KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
COLLEGE OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
DEPARTMENT OF SUPPLY CHAIN AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS
EXAMINING LOGISTICS OPERATIONS AND RELATED SUPPLY CHAIN ON SERVICE DELIVERY
(A CASE OF TEMA PORT)
HAMDIA ABUBAKARI SANDAH
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u CHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc524820759 h 5INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc524820760 h 51.1 Background of the Study PAGEREF _Toc524820761 h 51.2 Problem statement PAGEREF _Toc524820762 h 101.3 Research objectives PAGEREF _Toc524820763 h 111.4 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc524820764 h 121.5 Significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc524820765 h 121.6 Scope of the Study PAGEREF _Toc524820766 h 131.7 Research Methodology PAGEREF _Toc524820767 h 131.8 Organization of the Study PAGEREF _Toc524820768 h 14CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc524820769 h 15LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc524820770 h 152.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc524820771 h 152.1 Concept of Supply Chain PAGEREF _Toc524820772 h 152.2 Supply Chain Management PAGEREF _Toc524820773 h 162.2.1 Definitions of Supply Chain Management PAGEREF _Toc524820774 h 192.3 Logistics Management PAGEREF _Toc524820775 h 202.3.1 Definitions of logistics PAGEREF _Toc524820776 h 222.3.2 Logistics Operations PAGEREF _Toc524820777 h 232.4 Port Operations PAGEREF _Toc524820778 h 292.4.1 Port logistics concept PAGEREF _Toc524820779 h 292.4.2 Elements of port operations PAGEREF _Toc524820780 h 302.4.3 Actors facilitating port operation PAGEREF _Toc524820781 h 342.5 Logistics Activities at the port. PAGEREF _Toc524820782 h 362.5.1 Cargo Handling PAGEREF _Toc524820783 h 362.5.2 Warehousing PAGEREF _Toc524820784 h 382.5.3 Transportation at the port PAGEREF _Toc524820785 h 412.6 Port Efficiency PAGEREF _Toc524820786 h 452.7 Port Performance. PAGEREF _Toc524820787 h 472.8 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc524820788 h 50CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc524820789 h 73METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc524820790 h 733.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc524820791 h 733.1 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc524820792 h 733.2 Research Approach PAGEREF _Toc524820793 h 743.3 Population of the study PAGEREF _Toc524820794 h 743.4 Sample Size PAGEREF _Toc524820795 h 743.4.1 Sampling Techniques PAGEREF _Toc524820796 h 753.5 Source of data PAGEREF _Toc524820797 h 753.5.1 Primary data PAGEREF _Toc524820798 h 753.5.2 Secondary Data PAGEREF _Toc524820799 h 763.6 Data Collection Instrument PAGEREF _Toc524820800 h 763.7 Variables for designing the questionnaires PAGEREF _Toc524820801 h 763.8 Pre-testing PAGEREF _Toc524820802 h 763.9 Ethical Issues PAGEREF _Toc524820803 h 773.9 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc524820804 h 77CHAPTER FOUR PAGEREF _Toc524820805 h 79DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS PAGEREF _Toc524820806 h 794.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc524820807 h 794.1 Validity PAGEREF _Toc524820808 h 794.2 Reliability Analysis PAGEREF _Toc524820809 h 814.3 Background information PAGEREF _Toc524820810 h 814.3.1 Level of Education PAGEREF _Toc524820811 h 824.3.2 Company/Position of Respondents PAGEREF _Toc524820812 h 834.3.3 Working Experience PAGEREF _Toc524820813 h 844.4 Analysis of Objectives PAGEREF _Toc524820814 h 854.4.1 Staff Competence PAGEREF _Toc524820815 h 854.4.2 Custom Processes PAGEREF _Toc524820816 h 864.4.3 Port Infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc524820817 h 884.4.4 Information System PAGEREF _Toc524820818 h 894.4.5 Logistics Service Delivery PAGEREF _Toc524820819 h 914.5 Correlation Analysis PAGEREF _Toc524820820 h 934.5.1 Coefficient of Correlation PAGEREF _Toc524820821 h 934.5.2. Coefficient of Determination (R2) PAGEREF _Toc524820822 h 954.6 Regression Analysis PAGEREF _Toc524820823 h 964.6.1 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) PAGEREF _Toc524820824 h 964.6.2 Multiple Regression PAGEREF _Toc524820825 h 97CHAPTER FIVE PAGEREF _Toc524820826 h 99SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATION PAGEREF _Toc524820827 h 995.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc524820828 h 995.2 Summary of the Results PAGEREF _Toc524820829 h 995.2.1 Port Staff Competence PAGEREF _Toc524820830 h 995.2.2 Port Custom Processes PAGEREF _Toc524820831 h 1005.2.3 Port Infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc524820832 h 1005.2.4. Port Information System PAGEREF _Toc524820833 h 1005.3 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc524820834 h 1005.4 Recommendation PAGEREF _Toc524820835 h 101
