TEACHERS’ BEST PRACTICES IN EVALUATING STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN THE SCIENCE CLASS Robert P

TEACHERS’ BEST PRACTICES IN EVALUATING STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN THE SCIENCE CLASS
Robert P. Baguio
ABSTRACT
The study explores on the experiences encountered by teachers and practices on evaluating students’ performance in science. The participants of the study are composed of new, permanent and tenured teachers; 9 teachers in all, working at Public School, Public Science High School and Private School. The samples were chosen conveniently. The instrument used is a semi-structured interview guide. It focuses on collecting the personal views and dimensions of the best practices on evaluating students’ performance in science. The data were undergone different process such as transcribing, tabulating, and data analyzing. Teachers’ best practices in evaluating students’ performance in science depend on how the teachers used the evaluation practices, problems encountered, accuracy of evaluation judgement and students’ performance.

Keywords: Evaluation Practices, Students’ Performance
INTRODUCTION
Evaluation has been a part and practice in schools, office and different colleges to measure their performance. In education, schools have been analyzing the academics performance of the teachers and students as well. The study of Harris and Sass (2010) reveals that scores of teachers’ knowledge in the subject and performance mirror the students’ efficiency and performance, i.e. good teaching method, utilization of instructional materials, and mastery of content material yields high efficiency and performance of students. Alexander (2016) presented an excellent relationship of performance evaluation ranking of the students achievement. Under achievement of the students’ performance as reflected in low scores in quizzes, quarterly examination and performance tasks is attributed to the quality of teachers in terms of the type of teaching methods and well planned evaluation that they give to the students’. In addition, learning designs and methods are vital. The studies of Cameron (2017), Brodersen & Randel (2017) and Kocaarslan & Ergun (2017) developing an understanding of generic teaching and learning is not sufficient and learning practices in the individual disciplines. This highlights the importance of the relationship between discipline content knowledge and pedagogical process that uses various effective techniques such as technology integration and practical applications that enhanced the skills, competencies and performance of students, mastery of content, facilitating knowledge and skills and practicing life-long learning from the teachers.

Tsai (2017) study reveals that the impact of good performance of teachers in student-teacher interaction plays a significant role in teaching students to learn, especially in giving various evaluation as stated above has been discussed but in the long run, we have to realize, what makes teacher evaluation effectively in measuring the students’ performance in the classroom? Questions have been raised on identifying what makes a good and effective teacher. Practices in evaluating students’ performance such as quizzes, quarterly examination, and performance tasks have been concluded to gauge students’ performance.

Neves, (2014) study used a computational model in evaluating students’ performance in physics and found a significant increase in the students’ performance who were taking physics subject. Effective approaches such as virtual learning, instructional method, and practical activities were highlighted as tools in enhancing learning and achievement (Alves, 2016; Cousins-Cooper, Staley, ; Luke, 2017 and Etiubon ; Udoh, 2017). Nurturing skills of teachers in using different methods of evaluating students’ performance such as the software GEOGSCI increased students’ grasps of the concepts instead of memorizing. This is important for them to further their understanding in geography, Such evaluation method is very important in the development of students holistically. In this case, knowledge of teachers in evaluating performance needs to be evaluated to see how the teachers uses various methods of evaluation and to see its effectiveness on students’ performance.
Further trainings in pedagogy and technology integration in evaluating students’ performance increased the quality and achievement of teachers in assuring students’ high performance must be observed. Studies revealed that pedagogical knowledge, training programs, teacher-student relationship are factors of the aforementioned status of teachers. The study conducted by Can, Erokten, & Bahtiyar (2017), describes potential impact of pedagogical content knowledge program specifically using various teaching methods to the pre-service teacher. (Neves 2017) evaluate teaching strategies based on the use of computational modeling – and traditional models of evaluation, based on the result the emergence of technological and pedagogical knowledge is needed in order for the teachers achieve technology integration effectively, primarily technological knowledge needs to be increased and then content and pedagogical knowledge and competencies should be ensured. Pedagogical and technological knowledge discuss how important from the start training a teacher to become effective teacher. Furthermore, Tsai (2017) pointed out that good relationship and communication between teacher and student must be encouraged because it causes healthy learning ambiance. Hence, many reasons such as what make evaluation effective, how teachers evaluate students’ performance? What processes are involved in making effective evaluation, Neves, (2014) study reveals that appropriate evaluation instrument can be constructed if carefully planned and analyzed by the teacher. Teachers as source of learning are a perennial truth. However; we have to realize that since the present generation of learners are considered to be technologically advanced and knowledgeable and are exposed to different types of information, teachers must be aware of what practices should be done and how this practices can improve the performance of the students by using a quality evaluation suited to the learners.

