NEAR EAST UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ARCHITECHER URBAN HEAT ISLAND Student preparation

NEAR EAST UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF ARCHITECHER
URBAN HEAT ISLAND
Student preparation:
HAMDI HAMOUD
Supervisor:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nesil BAYT
Content:
-19050131750
Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………….

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Topic of study and research problem……………………………………………………
Area of study…………………………………………………………………………………………..

Reason for choosing the topic………………………………………………………………….

The aim of choosing the topic…………………………………………………………………
Methodology of the study………………………………………………………………………
Case of study………………………………………………………………………………………….

Chapter One: Factors that help to make the urban heat island
Changes made by Human on the surface of the earth within the city …………
Heating radiation processes ……………………………………………………………………….

Additive heat from inside ……………………………………………………………………………
Urban air pollution ……………………………………………………………………………………..

Chapter two: the effect of thermal islands on different elements of the climate
Effect on solar radiation………………………………………………………………………….

Effect on rainfall……………………………………………………………………………………..

Effect on temperature…………………………………………………………………………….

Effect on the wind…………………………………………………………………………………..

Effect on moisture………………………………………………………………………………….

Chapter three: Solutions to Urban Heat Island
Use of light-colored concrete and white roofs ……………………………………………..

Green roofs and vegetation cover ………………………………………………………………..

Green Space …………………………………………………………………………………………………
Reference………………………………………………………………………
Abstract
The development of urbanization and industrialization has improved the comfort level, and the quality of human’s life effectively.

But at the same time, it also caused many global environment problems, such as air pollution, greenhouse effect and urban heat island (UHI).

The environment cannot keep the balance because of lots of industrial activities, anthropogenic heat and building surface effect.

Urban green space is helpful to reduce urban heat islands. This article consider that roof greening is a suitable method to help of urban heat islands.

And the lighting and population could indicate the level of urbanization, also can reflect the effect of urban heat islands
Introduction
Many geographers and weather scientists see the current climate as a way of changing clearly over the next few decades, not only because of natural environmental conditions, but because of multiple human activities and human interventions to change the nature of ecosystems through deforestation, sea and ocean pollution, High-rise buildings and other interventions that have a long-term impact on changing climate patterns at present. The increase in urban activity has had a significant impact on the local climate and may have an impact on neighboring areas,
The degree of influence of the city depends on the climate on a number of factors and variables that eventually become the island of thermal cities as a result of changes and adjustments made by man on the surface of the earth and the establishment of the city on them
Topic of study and research problem
The cities became the changing factor in the case of the local climate, due to the large number of residents of the city and the multiplicity of factories and the number of cars in the streets, and the number of chimneys that culminate in the buildings, the air temperature over the city more for the neighboring areas
And we must answer the following questions:
What are the most important factors that help to make the urban heat island
What is the effect of thermal islands on different elements of the climate
What are the Solutions to Urban Heat Island
Area of study
Kyrenia

Figure 1: kyrenia location (Google map)
The city of kyrenia is located in the northern part of the island of Cyprus. It is a small tourist town. The tourists come to enjoy the great beauty and pleasant times bordered on the north and the west by the Mediterranean Sea. On the south side is the two parts of the United Nations. The city depends mainly on fishing, agriculture and tourism. And trade port movement https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyrenia
Climate:
Kyrenia has a Mediterranean climate with long, dry and hot summers and cool winters with mixed weather of sunny spells and rain.