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the StudyThe world economies have seen tremendous increase in developments facilitated from the changing trends in global supply chain. A global supply chain is a worldwide network of activities, organization and people that function as a whole with the aim of satisfying the customer at the lowest cost possible. The integration of suppliers, manufacturers and retailers is required so that the right materials are obtained, produced and shipped in the right quantity to the right place at the right time and in the right condition and at the right cost. Information (order processing) and finances must be coordinated effectively throughout the chain (Forum for International Trade Training 2017).
Global Supply Chain has brought about competition in the global manufacturing and trade thereby changing the organization of industries (Gereffi 2011; Gereffi and Lee, 2012). During the 1960s, companies in the U.S. cut down their supply chains in order to search for low-cost and competitive suppliers offshore. This process of global outsourcing was initiated on the assemblage of parts from U.S. manufacturers, sharing a manufacturing plant with Mexico, but the offshore production shortly speeded up impressively (Dicken, 2011).
Global Supply chain operations and industries improved significantly in 1990s-2000s in the area of manufacturing, energy, food production to services like research and development and accounting of both finished and intermediary goods of the world’s leading multinational corporations (Engardio et al., 2003; Engardio and Einhorn, 2005; Wadhwa et al., 2008). As supply chains go global, more intermediate goods are traded across borders. The exports of intermediate goods topped both export values of final and capital goods, scoring 51 percent of nonfuel exports (WTO ; IDE-JETRO, 2011, p. 81; Gereffi and Lee, 2012).
Supply chain is a network of organizations working together to manage, control the flow and storage of material and information from suppliers to end-users (Peck, 2009). Over the years, most global supply chains shifted their production from North to South in the global market, and upcoming economies are playing vital roles in these industries as exporters and new market. Asia’s connection to the European Union and North America registered the two highest inter-regional import of intermediate goods in 2008 (Staritz, Gereffi and Cattaneo, 2011; Gereffi and Lee, 2012). Asia shipped in more intermediate goods than it exported, also registering the region’s high level of integration with global supply chains (WTO and IDE-JETRO 2O11, pp.83-85).
Over the last few years, there has been a tremendous progress in Small and Medium Enterprises in Romania. Usually, SMEs focus their unique competencies on specific market operations within the supply chain in order to gain competitive advantages (e.g. low operating cost) or value addition service (e.g. new product or service development) . The SMEs are now able to learn high flexibility and rapid decision making from large organization which makes them collaborate efficiently with other Small and Medium Enterprises to gain a competitive edge. (Li et al., 2005; Kherbach and Mocan, 2016).
Supply chain has also moved from lean supply chain to agile supply chain, in order to be responsive, competent, flexible and quick. Unlike lean supply chain, agile supply chain uses real-time and updated information against demand forecast, which helps improve the overall efficiency and productivity of an organization (Christopher, 2000). Agile supply chain is also focused on avoiding possible shortages and eliminating excessive stock. McKinsey and Company (2015) Quarterly, reported that companies that did not implement agile supply chain practices often had inventory levels remain in the warehouse for more than 108 days, and only 87% of deliveries were on time. This did not even consider how many deliveries were not fulfilled, such as delay in shipping process, customization, or erro in order picking process. Supplier-customer-manufacturer-relationships are therefore strengthened by this trend (GT and Salmon, 2014).