` This paper intends to find out the teachers’ knowledge and practices in evaluating students’ performance in a science class. In order to establish these, the study will answer the following specific questions;
What do teachers know about the different ways of evaluating their students’ performance in science class?
What are the different ways which teachers use to evaluate their students’ performance in science class?
What problems do teachers encounter in evaluating their students’ performance in science class?
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Investigation in the evaluation practices of teachers is the main subject of this study. Teachers’ knowledge, problems encountered, and evaluation practices are key concepts in this study.
Problems Encountered in Evaluation
A new era in educational innovations is rapidly developing. But as the tempo of the movement accelerates, it becomes increasingly apparent that continued progress may be hampered by one rather formidable obstacles namely; the expressed avoidance of most teachers to evaluate the exact effect of their innovation. Cousins-Cooper, K., Staley, K., Kim, S., ; Luke, N. (2017) aver that teachers give many reasons to explain why evaluation is not carried out.  Some of these are valid reasons; such as they do not have time to give enough evaluation, they do not have a skill to carry out evaluation indeed more weight needs to be given to reasons of why teachers does not used effective evaluation.  Other reasons however, are problems such as some evaluation activities can be expensive, but this is not necessarily the case.  Ways to reduce the costs include the creativity of the teachers’ to formulate or construct his/her own evaluation for example circulating a survey by email/ online rather than by post; arranging for responses from electronic surveys to be inputted automatically rather than by hand.

In the study conducted by Yilmaz (2017), evaluation process of students’ performance of are measured by using online distance education program and to compare lecturers’ views on evaluation practices carried out in face-to-face classroom environment with those online assessment and evaluation practices. This implies the importance of proper and appropriate plans for the evaluation and level or extent of the teacher’s knowledge (Bietenbeck, Piopiunik, ; Wiederhold, 2015) in assessing the performance of students
Appropriate Evaluation Practices
Appropriate evaluation practices are those practices that have been considered for a long time by teachers who are effective in evaluating a group of students. However acceptable practices should be discussed in relation to subject areas’ learning competencies (Luozada, Elia, & Vidal, 2014; Wilhelm, Toland & Cole, 2017; & Ozdemir & Erdemci, 2017). Effects and impacts of modern approaches and techniques in evaluation are essential in determining the 21st century learners’ skills because it will help students to better understand concepts in science by using technology such as simulations and computer based instructions,
on the other hand teachers can also benefits in technology by helping them explain concepts that are difficult to visualize and can be done through technology, in this manner student and teacher benefits from technology and students can be evaluated through technology such the software CHEMCRAFT. In addition, Jane,Wachanga, ; Anditi (2017) and Banoofatemeh, Bijandi, ; Parasteh (2017) pointed out that careful and well planned evaluation should be done in evaluating students’ performance. Jaster (2017) and Seloraji & Eu (2017) clearly stated the reflections and perceptions of teacher in different set-up of classroom. In this idea, it is suggested that in evaluation process, looking into the environment also implies relation to the actual performance of the teacher and students as well.

Figure 1 show how appropriate practices and problems encountered influenced teachers best practices in
Evaluating students’ performance in science.
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00 Practices in evaluating students’ performance
411480121920Problems encounter in evaluating students’ performance
00Problems encounter in evaluating students’ performance
2553335220345Teachers’ Best Practices in Evaluating Students’ Performance in Science Class
00Teachers’ Best Practices in Evaluating Students’ Performance in Science Class

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METHODOLOGY
The paper employs a qualitative research which involves a phenomenological approach as the research design. Phenomenological approach in research explores and defines the lived experiences of individuals describing the phenomenon and making it universally essential. Creswell (2007) and Adrianzen (2012) discuss the phenomenology approach as a major process of exploring the fundamental human experiences by identifying the central themes in its phenomenon.

