Path-Goal Model

Path-Goal Model (by Robert House in the 1970s) submits that a leader is able to influence the inspiration and functionality of a team by providing incentives for the achievement of performance objectives; clarifying paths towards these goals, and also taking away performance obstacles. Four leadership behaviours were identified by the model; directive, supportive, achievement-oriented and participative, and assumed that the leaders might be versatile to employ any of these behaviours giving the circumstances. Hersey-Blanchard Situation Model infers that leadership style must be coordinated on the maturity of the subordinates from very immature to very mature. While coping with new employees to a company, a leader will have to follow a telling style and let them know what and how to do what is expected from them. For people at higher levels, the leader will have to employ a delegating style while interfacing with them.
The dynamics of today environment require leaders that can understand the situations, requirements of the followers as well as the specific goals that need to be achieved, and adjust their leadership styles appropriately to achieve their stated objectives. Nevertheless, these theories are not with no criticism; according to Gill (2011), they do not reckon with the position of the leader or even the ways styles change. Maybe most notably, they do not explain exactly how leaders are able to change their style or behaviour depending on the circumstances or features of their team.
Transactional Theories of Leadership

Transactional theories also referred to as managerial theories, which are centred on the role of supervision, group performance and organization, and supervision. Leaders who adopt this particular leadership style focus on specific activities and make use of punishments and rewards to inspire followers (Cherry, K. 2017). The theory bases the behavioural approach to leadership on a method of rewards and punishments. Transactional leadership is often used in business whereby workers are rewarded when they are successful and are reprimanded or punished if they fail. Athletic teams depend very much on transactional leadership. Players are likely to comply with the team’s expectations and rules and are punished or rewarded based on their performance. Winning a game may mean bonuses and accolades while losing might result in rejection along with verbal scolding. Players often become extremely encouraged to do very well, even in case it means suffering injury and pain.
Transactional leadership is often employed in business and transactional leaders are task and result-oriented. This particular leader type is responsible for keeping routine by managing personel performance and facilitating team performance. The leader sets the criteria for their personnel based on requirements that have been defined previously. Performance evaluations would be the most typical way to determine employee performance. Transactional leaders get along well with personnel who understand their roles and are driven by the reward-penalty system. Transactional leadership facilitates the maintenance of an organization’s status quo.

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The transactional model is most likely to be successful in a crisis or perhaps in tasks that need specific and linear procedures. This particular model seems more suitable for large companies, like Hewlett Packard, a company known because of its substantial use of management by exception. Many high-level members of the army, CEOs of big international businesses, and NFL coaches are identified to be transactional leaders. Transactional leadership also performs very well in first responder organizations and policing agencies. A few examples of leaders with transactional leadership styles are given below:
Vince Lombardi: He is most widely known as the coach for the Green Bay Packers, which he signed a five-year contract with, in 1959. The team never recorded a losing session under his leadership. During this period, he guided the team to an impressive record of 98-30-4 with five championships. He would once run the Packers through exactly the same plays in practice repeatedly. The Super Bowl trophy is named after him. The team’s challengers knew the plays Lombardi will operate, but the team was well skilled that many other teams had difficulty defending against them.

Bill Gates: He met Paul Allen at the Lakeside School in his early teens where they both designed computer applications as a pastime. By the time Gates progressed his studies to Harvard, Allen joined Honeywell in Boston as a programmer. They launched Microsoft in 1975 and by 1978 when Gates was just 23; the company had grossed $2.5 million. Microsoft released Windows to the market in 1985. As at today, Bill Gates is among the richest individuals on the planet. As a transactional leader, he had the habit of visiting the new product teams and challenged them with difficult questions until he was satisfied that the teams were on course and fully aware of the goal.

Benefits of transactional leadership
There is certainly a room for transactional leadership within the contemporary settings. It is mostly used in multinational companies where not all the employees speak the same language. Once the requirements and the structure are learned, it is simple for workers to accomplish tasks effectively. This works, since transactional leadership is very simple to learn and does not require extensive training. The transactional method is very easy to understand and use across many organizations.
The policing organizations, first responders and military make use of this leadership style to ensure consistency across all aspects of the organization. It is also simpler to use in a crisis, in which people should know precisely what is required of them and how tasks should be performed under serious pressure.