Also the agile supply chain is able to adopt to rapid changing environment such as the economy, customization, trends, and customer demands among others and this will enable the supply chain overcome any disturbance that might suffice in the course of manufacturing, shipping and reverse logistics supply chain (Robinson, 2016). Retailers get the flexibility to make changes, and to better leverage resources within the product flow. For example, when retailers have access to visibility data such as container trucking, and cargo dwell time, their in-transit inventory becomes a virtual, moving warehouse because they know where the product is all the times and can direct or redirect it as needed, hence lead time is known therefore reducing carrying cost and supply variability (GT and Salmon, 2014).
The logistics sector is now recognized as one of the core pillars of economic development of many countries and the performance of logistics both domestically and internationally trade is central to the economic growth and competitiveness of almost all countries in the world (World Bank, 2016). Policy makers in both developed and developing countries therefore see logistics as a major proponent among others, as a sound and consistent service sector to alternate seamless and sustainable supply chains as an engine of growth.
Logistics operations becomes inevitable especially when it comes to port community. Logistics as we all know encompasses all of the information and material flows throughout an organization. It includes everything from the movement of a product or from a service that needs to be rendered, through to the management of incoming raw materials, production, the storing of finished goods, its delivery to the customer and after-sales service (Ittmann and King, 2010).
Logistics plays a key role in the micro and macro perspective. From a micro perspective, logistics service could fulfil the customer’s expectations through excellent logistics service provision and from a macro perspective, it drives the economic development of a country. Logistics plays its role as early as in the beginning of 1900s, in distributing the farm products (Lambert et al., 1998) and it has continued to evolve until it is now regarded as a strategic industry.
The movement of goods and services across borders in the context of global supply chain is very significant in many countries in these days and has therefore brought higher demands for efficacy of logistics services. According to the World Bank (2016), in its fifth edition of the Logistics Performance Index (LPI), Germany was regarded as the best performing country out of 160 countries globally with an LPI score of 4.23 and Syria recorded the lowest with a score of 1.60. South Africa which was ranked 20 in the world had the highest rank among the African countries with an LPI score of 3.78. Ghana was ranked 88 in the world ranking and 12 position among her African countries with an LPI score of 2.66. (World Bank, 2016).
According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), percent of international trade is channeled through ports (United Nations, 2016). Ghana being among the many developing countries having port community uses the sea as a major means of transport in the international trade. The country’s economy is highly dependent on trade and the sea is the most preferred mode of transport due to its low cost as compared to other modes of transport with respect to international trade. In this regard, the efficiency and competiveness of Ghana’s ports should be a major concern to policy makers to boost the country’s economy.
Logistics is the major component in port administration and therefore, its influence on port performance become inevitable. The domestic maritime trade in Ghana is served by two ports. Tema, around 25km east of Accra, the capital and Takoradi, 230km to the west. The two ports handle more than 90% of foreign-trade volume. The Tema Port particularly serves as an outlet for Ghana’s land locked neighbors, Burkina Faso, Niger and Mali whiles the Takoradi Port service the rapidly developing offshore gas and oil fields.
The development of seaports in Ghana started long before the 15th century when trade brought about the contact with the external world by which ships and sea vessels landed at the various locations along the shore. The numerous castles and forts found in the coastal towns are the physical evidence that can be seen (Oduro, 1999). It was not until the early part of the 16th century that port operations begun with the construction of breakwater in Accra (GPHA, 1991).
The Tema Port has continued to see major improvement to boost its operations since it was opened for operation. Some of the recent development at the Tema Port is the introduction of the Ghana National Single Window (GNSW) as part of the Ghana Community Network System Ltd. (GCNet) and the Paperless System which have all been introduced to make the Port more efficient. The key logistic activities at Ports including Tema Port are, transportation, warehousing services, packaging, system support, distribution, reverse logistics among others.1.2 Problem statementIn today’s highly competitive environment, a key determinant of a firm’s performance is the role of the logistics function in ensuring the smooth flow of materials, products and information throughout a company’s supply chains (Kilasi, et al., 2013). This was why most recently, logistics had become more prominent and was recognized as a critical factor in competitive advantage. A large portion of that logistics would disappear without the ports infrastructure which represents the interface between maritime transportation and land transportation. The economic significance of seaport performance for the prosperity of West African countries’ economy is self-evident.
