Since decades

Since decades, the activities of the human beings influence the environment in which they live. For example, with agriculture, the deforestation, or the irrigation, the human beings always apply more or less important pressure on nature. But the difference today is that they do it in all full knowledge of the facts and on a larger scale. In fact, with the apogee of the industrial era, as well as the increase in the world population, this pressure became so important that could lead to rapid modification of our environment never yet reached and could have consequences without common measurement with all that we already knew in the past( AJOUTE DES STATISTIQUE). Global warming is a serious issue that has not a definitive solution and will inevitably destroy the planet.

Today, our carbonic gas rejections influence our environment considerably and modify certain natural balances. The evolution of these rejections will depend on factors technological, political, economic and demographic. First of all, human beings consume each second more than 155 ‘ 000 liters of oil, approximately 90 ‘ 000 m3 of gas and more than 200’ 000 kg of coal (OPEC secretariat,2008). This fossil energy consumption involved, an increase in the atmospheric CO2 rate of 280 ppm around 1850 to 388 ppm in 2010. Moreover, the average increase measured between 1995 and 2005 was of 1.9 ppm per year, it is considerable compared to 0.0002 ppm of increase annual average recorded during 650’000 last years (Salomon,2007). The natural dissolution of gases, present in the atmosphere (including CO2), in the oceans is favored at low temperature. Thus, the frigid zones of the oceans absorb more CO2 than the hot zones. There is also the distribution in the depths of CO2 absorptive on the surface, thanks to the currents. Indeed, circulation thermohaline contributes to hide CO2 in deep waters: when the cool waters and dense plunge towards the ocean floor, they “carry” with them the dissolved CO2 molecules on the surface and thus contribute to the vertical distribution of CO2 in the oceans. Nonetheless with climate warming, the oceans are also heated, making more difficult the dissolution of CO2 in the seas. Consequently, less CO2 is absorbed by the ocean, making greenhouse gas stagnate in the atmosphere, which will accentuate of as much the warming of planet.

The economy is based exclusively on fossil fuels a nonrenewable energy that the only process of extraction has a dangerous and harmful impact on the planet. According to Chang (2010) there is a coloration between the Chinese economy growth, consumption rate of energy and Carbone dioxide emissions. In fact, the Carbone dioxide emissions has tripled between 1980 and 2006 from 1405 million metric tons to 5607MMT, this period coincides with the spectacleous growth in gross dimictic product per annum. To satisfy their needs in energy, men arouse more and more devastating methods such as decapitation of mountains, oil sands and offshore drilling. Nevertheless, according to Eckelman (2018), the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change, global warming “is affecting the health of populations around the world, today ». In developed countries, the majority of environmental deaths are related to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory illnesses and cancer. Those troubles are directly linked to the rise of temperature and air pollution. Indeed, climate change is responsible of 141,000 deaths in the world every year due to the air pollution and they estimate that between 2030 and 2050 this number will increase and rathe 250,000 (Eckelman, 2018). P14 p87

Some politicians, such Donald Trump for example, claim that global warming has not basis and he is in process of withdrawing the USA from Paris International Climate Agreement. However, some facts cannot be contrivable indeed the reduction of the surface of the glaciers, the cast iron of the icecap, the retreat of the ice-barrier and the disappearance of the icebergs are the most visible consequence of climate warming.

The increase in CO2, involves important climatic disturbances which are reflected on the level of the oceans, in particular in the high latitudes. Indeed, the greenhouse effect involves an increase in the temperature which increases the cycle of water. This results at the same time in a stronger evaporation in the hot areas (equator and tropics) and of more important precipitations to the high latitudes, decreasing in these areas the salinity of oceanic water. The warming also involves the cast iron of the ices of the caps to the high latitudes. These two combined phenomena lead to an increase in the fresh water arrivals in oceanic surface water. Salinity is one of the factors which determines the diving of water towards the depths. Its reduction could thus lead to a deceleration of the current and more generally of circulation thermohaline. The evolution of this salinity is however very complex and remains an important field of studies.
The cast iron of the Arctic ice-barrier offers new prospects. Until now covered Arctic water of ice hardly interested. But with the cast iron of the ice-barrier, they will become accessible… and will thus become new objects of desire. The cast iron of the ice-barrier will thus allow the opening of commercial sea routes which will shorten the distances between Europe and Asia or on the east side of the United States and Asia with, for corollary, of the savings of fuel and wages of the crews. This phenomenon of reduction of the Arctic ice-barrier lets also foresee the possibility of exploiting a new area of the world rich in watery alive resources like in energy resources and raw materials.
the rise of the level of the oceans, of many big cities built under the sea level could be invaded by water. It is in particular the case of Miami, New York, Tokyo, Singapore, Amsterdam or Rotterdam
Droughts, typhoons, floods, cyclones… The climate changes are at the origin of the increase in the frequency and the intensity of the extreme weather phenomena. Natural disasters which should continue to multiply in the decades with future, causing the migration of the populations

The COP21 falls under a long process of international negotiations on the climate: 1992: Summit of the ground. The States recognize the existence of a climate change of human origin and begin to fight within the framework of a convention internationale.1997: Protocol of Kyoto. By this universal protocol, the industrialized countries are committed reducing their gas emissions for greenhouse effect (GES) of 5%.2009: Conference of Copenhagen. The countries are committed limiting climate warming to 2°C, but without setting constraining objectives for there parvenir.2014: Conference of Lima (COP20): prepare the negotiations of 2015 which must be concluded by an agreement in Paris. In 2011, the States began to find in 2015, a new international agreement to contain the global warming below 2°C: it is the object of the COP21. The negotiations of Paris worked out the bases of a new agreement which must be: universal: i.e. applicable to all the pays juridiquement constraining one: applicable from 2020différencié: defining different objectives for the developed countries and the countries into development. ambitious: allowing to really limit the climate changes (United Nations Climate Change, 2015). Nevertheless, with all of those initiatives there is no real political desire to resolve or even to limit this issue.

To sum up, global warming has impact on our recourses such as water, agriculture, ecosystems and territories through the rise of the level of the sea, the melting of ice, the rise of the temperature in part of the globe causing severe drought or in others causing inundations such as in Florida in 2017 with Irma cyclone. Moreover, the decrease of the Albedo increases the level of CO2 therefore more cities are polluted and more the diseases appears