Philosophers always have a different perspective about the different role of religion in the life of a citizen and its association between government and the religion. When we talk about Saint Augustine and Saint Aquinas they are both considered as theologians rather than philosophers. But the way they have worked have significant influence over the politician and the church leaders. Aquinas was influenced by the Aristotle Philosophy of determining who might be the good person and Aquinas explained why one should be considered as a good person. Aquinas blends Aristotle political philosophy with theology by given this idea that God provide law and implement justice. Aquinas suggested that both belief and rational arguments should not be contradictory but they should complement each other. He further argued about political authorities being generated by God. He made no such contributions outside the church. But for Augustin, he was not immersing in the church. His view about the religion and government was related to each other. He believed that there should be no misinterpretation about the bible regarding the human science and that the religion and government are not separated from each other as the nation is immersed badly in sins. Further, it will be elaborated the similarities and differences between the role of the religion in the government.
Both the philosophers developed an association between religion and Christianity having similar thinking about theological concepts but they differ in their thoughts regarding religion in government. Augustin had a concept of dual citizenship regarding heaven and earth. Whereas, Aquinas believed in Aristotle philosophy and considered him as a philosopher.Much of his work is based upon the philosophy and characterized on the philosophical. He also believed that to have knowledge of truth man needs help and that is not possible without God’s help but along with this human has this capacity to know many things without the help of God. This is the capability given to human by God.
Over centuries many government has emerged either to rule or to guide and make leaders. Augustin in his book, City Of God also revealed that reason for tyranny is injustice. St Thomas explained the danger of tyranny. He further elaborates that if Government pays attentions to their own need and not to the need of the people then the tyranny of unjust emerge.in this case the people should throw the government and start electing new one.
Augustine stated that government is a necessary evil but it’s not important that tyranny is evil , meaning that at time tyranny is resorted to in order to maintain government .Tyranny is important because if a government is benign then criminals will have a free hand to perpetrate crimes and disorder will prevail. Therefore, tyranny is important to subjugate such forces coercively to restore law and order.
Aquinas believed that people only do what is in their interest so there should be a governing body who can guide those people toward “common good”. He did not agree with St Augustine that the main purpose of government is to prevent crime. He believed that the government should help and do well for the betterment of the people.
Aquinas addressed those rice rulers who make law and violate natural laws, and then they become tyrant. He further address to the people that they should rebel if the rulers become tyrant and stop working for the wellbeing of the nation.Augutine argued that people should obey their rulers until the rulers disobeyed God’s laws. He also alarmed them that in that case the rulers forcefully will punish them but they should believe in the life after death and the reward that will be given by God.