The port at Tema is considered fairly well equipped to service local production and international trade. However, sharp increases in demand over recent years has led to congestion and capacity constraints, which has become a serious impediment to further development.
The fast track production of oil in 2010 and the new wave of industrialization that oiled the country by fueling the high economic growth rate of 13% brought enormous opportunity for business growth and investment in the maritime logistics chain. The discovery of petroleum has resulted in the influx of supply vessels into Tema Port and thereby reduced the berthing capacity for traditional operation (GPHA, 2015). In addition to ports internal complexity, seaport management faces lots of external challenges such as; delay in clearance, hidden charges, monitoring and evaluation standards, limited resources and variability due to the absence of effective IT systems to coordinate activities and in order to overcome the detected anomalies and bottlenecks that usually happen at the Ports, delay in arrival of domestically produced goods for export at the port due to bad road system.
The procedures related to logistics activities have a strong impact on the overall logistic chain because they impact the performance of the whole systems in terms of efficiency and times pending. Hence, it is obvious that there is a need for new innovative management approaches aiming to eliminate negative impacts on the port, help port system to be agile and increase the performance of the port (Agbesi, 2013).
However, a critical literature review reveals that, there is no study on the determinants of port performance especially on service delivery in Ghana which is a major gap in literature.
To this end, the study seeks to examine the determinants of logistics operations and related supply chain on port performance at Tema port.
1.3 Research objectivesThe main objective of this study is to examine the determinants of logistics operations and related supply chains on service delivery using Tema port as a case study. The following are the specific objectives.
To assess how staff competence at the port influence logistic delivery
To examine custom processes and how they affect logistics services delivery at the port of Tema
To examine how infrastructure at the port affect the logistic service delivery at the port
To evaluate the influence of port information system in deploying logistics services at the port of Tema
To examine service delivery on port performance at Tema port
1.4 Research QuestionsThe study seeks to answer the following research questions;
What extent does information technology determine service delivery at Tema port?
What extent does infrastructure determine services delivery at Tema port?
What extent does staff competence determine service deliver at Tema port?
What extent does custom processes determine service delivery at Tema port?1.5 Significance of the studyAt the end of the study, the researcher is expected to gain an in-depth knowledge with regards to logistics and supply chain concepts and their relation in the port settings.
It would also serve as a source of data to assist the various stakeholders within the port community to know the extent the various logistics factors impact their service delivery. And aid them take the right decisions with regards to the current trends to enhance their service delivery and performance.
However, the results of this study would have implications for policy implementation, as it would serve as a guide for policy makers as well as investors.
It will also serve as a major reference point for academia.
1.6 Scope of the StudyAlthough, the country has two sea ports and airports, this study is focused on Tema Port and the various stakeholders within the port community. They include port users, port authority, stevedoring companies, various terminal operators, port users, agents and other Government agencies.
1.7 Research MethodologyThe research methodology employed in carrying out the research comprised; the research design, population of study, sample size and technique, sources of data and procedure for data collection and analysis among others.
The quantitative approach was adopted for data collection. This approach was particularly used because, the quantitative data was collected through the use of questionnaires. The questionnaire included close- ended question which allowed the respondent to choose from alternative responses. This was useful because the study was based on the use of questionnaire to collect data from the respondent in order to generate quantitative data for the analysis of the research. The population for the study included all the various stakeholders within the port, particularly customers.
Furthermore, Purposive Sampling technique was used in collecting data. All respondents were selected based on their knowledge and experience in logistics operations at the port.
The research design used was the descriptive research design, because the research is mainly quantitative.
Finally, the data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) were results were presented through descriptive statistics and other relevant information were presented in charts, tables and graphs for easy interpretation.