Figure 2: kyrenia climate (  HYPERLINK “http://kktcmeteor.org/meteorolojikbilgi/kibris-iklimi.aspx” “K?br?s ?klimi – K.K.T.C. Meteoroloji Dairesi Müdürlü?ü”. Kktcmeteor.org. Retrieved 29 March 2017.)
Reason for choosing the topic
Few studies have dealt with the heat urban island in this area
The link between urban climate (urban heat island) with a number of epidemics and diseases that afflict Human directly
The aim of choosing the topic
Research the concept and reasons for the existence of urban heat islands in cities
Explain how to reduce the impact of urban heat islands on the urban climate
Explain the effect of urban heat islands on different climatic elements such as temperature and precipitation Wind and humidity
Methodology of the study
Descriptive method : Use this method to identify the characteristics of the cities in order to find The relationship between them and climate factors
Analytical method: This method was used to identify the factors affecting the island’s thermal existence
Case of study
The study consists of three chapters
The first chapter contains Factors that help to make the urban heat island
Chapter two contains the effect of thermal islands on different elements of the climate
Chapter three contains the Solutions to Urban Heat IslandChapter One: Factors that help to make the urban thermal island
Urban areas are always developed, changes occur in the landscape, to replace other buildings and roads, and other structures that replace open lands, vegetation and surfaces that have permeability and exchange heat with air become dry and impervious to water, thus causing these changes in urban areas To become warmer than the countryside and surrounding areas, to be formed “thermal island
(Environmental Protection Agency ” ( 2008 )

Figure 3 (these photos belong to Ergin Ahmet, who pulled her from Agios Ilarionas and posted them to the group “Cypriot Memories – The Hallouminat)
Changes made by Human on the surface of the earth within the city
Hard surface include road, square, building surface and so on. The temperature is mainly affect by long wave radiation. In summer, after absorbing the solar radiation, these hard surfaces will increased the average radiation temperature of the surrounding space, which in turn may affect the sensation of heat of the body
The typical hard surface material is brick, metal, concrete, cement, brick and glass. (Dexuan Zhu. (2003), Control study of building environment, Nanjing Southeast University Press) So it can be said that Changing land use and reducing vegetation are the most factors that lead to growth and development urban heat island Zhuang, (And Other ) ,(2007) Assessing the effect of land use, land cover change on the change of urban heat island intensity,
International Journal Of Climatology. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 90,
217–226, Printed in The Netherlands.

Figure 4 (kyrenia – hard surface – asphalt, stone) taken by me

Figure 5 (kyrenia – hard surface – asphalt, stone) taken by m
Heating radiation processes
A multi-story building surrounded by tiled areas
These high buildings tend to catch the sun, so that the heat generated by these buildings increases in the spaces that exist between them, and this helps in the cycle of high temperature in the city (Y.X.Xu, Y.D.Li, Y.Shi, Z.B.Yang and Y.Yong (2011), Present Situation and Progress of Solar Heat Reflective
Thermal Insulating Coatings, Paint & Coatings Industry, 2010,40(1): 0253-4312(2010)01-0070-05)
Solar radiation is the major factors of the air temperature changing; include the direct radiation, the scatter radiation and the short wave radiation produced by reflection from surrounding surfaces.

Figure 6 (kyrenia –A multi-story building catch the sun) taken by me

Figure 7 (kyrenia– A multi-story building catch the sun) taken by me
Additive heat from inside
The temperature increases Demand for energy consumption in the city, using the cooling devices that make up
Pressure on the power grid, in addition to the luminance points which increases the heat rise within cities
(Environmental Protection Agency ” ( 2008 )

Figure 7 (kyrenia–cooling device) taken by me

Figure 8 (kyrenia–cooling device) taken by me
Urban air pollution
The most abundant components of urban air pollution in urban areas with high levels of vehicle traffic are airborne particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. In addition, the earth’s temperature is increasing, mainly as a result of anthropogenic factors J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2010;20(2):95-102; quiz following 102.

Different means of transportation that burn huge amounts of fuel
Which contains carbon dioxide, which is characterized by its ability to absorb the rays
The work of the glass house is done and the radiation remains trapped in the atmosphere (Chapter 17 Urban air pollution (Aaron J. Cohen, H. Ross Anderson, Bart Ostro, Kiran Dev Pandey, Michal Krzyzanowski Nino Künzli, Kersten Gutschmidt,C. Arden Pope III, Isabelle Romieu,Jonathan M. Samet and Kirk R. Smith)

Figure 9 (kyrenia) taken by me

Figure 10 (kyrenia) taken by me
Chapter two: the effect of thermal islands on different elements of the climate
Effect on solar radiation
This is due to the high absorption energy in the radians in cities and the most important variables in cities that affect the reflection coefficient are (?????? ? ???? ?? ? )
The color of the materials on which the dwellings are constructed and their type.

