. The 30 did not respond because of difficulties in contacting them. The response rate demonstrates a willingness of the respondents to participate in the study.
5.2 Data PreparationThe questions were entered in the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 25 data base. The SPSS was used for data entry and analysis of data collected. Before data analysis, the researcher checked for missing values and no values were missed during data entry.
5.3 Reliability Test
Before any test was performed on the data a reliability test was performed to assess if the data was fit for further quantitative analysis. Reference was made to Cronbach’s reliability test. The table below shows the test results.
Scale Items Cronbach’s Alpha
Training 4 0.659
Perceived organizational support 4 0.574
Job satisfaction 3 0.874
From the table, we see that all scales have a Cronbach’s coefficient greater than .5. George et al (2003), Kline (2000) and Devellis (2012) state that though a Cronbach’s coefficient of at least 0.7 should be met, a coefficient less than 0.5 is unacceptable. Thus, for the purpose of this study, Cronbach’s alpha for perceived organizational support will be regarded acceptable in this study.
5.5 Demographic Profile
The demographic questions were designed to obtain general information from the respondents in four categories, namely: Gender, Length of service and Age.
Table 5.1: Demographic Profile of Respondents
Frequency Percent Mean Skewness
Gender Male 70 58.33
Female 50 41.67
Total 120 100.0 1.4 0.307
Age of respondents 18 – 30 43 35.8
31 – 40 59 49.2
41 – 50 17 14.2
Above 50 1 0.8
Total 120 100.0 1.8 0.45
Duration worked 6 – 10 years 105 87.5
10 – 15 years 10 8.3
Above 15 years 5 4.2
Total 120 100.0 3.0 -0.613
There were 70 (58.33%) males and 50 (41.67%) female employees (respondents) at the Immigration department and giving a total of 120 employees (respondents). However, the majority of respondent belonged to the age group between 31 and 40, followed by the age group between 18 and 30. In addition, most workers served for a duration between 6 to 10 years. Besides, respondents that served above 15 years were very few.
5.6 Correlation Matrix Table
MEAN SD N 1 2 3 4 5 6
JOB SATISFACTION 4.0106 0.81871 120 1
Gender 1.4250 0.49642 120 0.141 1
Age group 1.8000 0.70532 120 -0.111 -0.019 1
Duration worked 2.9583 0.35256 120 -0.050 -0.042 0.034 1
0.592 0.649 0.714
TRAINING 3.9370 0.75997 120 .285** 0.145 0.016 -0.002 1
0.002 0.116 0.867 0.982
3.7944 0.71620 120 .572** .191* -0.092 0.024 .368** 1
0.000 0.037 0.319 0.794 0.000
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
The correlation matrix table above shows the relationship between the control variables (gender, age group and duration worked), independent variables (training and organizational support) and the dependent variable (job satisfaction). The variables of interest are the two independent variables (training and perceived organisational support) and the dependent variable (job satisfaction). From the table we see that the control variables have been found to have no statically significant influence on job satisfaction. However, providing training to employees and providing organizational support has been found to significantly influence job satisfaction.
Specifically providing training has been found to be associated with job satisfaction (R value at 0.287, significant at 0.01 level). Organizational support has also been found to influence satisfaction (R value at 0.572, significant at 0.01 level).
Positive influence means that any improvement in the independent variable also causes an improvement in the dependent variable. Therefore, a positive value of 0.287 from training means that more trainings will improve job satisfaction. The same is true for organizational support, employees who are provided with the necessary support in forms of trainings, resources and other essentials will be more satisfied with their jobs.
The absolute R values in the matrix measures the effect size that is the extent to which one variable influences another. According to Cohen (1988), a value less than 0.1 indicates a very small effect, value between 0.1 and 0.3 indicates a small effect size, a value between 0.3 and 0.5 means a medium effect and a value between 0.5 and 1 indicates a large effect size. Thus, an effect size of 0.278 from training means that improving training will improve job satisfaction to a small extent. On the other hand, an effect size of 0.572 from perceived organizational support will improve job satisfaction to a large extent.
5.7 Multiple Regression Analysis
The above section aims to identify variables influencing employee job satisfaction. Regression on the other hand or this section aims to provide a more vivid picture of the nature of the relationship between the independent variables (training and organizational support) and the dependent variable (job satisfaction).
The table below shows the summary of the regression table attached at the appendix. From the table we first refer to the value inflation factor (VIF) which should not exceed 5 to avoid multi co linearity which tends to influence the regression results by either inflation or deflating the estimates of regression, correlation, and the coefficient of determination than making the results biased.
