Another type of learning other than classical conditioning is Operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is a learning process for people and animals learn to do certain things and not to do the opposite. It is a technique of learning that happens through rewards and punishments for a behavior, in other words, they learn from the consequences of their actions. Operant conditioning was studied by B.F Skinner. Skinner recognized three types of operant: Neutral operant, Reinforcement, and Punishment. There are two types of reinforcement and punishment and also reinforcement is split into two categories.
Reinforcement is utilized to help increase a particular behavior or a response will happen with delivering a stimulus directly after a response or a behavior is shown. The utilization of these techniques has been utilized with both ordinary and atypical children, teenagers, elderly people, animals, and different mental scatters.
The stimulus that makes a behavior to occur again is called a reinforcer. Primary and secondary reinforcers are the two categories of reinforcement. The primary reinforcers are outcomes that fulfill a biological need. For example, food, water, shelter, and oxygen. People and animals do not need to be taught to value food, shelter and etc. On the other hand, we have secondary reinforcers. The value of secondary reinforcers must be learned. They refer to a condition in which a stimulus reinforces a specific behavior after it has been related to a primary reinforcer. Money, attention, and social approval are examples of secondary reinforcers. Money can be utilized to reinforce behaviors since it tends to be utilized to get primary reinforces like food, water, shelter and etc.
There are two types of reinforcement and they are positive and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement increases the frequency of a behavior. Positive reinforcement strengthens the behavior and allow it to respond to the stimulus again. For example, if your teachers give you chocolate every time you submit your homework on time, you will probably repeat each time she gives you a homework to submit, so strengthen the behavior of submitting the homework. Unlike positive reinforcement, with negative reinforcement, a behavior is reinforced because something unwanted is removed following the behavior.