Collins’ (1996) Research
In what ways are theories applicable by managers for resolving organizational problems?
Managers need to have access to using different combinations of concepts to better serve the workforce and the purpose of workplace. Managers shouldn’t have relay on only using a single concept or theory while trying the put in to affect a changed strategy in a company. According to EDUCBA, having the understanding and knowledge of the suitable management theories will benefit how the circumstance of the theory will impact the workplace. You need to figure out if one theory is suitable to had the circumstance or if a combination of theories would be more suitable. (EDUCBA, 2018) By having different theories to follow or tests out there it gives managers different frameworks to work from. They can then note which theories or steps work and which ones didn’t. In order for the theories to help managers resolve organizational problems they first need to be trained on the theories and two take the time to use the theories to help resolve organizational problems more efficiently and in a reasonable time.
How do theories evolve through application?
Mink contrasts the “old” with the “new” paradigm. Mink said that the old paradigm is formed from transactional leadership and behavioral compliance while the new paradigm is formed from transformational leadership and the release of organizational talent. The new paradigm needs to meet the consistent changing of the economic and technological conditions of the business. (Collins, 1996) As society continues to evolve with economic globalization, technological development, and the economic development this leads to significant changes in the nature of how theories are applied and are going to evolve. Mink tells us that the new paradigm is founded more on transformational leadership which is a leadership style that is geared to inspire positive changes. Transformational leaders enjoy getting every member of the group involved in the change process by being energetic, excited, and passionate of the change. This type of leader makes it a goal for every member of the group to succeed along with them. (Cherry ; Gans, 2018)
The Need Theory, The Expectancy Theory, and The Equity Theory.
McClelland’s theory of needs is a process that is broken down to what motivates a person by what and how needs are and how they have to be approached. This theory was developed in the 1960’s and McClelland’s points out that regardless of your age, sex, race, or culture, all of us possess these needs and are driven by the needs. (Management Study HQ, 2017) The three motivation types are one achievement, two power, and three affiliation motivation. McClelland said that every individual has these three types of motivational needs regardless of their demography, culture, or wealth. These motivation types are driven from real life experiences and beliefs. (Management Study HQ, 2017) A person is driven to work to the point of struggling to achieve the need. An example of the three motivation types of the need theory is when companies meet and achievement needs by giving employees challenging assignments, competitions, and rewards for excellent work. The power needs can be met by offering opportunities for advancement, increased responsibility, and pay. Employees can meet affiliation needs by creating a team environment that is safe and respectful for all employees. (Management Study HQ, 2017)
“Vroom’s (1964) Expectancy theory has held a major position in the study of work motivation.” (Bowman, 2016) Expectancy theory examines the relationship between the worker’s motivation and the worth of the outcome. What is the likelihood that one outcome will lead to another and that a behavior will lead to a relating outcome. Expectancy theory has a huge relationship between rewards and the amount of work needed to achieve the reward. (Bowman, 2016) The main idea is that an employee is motivated by the reward that is given. An example of expectancy theory, is when an employee is working on getting a promotion that gives a pay raise. This motive the employee but if the there was no pay raise with the promotion just more work the employee will not be motived to work towards the promotion.
“Adams (1965) developed a theory on motivation to attempt to explain behavior influenced by the norm of equity. His research indicates that people who discover that they are in an inequitable relationship attempt to reduce their resultant distress by restoring either “actual” or “psychological/perceived” equity to their relationship.” (Bowman, 2016) The idea is that individuals are motivated by fairness and if they identify lack of fairness or justice they will seek to alter their inequity in order to achieve the desired result. This can as cause employees to be de-motivated by an unfair environment. An example of equity theory at work is when employees compare their work and someone else gets paid more than they do. This can be a big issue for management to handle. People want fairness.
The Source and Use of Power in Organizations.
The use of power can create and eliminate conflict. Organizations operate by distributing authority and allowing management to exercise the use of power within the company. The use of power is good for an organization if the power is used for encouraging purposes and to be productive. Power is useful to help keep and maintain balance within the company. Inappropriate use of power creates conflicts in the organization which may lead to weakening the organization or destroying it financially. This type of power needs to be avoided. (Javed, 2016)
Management should also think about moral and ethical obligations when using their power in the organizational culture. Managers need to take the opportunity to create a climate that strengthens the relationships and beliefs that will make their company succeed. By doing this it will help the managers to use their power appropriately in the company instead of inappropriate. If ethics are ignored it runs the risk of legal issues and liability to the company. (Paine, 2014) The bottom line is when managers have power they need to be aware of how they use it. Mangers need to have respect and make sure they are being ethical no matter what because they could find their self in a lawsuit otherwise and causing harm to the company.
When leaders utilize emotional intelligence to stabilize organizations it gives them the ability to understand and manage oneself and the ability to understand and relate to others. Emotional intelligence is described as having the ability to monitor their own and other people emotions. They are able to identify different emotions and label them appropriately. By using this emotional information, you have a better understand what the person is thinking and behavior of that person. (Srivastava, 2013). This allows you to understand what is going on with employees without being verbal. Emotionally intelligent interactions with other people by building on an individual’s strengths in self-awareness and self-management. When managers have a high level of emotional intelligence it helps them to read and understand their employees without having to be verbal.” (Srivastava, 2013).