Hierarchical regression inclines data in blocks, which are termed models. Thus, in this analysis we have 3 models. Model 1, 2 and 3.
Model 1 establishes the combined effect of the three control variables (including gender, age and duration worked). As established in the correlation analysis these are statically insignificant with R value or coefficient of determination at 0.182 or 18.2% (thus indication of a small effect) and adjusted R square at 0.008 or 0.8%. This means that none of the control variables make a significantly unique contribution to the regression model. As found in the correlation analysis these have not been found to have a statically significant influence on job satisfaction.
Model 2 adds to the control variables one independent variable, training. This combination generates a combined R value of 0.328 or 32.8% (a medium effect) and adjusted R square value of 0.076 or 7.6%. The implication is that 32.8% of the change in job satisfaction can be explained by the combined effect of gender, age, duration of service and training.
Model 3 is made by the addition of perceived organizational support to model 2. This combination produces a combined R value of 0.585 or 58.5 (thus a large effect) and adjusted R value of 0.313 or 31.35. This means that 58.5% of the change or improvement in job satisfaction is explained by the combined model made up of the control variables (i.e. gender, age and duration worked) and the two independent variables (training and perceived organization support). This information is summarized in the table below.
MODEL 1 MODEL 2 MODEL 3 VIF
Beta t Beta t Beta t
Gender 0.227 1.493 0.161 1.085 0.039 0.301 1.047
Age group -0.124 -1.159 -0.130 -1.257 -0.071 -0.792 1.013
Duration worked -0.094 -0.439 -0.096 -0.465 -0.138 -0.772 1.004
TRAINING 0.296 3.060 0.097 1.087 1.168
SUPPORT 0.606 6.319 1.197
R .182a .328b .585c
R square 0.033 0.107 0.342
Adjusted R 0.008 0.076 0.313
F Statistic 1.309 3.395 11.638
The study has analysed three variables; training, perceived organisational support and Job satisfaction. The findings of this study suggest that there is a link among variables by the use of correlation. The analyses of this study indicated a positive significant relationship between training and job satisfaction. Sahinidis and Bouris, (2008) in their findings also indicated similar results.
Most studies have shown that Training has got a relationship with job satisfaction. Burke, (1995); Chambel & Sobral, (2011); Costen & Salazar, (2011); Mathieu, Tannenbaum, & Salas, (1992); Roehl & Swerdlow, (1999) pointed out that organisations that have committed training for their works have facilitated improved worker’s skills and overall job satisfaction. American Psychological Association (2012), explain that, training has a positive effect on the attitude and behaviour of an employee at the workplace. Bulut ; Culha, (2010); Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, ; Sowa, (1986) explains that when employees feel valued in their work place, they become motivated to do their best.
It was also discovered that perceived organisational support has a positive effect on job satisfaction. Herzberg (1959) classifies motivating factors are those factors that make workers work harder. Among these factors Herzberg’s mentions organisational support as one of the factors. Finds concur with similar studies on perceived organisational job satisfaction.
Often, an employee tends to compare their organisation with the previous one they had and compare in the future with the current one they have, this usually makes workers feel less supported (Kanaga, 2007). Several studies have shown that employees who are supported by their organisation are Satisfied with their job (Buchanan, 1974; Tansky and Cohen; 2001; Riggle et al., 2009).
In addition, studies done in the past have also demonstrated that organisational support given to employees by their organisation creates improvement of positive behaviours and attitudes like affective and normative commitment (Eisenberger et al., 1986; Settoon et al., 1996; O’Driscoll and Randall, 1999; Rhodes and Eisenberger, 2002; Yoon and Thye, 2002; Fuller et al., 2003; Aube et al., 2007; Riggle et al., 2009).
Therefore, the findings of this study have supported the conceptual model and all of the hypothesized relationships.
# Hypothesis Statistic Test Results
H1 Training is positively associated with job satisfaction R = 0.285** Correlation Supported
H2 Perceived organizational support is positively associated with job satisfaction R = 0.572** Correlation Supported
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
5.8 SummaryThis chapter was concerned with data presentation, analysis of the results obtained from the research study as well as discussion of the results. Points of focus include rate of response; demographics of respondents; analysis of descriptive statistics; factor analysis; validity and reliability; as well as regression and hypotheses testing. Results of the study showed both compelling and no compelling support for the hypotheses. The results in light of the research questions were also discussed. The next chapter will focus on the introduction, conclusions, recommendations, further research and summary.
