The Cheela Spring Flood Basalt is located in the southern Pilbara craton in Australia at a province called the Ashburton

The Cheela Spring Flood Basalt is located in the southern Pilbara craton in Australia at a province called the Ashburton, it is dated to be 2030-Ma in age. In the Ashburton basin the Cheela Spring Basalt is one of the stratigraphic unit of the Lower- Wyloo group that represents a tholeiitic flood basalt is a palaeoproterozoic succession. It is approximately 2.7-km thick mafic continental flood basalts. The Cheela Spring Basalt lies conformably to the Wooly Dolomite and it overlies the Beasly River Basalt. The SHRIMP investigation on the baddeleyite shows that the dyke that was studied by early scholars is a feeder to the Cheela Spring Basalt belongs to the young volcanic events that took place. The Cheela Spring Basalt contain rocks such as gabbro, band iron formation, sandstones, quartzites, basalt and siltstones
The Pb-Pb dating of SHRIMP (sensitive high-resolution iron micro-probe) shows that it is about 2000-Ma younger than the early flood basalt volcanism, and it is slightly related to the Boggola volcanics of the Upper-Wyloo group. The Cheela Spring Basalt extend to about 250-km wide and forms a very big rock unit of the Lower Wyloo group (Thorne and Seymour, 1991). The Cheela Spring Basalts have erupted in the active margin before marine regression that is caused by the collision of the Yilgarn and the Pilbara craton, and deposition took place in a coastal to shallow marine.
The main aims are to: determination of the geochemistry and geochemical methods that were used, establish the stratigraphy, to correlate the Cheela Spring Basalts with other formations and determination of the age by using dating methods.
GEOLOGCAL SETTING
The late Archaean to early Palaeoproterozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Mt Bruce supergroup are underlying the unconformable Lower Wyloo group which contain within itself, the Cheela spring basalt of our interest, basal Beasley River Quartzite and the Wooly Dolomite; which in turn overlie the Pilbara Archaean granitoid-greenstone terrain in a non-conformably fashion. The Lower Wyloo group contain the deltaic to shallow-marine sedimentary rocks of the Beasley River quartzite, continental flood basalt of the Cheela spring which constitute major(80%) unit in the group and the Wyloo Dolomite, and the youngest shallow marine shelf-ramp carbonate sequence all in ascending order according to Martin et al (1998); The Wyloo group is separated into upper Wyloo group and the lower Wyloo group by an angular unconformity and comprises the siliciclastic sedimentary rocks of the MT McGrath formation, the shallow marine duck creek dolomite and the largely turbiditic Ashburton formation(krapez, 1999), a passive margin development of Ashburton formation succeeded the riff of the lower Wyloo group and that of the MT Mcgrath until at around ~1800 Ma the onset of the Pilbara and that of the Yilgarn converge (Thorne and Seymour, 1991).
The Cheela spring basalt was emplaced in a shallow to deep marine environment and erupted through diamictites in a multiple-vent feeder system, the McGrath formation flood basalt and the amygdaloidal basalt interlayered with conglomerate unconformable overlie the Cheela spring basalt, the 2209 Ma is rather the provenance age of the Cheela spring basalt, it is believed that it is younger than the 2195-2145 ma Ophthalmia Orogeny, a hiatus of ~370 my is represented at the Wyloo group base. The dyke swarm of ~2008ma crosscut the Lower Wyloo group.
The rocks of the Lower Wyloo group are mainly exposed along the Manutarra-Wittenoom road and near the Wyloo Dome. They are tilted up against the older rocks of the Hamersley province in all locations except at Mt Olympus, where exposure is located within an anticlinal structure. Lack of detailed information result in sequence of Lower Wyloo group being poorly studied. With relative to poor outcrop, it’s because the mafic rocks of the Cheela spring basalt are low-lying and in plain forms
The palaeoproterozoic continental tholeiite basalt were emplaced during early proto Australia continental extension and volcanic activities associated with chert banded iron formations of the Hamersley Province. The dolerite dykes cross cut the banded iron formation and alter each other resulting to hydrothermal zones in which mineralization occur. Some of the Cheela Spring Basalts appear to be part of the younger foreland basin McGrath formation associated with shallow marine and fluvial tidal sandstones and planar siltstone