Gratton ; Erickson’s (2007)
Organization’s Culture has on Communication
An organization’s culture plays a big role on how the communication goes on within the company. An organization’s culture is formed through “the leadership of the organization and can become ingrained into the core fabric of the way things are communicated and business is done on a day-to-day basis.” (Lotich, 2018) There needs to be communication between top management and employee to have an effective work culture. Management must be able to clearly pass on necessary information to all the employees so that they know what they are supposed to be doing for the company. Gratton ; Erickson “found that the perceived behavior of senior executives plays a significant role in determining how cooperative teams are prepared to be.” (Gratton ; Erickson, 2007) Gratton ; Erickson study also showed that a number of skills were crucial to communication: value others, engage in purposeful conversations, be productive, and be creatively resolving conflict. By having these skills trained to employees and as the company’s norm in their culture the commutations will be sound and teamwork is able to be a successful. When there are unsuccessful communication channels within an organization it breakdowns within the organization and leads to conflicts in the workplace and distorts information. (Lotich, 2018)
How does the cultural norms dynamic affect the decision-making process?
The cultural norms do dynamical affect the decision-making process. From the data presented in the article named Cultural Factors in Complex Decision Making by Stefan Strohschneider the decision-making process influences cultural first by a combination of cognitive and behavioral activities. It requires a specific knowledge or skill that has to be developed through exposure to different kinds of decisions through, probably, value systems, familial socialization practices, and patterns of schooling. (Strohschneider, 2002) Second by decision making styles are developed according to the requirements of the environment. Which means based on your environment you relate to your environment. (Strohschneider, 2002)
In what ways does diversity affect teamwork and decision-making?
Having diversity in teamwork and decision making helps to challenge your brain to overcome the same ways of thinking and sharpen performance. This allows a group of people to make better decisions because by having diversity in teams they are more likely to constantly reexamine facts and remain objective. In the 2015 McKinsey report on 366 public companies they found that the top quartile for ethnical and racial diversity in management were 35% more likely to benefit with higher financial returns then the industry mean. Also, those in the top quartile for gender diversity were 15% more likely to have benefited with returns above the industry mean. (Grant, 2016) By having a more diverse workplace it will help to keep your team members from being biases in opinions and make them question their assumptions in the group. This can cause team members to be smarter and make your organization more profitably.
Total Quality Management also known as TQM is an aimed at improving business as a whole. Some of the benefits lie in the continuous improvement of the company’s processes and products. By doing this it enhances the efficiency of the people and machines which leads to improving the quality. (Nayab, 2011) TQM key issues areas to improve mistakes in are the work processes, redundant processes, unnecessary tasks, duplicate efforts, and unproductive activities.
In what ways does Quality Management benefit teamwork?
Total quality management’s focus on teamwork which leads to the formation of cross-departmental teams and cross-functional knowledge sharing. (Nayab, 2011) Quality management benefit teamwork by improving communication skills of individual employees and overall organizational communication. It causes knowledge sharing, which results in deepening and expands the knowledge and skill-set of team members. Teams members learn organization flexibility. Total Quality Management also promotes the concept of internal customer and supplier satisfaction. For instance, the HR department considers employees as internal customers and processes their queries or requests within the specified time limit. The lab technician in a hospital processes the clinical tests required by the doctor, an internal customer in a timely and efficient manner, according to the laid down customer satisfaction norms.” (Nayab, 2011)
In what ways does the quality improvement process benefit from teamwork?
Quality improvement process benefit from teamwork because one, they combine individual’s unique knowledge and skills to bring about lasting improvements. Two, teams are most effective if they have a group of people to carry out task like to collecting data and making charts/graphs that can help a team better understand its processes. They are then able to analyze their data and bounce ideas around to each other to improve their processes they are looking to improve. (Schwarz, Landis, ; Rowe, 1999) One example of quality improvement process benefiting from teamwork is a medical practice. The medical practice is seeking to improve patient waiting times and telephone service. You can have two different teams that will focus on each issue. The teams can collect data, analyze it, and come up with ideas on how to improve this issues within the medical practice. They can record how their ideas are working or not working and continue to work on the issue till they see improves.
“Within a functional structure, employees are divided into departments that each handle activities related to a functional area of the business, such as marketing, production, human resources, information technology, and customer service.” (Libraries, 2016)
Within a divisional structure, “employees are divided into departments based on product areas and/or geographic regions. General Electric, for example, has six product divisions: Energy, Capital, Home & Business Solutions, Healthcare, Aviation, and Transportation.” (Libraries, 2016)
Within a matrix structure, is “where employees can be put on different teams to maximize creativity and idea flow. As parodied in the move Office Space, this structure is common in high tech and engineering firms.” (Libraries, 2016)
Compare and Contract Organizational Structures
When comparing functional and divisional you are breaking people up into groups, only difference is divisional the employees are divided into departments based on product areas and/or geographic regions and functional the employees are divided into departments that each handle activities related. Functional is very slow to change while divisional and matrix act quickly to change. Divisional is costlier to operate than functional structures which tends to keep costs low and to create efficiency. With divisional and matrix work can be duplicated where with functional duplication is reduced with the way structure is hierarchical and delegates to each specialized department. The three organizational structures have advantages and disadvantages to them and you just have to figure out which organizational structures will give your company the best advantages to fit your company. (Libraries, 2016)