The streets and the space I worshiped them.

The height of the buildings and the extent of their proximity and distance from each other
Effect on rainfall
Effect on temperature
Home walls absorb solar radiation easily
The high elevations of the city reduce the temperature of the air above it, especially during the summer
Air temperatures in forested areas near the outskirts of the city fall under the influence of tree shade and evaporation
Effect on the wind
The presence of the thermal island in the city is one of the factors that cause the flow of wind around and above the city
Effect on moisture
Low humidity in cities can be attributed to a number of reasons:
Increasing the non-absorbable areas of moisture
Rainwater drainage is quickly discharged to the outside of the city by drainage channels before evaporation or influence in the soil
Heat added from the city surface
Chapter three: Solutions to Urban Heat Island
Use of light-colored concrete and white roofs
The use of light-colored concrete and white roofs has been found to be effective in reflecting up to 50% more light and in cutting down the ambient temperature. These strategies have been shown to offer great solutions in reducing the urban health island effect. Black and dull colors absorb copious amounts of solar heat resulting in warmer surfaces. The use of light-colored concrete and white roofs can as well reduce the overall air conditioning demands.

(https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/effects-solutions-urban-heat-island.php#abh_about)

Figure 11 (kyrenia) taken by me
Green roofs and vegetation cover
Green roofs present a great method of lessening the impacts of urban heat island. Green roofing is the practice of planting vegetations on a roof, just like they are planted on a garden. Plants on the roof are excellent insulators during summer and decrease the overall urban heat island effect. Plants also cool the surrounding environments thereby reducing air conditioning demands
(https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/effects-solutions-urban-heat-island.php#abh_about)
In just a few years, green roofs have gone from a horticultural curiosity to a booming growth industry — primarily because the environmental benefits of extensively planted roofs are now beyond dispute, whether for industrial or governmental complexes or for private homes in urban or suburban settings. This book contains photographs and cultural information for more than 200 species and cultivars of plants, including valuable data on moisture needs, heat tolerance, hardiness, bloom color, foliage characteristics, and heightGreen roof plants: a resource and planting guide

Figure 12 (kyrenia-hotel) taken by me

Figure 13 (Green Roof Layers and Systems)
Green Space
Green space is the indispensable part of cities. It is also beneficial to control the urban heat islands.

The urban green space system is defined as: the green patches or corridor systems
Consist of different kinds and scales of green space which have strong ecological
Function. The generalized urban green space system contain urban green and blue
Space, which means every artificial, semi-natural or natural vegetation, water, wet
Lands, rivers and lakes are all included.

China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies,
http://www.cnctst.gov.cn/pages/homepage/result2.jsp?id=289454;subid=10001794;subject, 2012-07-12

Figure 14 (kyrenia -street) taken by me
Reference
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyrenia
(Dexuan Zhu. (2003), Control study of building environment, Nanjing Southeast University Press)
island Zhuang, (And Other ) ,(2007) Assessing the effect of land use, land cover change on the change of urban heat island intensity,
International Journal Of Climatology. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 90,
217–226, Printed in The Netherlands.

(Environmental Protection Agency ” ( 2008 )
Y.X.Xu, Y.D.Li, Y.Shi, Z.B.Yang and Y.Yong (2011), Present Situation and Progress of Solar Heat Reflective
Thermal Insulating Coatings, Paint & Coatings Industry, 2010,40(1): 0253- 4312(2010)01-0070-05)
J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2010;20(2):95-102; quiz following 102.

(Chapter 17 Urban air pollution (Aaron J. Cohen, H. Ross Anderson, Bart Ostro, Kiran Dev Pandey, Michal Krzyzanowski Nino Künzli, Kersten Gutschmidt,C. Arden Pope III, Isabelle Romieu,Jonathan M. Samet and Kirk R. Smith)
(https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/effects-solutions-urban-heat-island.php#abh_about)
Green roof plants: a resource and planting guide
China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies,
http://www.cnctst.gov.cn/pages/homepage/result2.jsp?id=289454&subid=10001794&subject, 2012-07-12

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