Most often associated with the work of Albert Bandura

Most often associated with the work of Albert Bandura, is the social learning theory which involves principles of both behaviorism and cognitive theories of learning. Bandura suggests that this process has four parts – attention, retention, motor reproduction and motivation. Environmental and cognitive factors can influence the process as well.
Our theorist is Albert Bandura; the father of the social cognitive theory. He was born December 4, 1925 in Canada. After graduating from high school in 1946, Bandura pursued a bachelor’s degree at the University of British Columbia and in 1949 graduated with the Bolocan Award in psychology, annually awarded to the outstanding student in psychology. He then did graduate work at the University of Iowa, where he received a master’s degree in psychology (1951) and a doctorate in clinical psychology (1952). Albert Bandura is probably best known for his modeling study on aggression, referred to as the “Bobo doll” experiment, which demonstrated that children can learn behaviors through the observation of adults (Nolen).
Reciprocal Causation is the idea that behavior is controlled or determined by the individual, through cognitive processes, and by the environment, through external social stimulus events. Reciprocal causation has three factors: the environment (External Spaces, Laws, Objects), the individual/ person (Internal Competencies, Emotional & Physical), and the behavior (actions & decisions) (Cherry).
Example one: Loud music like heavy metal is believed to put a person in an agitated state of mind, whereas soothing music enables the person to take decisions in a calm and rational manner. Some teachers may play soft instrumental music in the background during the school day to put students at ease. I myself listen to a lot of instrumental and Broadway themed tunes whenever I need to focus, but if I find myself doing something mindless (walking, working out, knitting, etc.) then I usually listen to stuff like rock or swing music. These could be an example of when environment influences a person’s behavior.
Example two: A student (person-early education or child) is not be a fan of a required class. The student’s dislike of the subject affects how they are in the class (behavior) to the point of a poor performance in the classroom which can lead to tension with the other students or even the teacher (environment). With poor relationships with the people the student sees in the class, it could foster more negative feelings leading to worse behavior.
Bandura was the first to demonstrate (1977) that self-efficacy influences what individuals choose to do, the amount of effort they put into doing it, and the way they feel as they are doing it. Bandura also discovered that learning occurs both through those beliefs and through social modeling—thus originating social cognitive theory (1986), which holds that a person’s environment, cognition, and behaviour all interact to determine how that person functions, as opposed to one of those factors playing a dominant role.” (Nolen)
For different individuals (or for the same person at different times), different motives may underlie the same behavior and the same motive may be expressed in different behaviors (Messick). A common theme in Psychology is the interaction between nature and nurture, so we can look at reciprocal causation like the interactions between an individual and the situation they are in. This can link the theory to observational learning which is learning while watching others. It implies the factors that affect our learning are all determinants of each other, and that our learning and the changes in our behavior are gained through our interactions with/ observations of others (Adaptations to thrive in their environment)
Reciprocal causation is a phenomenon where either successes compound successes or failures compound failures because the three factors are interdependent on each other. Awareness of the factors and the influences in each can help teachers understand how to use different teaching methods to help a student improve.