Solar Irradiation Availability and Basic Solar PV Module Output Test FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL

Solar Irradiation Availability and Basic Solar PV Module Output Test
FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
BEE4163 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY
MUHAMAD AZRIN BIN ADNAN
EC13008
[email protected]

Abstract – A photovoltaic system known as solar PV power system or PV system, is a system designed to supply solar power by means photovoltaic. Solar panels categorized in two; grid connected and standalone system. PV systems range from small, rooftop-mounted or building-integrated systems with capacities from a few to several tens of kilowatts. Stand-alone systems are only account for a small portion of the market.

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I. INTRODUCTION

This laboratory it was conducted for two experiment, experiment 1 and experiment 2. Experiment 1 was about to investigate the solar irradiation availability by months in UMP Pekan location. Monthly average peak sun hour (PSH) available at the site was given. Peak sun hour (PSH) for UMP Pekan was presented in Table 1. By done the experiment, the objective was to learn on how to use the Solar Pathfinder and how to plot the solar access at a particular site in the located area. Solar pathfinder was used for shading analysis due to any obstacles such as trees, buildings or other objects that could make shadows in the plastic dome at pathfinder where it was reflected showing shading patterns of the site. Figure 1 shows the complete solar pathfinder.

By the other side, for experiment 2 was about to investigate on the basic solar PV module output test. During experiment, the objective were to learn on how to measure a PV module’s short circuit and open circuit voltage from inclination and orientation angles. Furthermore, to observe the effect of partial shading on a PV module’s output. In this laboratory Monocrystalline PV solar were used.

Figure 1 Solar Pathfinder Compartment

II. METHODOLOGY

Experiment 1: Solar Irradiation Availability.

A wax pencil can be used to trace around the reflected shadows on the sun path diagram, providing a permanent record of each reading. A compass and a bubble level are built into each Pathfinder, making it easy to keep the instrument level and facing in the right direction. The rubber tipped legs on the tripod telescope out, allowing a person to use the Pathfinder on sloping roofs and other rough sites. The new peak solar hour is then calculated.

Experiment 2: Basic Solar PV Module Output Test
i. Part A
The time start, the longitude and latitude for the experiment was recorded. A compass and a bubble level are built into each Pathfinder making it easy to keep the instrument level and facing in the right direction of true south. Solar irradiances and temperatures of the ambient of PV module were measured and recorded.

ii. Part B
One of the PV modules has been selected and assembled. While the component for short circuit current test, open circuit voltage test by using ammeter and also voltmeter. Place the PV module fully indirect solar radiation. The four directions of North, South, East and West using the magnetic compass or application through smartphones was identified. Then the module was placed horizontally with the active portion facing the sky. In the meantime, some reading for current and voltage obtained from multi meter. Therefore the readings were tabulated. Next, the module was tilt by approximately 15 degree from the horizontal position to facing the active surface faces north. The corresponding records were obtained at this position. The preceding steps in tilt angle increments of about 15 degree until the module was vertical and recorded each corresponding ammeter and voltmeter readings. After that, different orientation of the module from facing North to East with increments of approximately 15 degree. The step was repeated with the module face rotating towards the South then towards West and finally towards North again with increments of about 15 degree.

iii. Part C
Firstly, the PV module was horizontally placed with the active surface facing the sky. All cables and meters intact. One by one of the cell of the PV module were completely covered counting 1, 2, 3 , 4 and all cells covered. The reading of voltage and current has been recorded. Lastly, the solar irradiances and temperatures of the ambient were measured and recorded at the end of the experiment.

iv. Part D
The PV module was set up facing directly to the sun. Then the I-V curve tracer has been used and connected with PV cable provided.

Months Solar Irradiance (W/m-2) Monthly PSH (h)
January 758.9677 124.8
February 800.4643 125
March 778.1935 134.68
April 919.3333 142.8
May 858.6452 147
June 834.5217 150.8
July 862.5 149.8
August 843.1613 145.6
September 927.9 152.6
October 898.6774 149.8
November 811.2308 123.75
December 747.129 117.5
Table 1: Average Solar Irradiance and PSH Data of UMP Pekan

III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Experiment 1: Solar Irradiation Availability.

A wax pencil used to shade around the reflected shadows on the sun path diagram. Providing a permanent record of each reading.

Figure 2: Sun path Diagram

For monthly sun path diagram interpretation contain 12 horizontal arcs, one for each month. As well as vertical lines or rays for solar time. The sun path diagrams show solar time. Figure 2 shows the shaded region in solar sun path diagram annually.

