MEKELLE UNIVERSITY MEKELLE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SUBMITTED BY Berhe Lema (MIT/UR/1025/10) UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Dr. PREPARATION OF SOAP AND GLYCERENE RECOVERY soap is the eldest chemical prepared over many years ago. It is produced by saponification of animal fats. Soaps are mainly used for bathing cleaning and washing. They also used in spinning of textile and as essential and significant of lubricating Grease. The modern soap production process is mainly based on fatty acid neutralization or fat saponification. Synthetic detergent is the main component of washing soap. Soap molecule contains long hydrocarbon chain on one end and with carboxylic group on the other end. Almost all detergents and soaps contain surfactant as active ingredient. Due to good detergency, detergents has good cleaning properties than soap. SOAP soap is salt of fatty acid. There are many essential fatty acids which are used in the production of soap. For example Palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, lauric acid …etc. CLASSIFICATIONS OF SOAP According to the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Soaps can be categorized based on the total fatty mater they contain. Based on this they are grouped in to three grades. Grade 1: minimum 76% TFM Grade 2: minimum 70% TFM Grade 3: minimum 60% TFM Grade 4: bathing bars (minimum 40%TFM) In the preparation of soft soaps potassium hydroxide are used instead of sodium hydroxide and bathing bars are mostly prepare from partial detergent with partial soap or wholly synthetic detergent. RAW MATERIALS The raw components which used in the preparation of soap are oil, fats and sodium hydroxide .oils and fats can be also classified in to either lauric or nonlauric oils/fats. In soap production ground nut oil, kernel oil, neem oil, caster oil, coconut oil, and palm oil are used as main ingredients. SOAP PRODUCTION PROCESS (SAPONIFICATION) The production process of soaps is based on reaction of animal fats with coconut oil, sodium or with potassium. Animal fat?reaction with coconut oil, potassium or sodium. The basic steps in the soap production pocesss are 1.Saponification 2.Glycerene removal 3.soap purification and drying 4.finishing 1.saponofocation All the ingredients of soap are mixed in a required proportion and heated with steam in areactor9kettle or pan).