Transformational Theories of Leadership
Bass and Riggio (2006), defines transformational leadership as one, which motivates and stimulates followers to attain extraordinary outcomes while encouraging them simultaneously to develop their leadership abilities. Furthermore, Bass and Riggio clarified that transformational leadership can either be participative (people-oriented) or directive (task-oriented). Transformational leadership is a style of leadership that can stimulate positive changes in followers. Transformational leaders are energetic, passionate and they also focus on supporting and helping each member of their teams to succeed as well.
Transformational leadership stems from the notion that people will follow a leader who inspires them. In this particular leadership style, the leader inspires by creating a fascinating vision, selling the vision to the followers, along with concentrating on building relationships with followers. Groups led by these particular leaders tend to be both loyal and successful. They offer a lot to their teams and care about the teams’ capacity to achieve stated objectives. Employees’ turnover is often very low as transformational leaders are in a position to stimulate a good deal of dedication in their followers (Cherry K, 2018).
According to Kolzow, D. R., 2014, this particular leadership style typically focuses on the big picture and needs of individuals. Below are the four major constituents the transformational leader aims to attain:
• Idealized Influence: The behaviour of a transformational leader turns into a role model for workers through exemplary behaviour, which builds pride and trust amongst followers. Since followers trust and respect the leader, they attempt to copy this particular person and embrace his or her principles.
• Inspirational Motivation: A transformational leader typically has a feeling of team spirit, optimism and passion. Such leader motivates employees to commit themselves to the vision of their organization. Leaders may not be able to motivate followers absolutely but they can be a source of inspiration for achievement.
• Intellectual Stimulation: A transformational leader must challenge old notions, cast existing issues in a brand new light, promote innovation and creativity, and seek out more efficient methods for decision-making. A leader solicits for ideas and nurtures individuals who think freely and value continuous learning.
• Individualized Consideration: The transformational leader commits to the requirements of the followers and strives to develop them by assisting, coaching and as well as mentoring them to attain their full potentials. The leader maintains an open communication and keeps on challenging the followers. This includes the need for respect and celebrates the contribution of each follower to the team. ?
MANAGEMENT THEORIES
INTRODUCTION
Classical approach to management
The classical method of management (1900 1930) was an outcome of the very first focused effort to come up with a comprehensive thought on management. Those who participated in this exercise are regarded as the innovators of management study. The classical approach is based on the principle that managers constantly make an effort to improve organizational efficiency in order to raise the level of production (Certo S C ;; Certo S T, 2006). The classical approach of management can be split into three main areas, which are:
• scientific management
• administrative management
• Bureaucratic management
Scientific management theory
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 1915) is regarded as the father of scientific management (Sridhar, M S. 2018). Scientific management was the name given on the principles and practices that grew from the work of Frederick Taylor and his followers. The theory is characterized by concern for efficiency in management. The four main areas that are developed by Taylor are as follows:
• There should be a division of labour between employees and managers. Managers should focus on the supervisory role and designing instructions as well as the role expectations while the employees should carry out their responsibilities themselves.
• Each person’s role should be split into components and the scientific method to perform the components should be developed.
• Employees should be scientifically selected and trained to do the job.
• There should be a collaboration between employee and managers so that responsibilities are carried out in the designed manner.
This approach uses measurements and data to make organizations much more effective. By evaluating processes in numerical terms, managers are more able to deploy information that can help them run their businesses more profitably and effectively. The procedure for collecting data resulted in standardization and a management approach, which is also based on reward and punishment. This approach is suitable for mechanized operations, though it did do justice to the human element, personnel’s role in creativity, and the significance of maintaining employees’ satisfaction to achieve the organization’s goals (Gartenstein, D., 2018).
One of the drawbacks of this theory is that many of the subtasks are menial and could cause employees to feel like a component of an assembly line, rather than resourceful parts of their team. Nonetheless, productivity remains an invaluable outcome of this theory and could be a great addition to contemporary businesses. Four principles of Frederick Taylor’s management theory are as follows, Caramela, S., (2018).
Administrative management
Henry Fayol (184 1-1925), a French industrialist, is regarded as the chief architect as well as the father of the administrative management theory. While pioneers of the scientific management attempted to figure out the best approach to accomplish a task, those within the administrative management explored the potentials of a perfect means to accomplish tasks and run an organization. Hence, the focus of administrative management theory is on discovering the ultimate way to manage an organization.
The contemporary business community recognizes Fayol’s classical management concept as an important guide to managing employees productively. Henri Fayol’s theory comprises fourteen principles of management. Based on these principles, Fayol came to the conclusion that management should relate with employees in five ways to manage and plan production. The five ways are as follows:
• Planning: Based on Fayol’s theory, management should schedule every aspect of an organization’s processes.
• Organizing: Henri Fayol claimed that apart from planning processes, they should also bring together all necessary resources, raw materials, personnel, etc. at the needed time.
• Commanding: The theory also states that management should motivate and direct the activities of personnel.
• Coordinating: Management must ensure that personnel works together in a cooperative manner.
• Controlling: Management must evaluate and ensure that personnel follow established instructions.

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