Views and ideas in phenomenology engage with detailed examination of the meaning of experience to the participants and making sense out of it. In the study conducted by Adrianzen (2016) and Dery ; Puopiel (2013), personal histories, perspective and experiences gained insight to the topic and expounded unique meanings of every phenomenon essential to the life of every individual.

The goal of the study is to understand the lived experiences of the teachers in evaluating students’ performance in science class. These includes the phenomenon of the teachers’ best practices in evaluating students’ performance, problems encountered by the teachers’ in evaluating students’ performance and appropriate evaluation that best fit in evaluating students’ performance. The teaching and learning process were also considered in the study.

In this study, the researcher will conduct the investigation on the best practices of teachers in evaluating the students’ performance in schools in Bacoor City, Cavite. Schools as site will be composed of a Public School, Public Science School, and Private Non-sectarian School. These three will be subjected to class observations for one and half week, two (2) days per school and take note of the practices used by the teacher in the evaluation part of the lesson. Participants and selection of this study will be highly systematic. The participants will be composed of secondary school teachers and will be classified as probationary (0-3 years teaching experience), permanent (5-10 years teaching experience) and tenured (15-25 years teaching experience) with or without master’s degree. The researcher will target science teachers. So to speak, nine (9) teachers three (3) in each school will serve as participants and/or respondents. Selection of participants will be purposive sampling technique.
DATA COLLECTION
The researcher will use several methods of data collection. Interview and observation will be employed. In the interview process, the researcher will develop an interview guide (see appendix A). The interview guide will help the researcher in collecting information about the way teachers evaluate the students’ performance and gather experiences encountered by the participants, the researcher will conduct interview (see RQ1 and RQ2). And lastly, to consolidate evidence on the best practices, the researcher will do classroom observation (see RQ 3).the researcher will use classroom observation form (see appendix B) to identify the common and appropriate evaluation practices used by the teacher in relation with the learning objectives.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Evaluation Practices
Evaluation is an inseparable part of any education process since it plays a crucial role in any student’s learning. The evaluation methods is considered to be one of the very valuable tools of teaching and learning because it can provide useful feedback both for teachers and their institution about the quality of education. Moreover, it can reveal its impact on student’s learning and teacher’s practices (Frydrychova Klimova, 2013).

Teacher can see whether or not students are making an progress or no longer and think about their work and his/her performance educating efficiency in an effort to make indispensable changes in finding out teaching tactics and methods.

Written Evaluation
According to Weimer (2015) Corrigan and Craciun(2013),written evaluation experience by means of which student discovered the content is an process that accomplishes a couple of other finding out goals. It encourages to take accountability for their process learning and analysis. Moreover it permits students to word question and answer in methods that are significant to them and it makes it possible for the students to interact with content material in deeper approaches, Students said that this evaluation expertise was once much less demanding and it’s a technique that lovely well takes care of dishonest issues. Written evaluation have the vigor to increase what students understand.

Short form test (Summative Test, Quizzes and Quarterly Examination)
Short form tests are also known as objective tests. They include multiple choice, completion (or cloze), true-false and matching types, of which multiple choice is the most commonly used. A multiple choice test item consists of a statement, called the stem, and several alternative statements, one of which is the correct answer, while the others are distracters.
Brown, G., Bull, J., & Pendlebury, M. (2009) says that the use of short form test can be used with the following advantages: measures wide sample of content, easy and quick to score, good reviewing content, provides formative feedback and provides fast feedback.

T4- “I used to evaluate my students through quizzes, and quarterly exams”
T7- “Written exam such as quizzes, summative test and quarterly examination”
Essay
Essays require students to decide upon and integrate substances on a given matter. In addition they scan writing talents and the ability to develop argument and use proof to aid it. Essay may differ from single page (about 300 typed words) to major assignments of ten pages (3000 words). Essay is also written beneath time exam conditions or set as study assignments.

Oral Evaluation
Valery, Adam, Rachael( 2013), define recitation as a, teacher-centered method in which the teacher asked a questions with definite answer . Fallacious solutions are mainly corrected by the teacher or by using category. A teacher may use probing questions with the intention to support category come to the correct answer. The repetition of inquiries and response aids considerate retention. It is excellent used for memorization of information. Recitation is extensively used to examine students’ comprehension of lecture.