CHAPTER SIXCONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS6.0 IntroductionThis chapter concludes and makes recommendations to the results of the study which was exploratory in nature. In Zambia, Immigration departments have a number of activities to offer in view of reducing the community’s social, economic and political challenges. As such they are expected to provide high and excellent services every time they discharged their duties. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of training and perceived organisation support on job satisfaction in public service a focus on the Immigration department.
6.1 Summary of Research ConclusionsThe study made conclusions based on the research objectives listed below:
To determine the effect of training on job satisfaction?
The research established that training has got an effect on job satisfaction.
To evaluate the effect of perceived organisation support on job satisfaction?
The research study established that perceived organisational support has an effect on job satisfaction.
6.2 Implications and RecommendationsAlthough this research revealed information about the relationship among training, perceived organisational support and Job satisfaction at Immigration department. The information can be used not only in the public service but also in the private sector. The positive correlation in this study indicates that the organisations in the public service other than the department of immigration can also befinit
In view of the findings of the research, the following were recommendations to the management of the Immigration department under study as follows:
The importance of perceived organisational support in any organisation cannot be overlooked as such it is imperative that every organisation endeavour to improve its organisational support for its employees and to do this the following is recommended:
Implementing supportive workforce that are discretionary; This means the procedures and policies in the working environment should respect one’s privacy
Be fair and equitable in enforcing management policies.
Fair organisational policies and procedures make employees feel supported and cared for.
Ensure that the supervisors employed are supportive.
Train subordinates to be supportive.
When doing interviews for employee’s screen for employees that re supportive.
6.3 Research limitations/ Future Research Direction
This research work was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of training and perceived organisational support at the Immigration department. Due to limited time and financial constraints, the research was carried out only on the above-mentioned department. Hence, upcoming researchers who have interest in this topic should extend the research to cover a wider sample size and area of interest. More public departments can be involved in the study.
6.4 SummaryThis chapter summarised the conclusions and recommendations on the findings discussed in chapter six. It has also offered the recommendations to the research findings. It recommends a further investigation on the effect of training and perceived organisational support on job satisfaction, broadening the area of study to have a better generalisation of the results.
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THE COPPERBELT UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND MARKETING
I am a student from the Copperbelt University carrying out a research on “The effect of training and perceived organisation support on job satisfaction in public service a focus on the Immigration Department”. You have been randomly selected as a respondent to answer this questionnaire to help me partially fulfil the requirement for the award of a bachelors degree in business administration. You are kindly requested to answer this questionnaire, be assured that your response to the questions will be used for academic purposes and will be treated with confidentiality.
Your cooperation will be highly appreciated.
Email : mulengakasonteka @yahoo.com
Questionnaire for The Effect of Training and Perceived Organizational Support on Job Satisfaction
Section A: Demographic Profile
Please tick or mark the appropriate space provided
a) Female ( ) b) Male ( )
a) 18 – 25 ( ) b) 26 – 35 ( ) c) 36 – 45 ( ) d) 46 – 55 ( ) e) Above 56 ( )
3. How long have you worked for the organization?
a) 1-5years b) 6-10years c) 10-15years d) above 15 years
4. Have you had any form of training since you joined the organization?
a) Yes ( ) b) No ( )
Please indicate the extent to which you agree with the following statements on the Scale where ‘1’ indicates Strongly Disagree ,’2′ Disagree ‘3’ Neutral , ‘4’ Agree ‘5’ Strongly Agree
5. Training(Please tick only one choice for each item)
Item 1 2 3 4 5
My organisation provides adequate training opportunites to employees. Training is designed and conducted to substantially increase employee knowledge and develop new skills. Training is designed and conducted to influence my attitudes concerning this topic. Training is designed and conducted to help me better conceptualised what I do on the job. 6. Perceived Organizational Support
Please indicate the extent to which you agree with the following statements on the Scale where ‘1’ indicates Strongly Disagree ,’2′ Disagree ‘3’ Neutral , ‘4’ Agree ‘5’ Strongly Agree
(Please tick only one choice for each item)
Item 1 2 3 4 5
My organization cares about my opinion My organisation really cares about my wellbeing My organisation strongly considers my goals and values Help is available from my organisation when i need special favor. My organisation is willing to help me when I need a special favor. My organisation provides employees with opportunities to use new knowledge and skills. 7. Job satisfaction
Please indicate the extent to which you agree with the following statements on the Scale where ‘1’ indicates Strongly Disagree ,’2′ Disagree ‘3’ Neutral , ‘4’ Agree ‘5’ Strongly Agree
(Please tick only one choice for each item)
Item 1 2 3 4 5
In general, I like working here In general, I don’t like my job All in all, I am satisfied with my job 8. If you have any additional comments please indicate below :
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . Thank you !