Nurture as a Cause of DepressionStudents Name
Nurture as a Cause of DepressionOver the years, scientists have dedicated both their time and money in trying to find out whether nurture plays an important role in causing mental depression. However, the World Health Organization has characterized depression as one of the most elusive yet serious health problems that face the public. Despite its serious, only scants of insights have been discovered to solve this problem into whether it is nature or nurture that causes depression. This paper provides a review of the evidence of the contributions made by the environment to the susceptibility of the disease as well the current state of molecular approaches.
Nurture has been said by the public to be one of the primary contributors to depression. Depression can be divided into two, unipolar depression which characterized by having a low mood that is said to last for about two weeks. Such people, however, fail to see a positive thing. Bipolar depression is the second type of depression; this is characterized by having a mood swing that occurs suddenly. This type of depression is, however, difficult to diagnose as
Studies have proven that nurture is the primary contributor to depression. This is evident in that even though transmitters that communicate a person’s mood is considered a nature factor, it is the environment that controls how the brain works and in turn the neurotransmitter dopamine. The decrease of dopamine transporter significantly affects the activity of the brain and can, however cause depression. Subsequently, interventions to increase dopamine are, however, vital as it increases the activity of the brain, as a result, decrease chances of depression.
Environmental trauma is another cause of depression and creates a genetic imbalance to create behaviors that are aggressive. There exists a higher likelihood for a person living with depression to be more susceptible to being in the same condition. An example is that if a child is brought up by depressed parents, the child is also likely to be depressed because of mimicking the behavior of the person close to them; another example is that a spouse who is depressed is also likely to affect their spouse’s in turn. However, they are likely to develop the unipolar mood disorder as results of their relationships and it can be characterized as lacking affection and anxiety.
Age is another factor, a new study revealed that the younger the child the more susceptible they are to depression. This is because; the environment plays a significant role in influencing their behaviors either by promoting anxiety or through their conduct. In addition, the environment has a similar effect on adolescents, it is because, and it plays a certain role in the development of their behaviors in adulthood. According to the study, the environmental factors had a bigger contribution than genetics to the behavior of the children as well as to their psychological outcomes
Another study done on children revealed that those who were brought up in an environment of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment have a higher risk of having depression. They are aggressive than other children and tend to develop behaviors that are conduct disordered. Such children also have emotional problems (English, D. 1998). Another cause is martial distress whereby women can be stressed because of having a child. In addition, distressed parents are also likely to affect their children bring up children is also a wanting task and requires patience. It can, however, become a primary life event and a mood disorder can develop.
Another study whereby PET, Position, emission tomography was used revealed that even though there exist several abnormalities in the glucose metabolism and in the region of cerebral flow, in the prefrontal cortex and limbic structures, they are not likely to cause depression. Such disorders, however, do not even normalize even after being subjected to antidepressant treatment (Dodge, K. 2009). This is primarily because their treatment lies in the outside that is environment but not in nature.
Depression is also known to run in families. This is so much so that people who have been said to have depressive disorder have been said to be at a higher risk to get depression than those without. Also, their first-degree relative is likely to suffer from the illness. In another study conducted among twins, it was realized genetics does not play many roles in causing depression. Only about 40% of the cases are caused by genes whereas the remaining 60% is caused by the environment.
In conclusion, such progress in understanding the role played by nurture in causing depression is important as there are a lot of dangers associated with elevated depression causes. It is predicted that by the year 2020, depression may become the primary cause of disability among the population.
Burt, S. A. (2009). Rethinking environmental contributions to child and adolescent psychopathology: A meta-analysis of shared environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135(4), 608-637. doi:10.1037/a0015702
Clark, A. (2003). Nature or Nurture? Or Neither? Off Our Backs, 33(7/8), 25-29. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/stable/20837872
Dodge, K. (2009). Mechanisms of Gene-Environment Interaction Effects in the Development of Conduct Disorder. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(4), 408-414. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/stable/40645709
English, D. (1998). The Extent and Consequences of Child Maltreatment. The Future of Children, 8(1), 39-53. doi:1. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/stable/1602627 doi:1