Output/Performance Task
James, McInnis, ; Delvin (2010), defined performance test as hands on activity, like using microscope correctly or taking a patient history, or the development of products such as establishing a constructing design or software program. Using performance task allow students to take ownership of their learning, replicate real world condition or context, opportunity to illustrate mastery of what they have learned, assess variety of potential and make it possible for the teacher to use distinctive variety of task.

Paulson, L. F., Paulson P. R., ; Meyer C. (2010), said that projects are increased piece of work involving inquiry founded recreation. Challenge could also be small or colossal undertaken with the aid of individuals or group and have outcome equivalent to report, designs or working product.

Problems Encountered in Evaluating Students
James, R., McInnis, C. ; Devlin, M. (2012), good evaluation aim to provide a balanced, reasonable evaluation of each and every student. They acquire into two ways. First they use a style of strategies and task. This provide students a couple opportunities in varying context to illustrate what they recognize and might do. It additionally enables teacher to be confident in the accuracy of judgement about each student. Second task must be match for intent. Assuming a subject has a quantity of goals (knowledge to learn, skills to acquire) and every task will have to be suitable to the designated purpose its evaluating. Because of this task evaluating base expertise will seem different to at least one evaluating creativity.

Non- compliance on designated task
Non-compliant habits is when a child fails to or complete a project or follow an instruction. There are few explanations that intent non-compliance amongst them are lack of motivation to comply or they have got no longer realized easy methods to complete a task.

T2- “Non- compliance defeats the purpose of evaluation”
T5-“Students will not work without teachers’ supervision”
T9- “Late submission or No submission at all”
According to Barkley (2011), a child behavior expert says students’ has two varied personalities, First,they fall somewhere on a “compliancy scale” ranging from overly compliant and between these extremes are behaviors generally deemed acceptable including active compliance The second set of observations results from an examination of a student’s with learning disability(LD) and AD/HD issues has an impact on compliance. Such issues include poor organization and time management skills, impulsivity, low self-esteem, sensitivity, and ineffective social skills. Oftentimes, these issues camouflage as compliance or noncompliance. Other times, they have a tremendous effect on compliance.
The use of language
Students now are having difficulty in expressing themselves in English causing them not to recite because of the fear of being humiliated or bullied by the classmates, this hinder the students to express and participate in the class.

Matu, ; Major, R (2010) , has established that reasons related with the training and learning of English as a second language (in the Tongan secondary schools) are not only based instatly to the mechanics of English as a language (linguistic factors), but also to the learners involved and the learning environment where learning takes place.
T3 – “Students become resistant to voice out their answer.”
T4- “Learners become unresponsive because they cannot express themselves in English.”
T7-“Hesitant to answer because in difficulty in language.”
T8- “Cannot communicate in English language.”
Plagiarisms issue
Students immediately copy answers from internet or their classmates answers, is only one part of the general predicament of dishonest. Anecdotal proof as well as number of experience means that student dishonest is much more trendy than probably recognized.
T3- Copying answers by direct copying from the internet
T7- Learners tend to copy the answers of their classmates.

T8- Students tend to copy each other’s work
Problems Encountered on the accuracy of judgement in the evaluation
The accuracy of judging the evaluation will basically attribute to the rubrics prepared by the teachers, this will enable the teachers to evaluate objectively the projects or out-puts made by the students whether it is individual or by group.

Any kind of evaluation is a very important and valuable tool of teaching and learning because it provides useful feedback for teachers and students the accuracy of evaluation judgement differs depending on the out-put of the students.

T7- “The rubric helps me in giving fair judgement because of different quality of outputs”
T8- “The Learners differ in terms of the results especially in the written works”
Students’ Performance in the Method
Students have different learning styles, methods require to be differentiated, the knowledge gained and the positive attitudes of the students. Olina ; Sullivan (2012), findings on the use of teacher evaluation and student self-evaluation to improve student learning.Appropriateness
Race (2002) says evaluation is a very important and valuable tool of teaching and learning because it provides useful feedback for teachers it is also a useful tool for learners.
Evaluation becomes appropriate when the evaluation methods that the teachers used is anchored on the learning competencies, follow the performance standards set by the school, and attainable and can be completed on a specified time by the students.