To find the site percent, add the numbers in the unshaded part of the sun path. The site tracing shown in Table 2 has 78% solar available for NOVEMBER. This shows that only 78% of the potential available radiation is reaching this particular location during January. 22% of the potential available radiation is blocked out during the day.

Amount of monthly average PSH available in November
= 123.75 x (100%-3%)
= 123.75 x 97%
= 120.04h

Months Old value PSH(h) Percentage from solar pathfinder (%) New
value PSH(h)
Jan 124.80 59 73.70
Feb 125.00 70 87.50
Mar 134.68 89 119.87
Apr 142.80 93 132.80
May 147.00 100 147.00
June 150.80 100 150.80
July 149.80 100 149.80
Aug 145.60 98 142.69
Sep 152.60 93 141.92
Oct 149.80 88 131.83
Nov 123.75 97 120.04
Dec 117.50 59 69.33
Table 2: New value for PSH

Experiment 2: Basic Solar PV Module Output Test
Part A
Time of day: 1500
Latitude: 3°32°N
Longitude: 103°75°E
Solar Irradiance of this experiment: 967W/m2
Temperature at beginning:-
i. Ambient: 36°C
ii. PV module: 44°C
Temperature at end:-
i. Ambient: 34°C
ii. PV module: 50.7°C
iii.
Tilt angle Open circuit voltage Short circuit current
0o 19.26V 3.3A
30o 19.18V 1.4A
90o 18.52V 1.3A
iv.
v. Tilt angle that gives maximum short circuit current: 0° (horizontal)
vi. Tilt angle that gives maximum short circuit current: 30° (West)
Tilt angle Open circuit voltage Short circuit current
30o(North) 19.24V 1.64A
90o(North) 18.12V 0.60A
30o(East) 18.69V 0.76A
90o(East) 17.48V 0.54A
30o(West) 20.06V 2.69A
90o(West) 19.54V 1.65A
30o(South) 19.69V 1.90A
90o(South) 19.16V 1.15A

Part B
Tilt Angle
? Open Circuit Voltage (V) Short Circuit Current (A)
0° (horizontal) 18.52 4.93
30° 18.46 2.64
60° 18.03 2.56
90° (vertical) 16.69 2.37

In part B, the highest reading for both open circuit test and short circuit test are when the tilt at angle 30o from the ground. This may result because of the angle is the approximately direct towards the solar radiation of the sun. Conclude that direct radiation of solar panel will give high power consumption as power are regarding to current and voltage values.

Tilt Angle
? Open Circuit Voltage (V) Short Circuit Current (A)
0° (horizontal) 18.52 4.93
30°(East) 18.66 2,64
60°(East) 17.03 2.40
90° (East) 17.15 2.42
30° (West) 19.29 2.75
60°(West) 19.05 2.7
90° (West) 18.44 2.62
30(South) 19.56 2.77
60°(South) 19.03 2.70
90° (South) 17.56 2.50
30(North) 18.46 2.64
60°(North) 18.03 2.56
90° (South) 16.69 2.37

Table above state that, solar PV panels were supposed to facing the sun directly in order to get maximum power consumption. If noticed, reading for both open circuit test and short circuit test were differing at tilt angle between east and south. This is due to south were facing direct radiation.
One cell covered
Voltage 19.3V
Current 1.45A
Irradiance 724.2W/m2
Ambient 37.9oC
Cell temperature 67.96oC

Part C
Number of cell covered Open Circuit Voltage (V) Short Circuit Current (A)
1 19.26 4.95
2 19.00 4.96
3 18.57 4.97
4 18.28 4.96
All 08.00 0.03

In part C, the conclusion that can be made are when the more number of cell covered the lower the reading can be get. In addition, by covering the cells in arrangement of series and parallel will vary the reading of the test.
Part D

From I-V Tracer the readings are as follows,
i. Open circuit voltage = 18.52 V
ii. Short circuit current = 4.96A,
iii. Power max = 61.14 W,
iv. Current at Pmax = 4.30 A

IV. CONCLUSION

Photovoltaic panels are affected by partial shade more than other types of collectors. Shade over a portion of the panel can greatly limit power output. Partial shade from towers, trees and other objects would be considered. Several locations should be evaluated to find the one with the greatest collection potential of power consumption.

REFERRENCE
1 http://www.solarpathfinder.com/PF
2 http://www.solardirect.com/pv/pvlist/pvlist.htm
3 BEE 4613 Alternative Energy/Slidenotes

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