T4-“Students work collaboratively.”
T5- “Students work collaboratively and happy.”
T7- “The immediate feedback can be done in a face to face evaluation.”
Effectiveness
Evaluation is the center of strong education systems and evaluative thinking is a core competency of effective educational leadership. Teachers, school leaders and people in policy roles specially the teachers should apply the principles of evaluation to their daily tasks.
Cameron, L. (2017), all evaluations are has a specific intentioned and many of them are highly effective. However, there are usually more ways than one to achieve good educational outcomes for students.

T3-“Face to face is more effective because you get feedback immediately.”
T6- “Face to face is more effective because the teacher can elicit the answer right away.”
Quality
The quality of evaluation used by the teachers in evaluating students’ performance will depend on how it is used and how it is anchored on the competencies, performance standards and the final out-put or result on the evaluation. Results may vary from one student to other, and the students gain knowledge while they are being evaluated by the teachers, but the teacher must remember to use a uniform way of evaluating students’ performance through rubric
T4-“The knowledge gain and the positive reaction of the students.”T5- “The knowledge gained and the positive attitudes of the students.”
CONCLUSIONS:
1. Evaluation practices are important tools of teaching and learning because it can provide useful feedback both for teachers and the quality of education. Moreover, it can reveal its impact on student’s learning and teacher’s practices.

2. Experiences of teachers encountered in evaluating students aim to provide a balanced, and fair evaluation of each student.
3. Students have different learning styles, methods require to be differentiated, the knowledge gained and the positive attitudes of the students.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
1. Teachers can explore more on the different types of evaluation practices.

2. To further validate the results a focus group discussion should be integrated as part of methods.

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APPENDIX A
INTERVIEW GUIDE
Name (Optional) _______________________________________________ School ___________________
Gender_______________________________________________________Years in Service_____________
Questions
1. How do you evaluate students’ performance in Science?
(Cite specific situations and/or examples)
2. What problems do you encounter in evaluating students’ performance in Science?
A. Face-to-face interaction
B. Flexible Learning Activities
3. How do these problems affect your evaluation in students’ performance?
A. Accuracy of judgement
4. How would you describe the students’ performance in this method in terms of;A. Appropriateness
B. Effectiveness
C. Quality
APPENDIX B
Classroom Observation Form
Instructor: ________________________________________ Date_______________________ Observer: __________________________________Time _______________________________ 
Use criteria that apply to format of course observed.
Review Section Always Sometimes Somehow Observed Not Observed Description/
Comments
Identifying problems encountered in evaluating students’ performance in science
A. Face-to-face
B. Flexible Learning Activities Impact to evaluation
A. Accuracy of judgement   Method of Evaluation
A. Appropriateness
B. Effectiveness
C. Quality   4. Effective Evaluation
A. Improving information flow and
knowledge among students’
B. Encouraging students’ to engage in
higher-level thinking
C. Enabling the application of knowledge
to practice
Overall impression on evaluation practices and effectiveness:
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5547995-6667500330202667000PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The National Center for Teacher Education
College of Graduate Studies and Teacher Education Research
Science Education Specialization _________________________________________________________________________
July 31, 2018
Anita M. Rom
Principal IV
Bacoor National High School-Main
Dear Ms/Mrs. Anita M. Rom
Greetings!
I Robert P. Baguio from the College of Graduate Studies of Philippine Normal University write this letter to officially request your approval to allow me to conduct a class observation in your school Bacoor National High School.

The purpose of the interview and class observations is to gather information for my study entitled “Teachers’ Best Practices in Evaluating Students’ Performance in Science”. The class observations and interview is expected to be finished after a week from your approval date.

Attached is the interview guide to be used in the interview process and consent form to be accomplished by the participants.

I am hoping for your immediate response and approval. Rest assured that all the information to be collected in the interview will be treated with strict confidentiality.

Thank you and best regards.

Yours truly,
Robert P. BagguioMASED-Chemistry
Noted By:
Mr, Ruel A. Avilla
Professor