1.8 Organization of the StudyThe study is structured into five Chapters, chapter one focused on the background to the study accentuating on the problem statements, research questions, objectives, methodology and the scope of the study. Chapter two is centered on the review of relevant literatures that are materials and works related to the research. The methodology employed in this research are combined in chapter three. This chapter consist of the research design, the research approach, sampling techniques, population, sample size, type of data and sources, data collection instrument, pre-testing, limitation to data collection, presentations and analysis and ethical issues. The analysis of the primary data gathered from the field survey is contained in the chapter four with findings, recommendations and conclusion in chapter five of the study.
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.0 IntroductionThis chapter reviewed some existing literature on the aspects of examining logistics operations, related supply chain and their influence on port performance as well as many works which have been done by various scholars and experts in this tropical area. The sub-topics which forms the framework for the entire review of literature too were covered by the study. The topics extensively discussed included; the concepts and definitions within the study, supply chain, logistics operations, port operations and logistics activities at the port, as well as ports efficiency and port performance.
2.1 Concept of Supply ChainChopra and Meindl (2016) stated that, a supply chain includes all parties involved, directly or indirectly, in fulfilling a customer request. These parties within the organization, such as a manufacturer, the supply chain includes all functions from receiving to filling a customer request. Which include, but are not limited to, new product development, marketing, operations, distribution and customer service.
Several integrated enterprises that share information and coordinate physical performance to ensure a smooth flow of goods, services, information and cash through the chain (Coyle et at., 2013).
The concept of “supply chain” has been well established and defined in literature. Supply chain is a network of companies who are interconnected by one another to add value to a stream of transformed inputs from their source of origin to consumption to satisfy the end-user. (Lu, 2011). The supply chain includes manufacturer, suppliers, transporters, warehouses, wholesalers, retailers, other intermediaries and customers. Products go through several circuits of business transaction before it gets to a consumer. All the processes of business to business market that a product goes through before it gets to a consumer is what we term supply chain. For example, when a consumer buys a bottle of Coca cola, he/she does not buy directly from the manufacturing company (Coca Cola Company) but from a Retailer who also purchased the product in bulk from a Wholesaler who also purchased it from a Distributor who also purchased it from the manufacturer (Coca-cola). This on the supply chain is illustrated as; Coca-Cola –Distributor- wholesaler – retailer – final consumer.
The integration and coordination of key external processes by manufacturers is a very important process to compete at the supply chain level. Such external forces include, purchasing, selling and logistics with supply chain partners. Manufacturers are able to improve performance by putting more effort to improving their logistics process through a strategic adoption of supply chain processes.
2.2 Supply Chain ManagementSupply chain Management centers on the management of the flows (goods and services and information) through the supply chain in order to achieve a level of coordination such that, they will be responsive to customer needs and lowering total cost at the same time. Each part of the supply was managed separately customarily, but in today’s global market, the ability of a company to gain competiveness is through a combined capability of it entire supply chain members (Annan et al., 2016).
Supply chain management plays a very important role in this era of globalization where companies compete to provide the best quality products to customers and satisfy all their demands. This competition however, is highly dependent on an effective supply chain management. Organizational managers are asked to focus attention and resources directly on supply chain management functions such as logistics to strengthen the competitiveness of the supply chains. The managers are, however, ultimately judged on the marketing and financial performance of their organizations.
Successful adoption of a supply chain management strategy requires a supply chain focus and efforts by managers to strengthen linkages with both suppliers and customers. These stronger relationships result in improved performance of supply chain related functions such as logistics, purchasing and selling. In this particular case, a supply chain focus resulted in improved logistics performance, which in turn led to improved organizational performance. The supply chain management is incomplete and nonfunctional without the integration of logistics (Stank et al., 2005).
According to the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (2007), logistics management is “that part of Supply Chain Management that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customers’ requirements.”
For better customer satisfaction, it is important to integrate all logistics processes of all supply chain partners (Stank et al., 2002). Logistics being one of the largest cost involved in the international trade, it is very crucial to better manage this core function of the supply chain to improve performance and thereby cut down cost of operation or avoid any losses by manufacturers and suppliers (Rodrigues et al., 2005).
According to the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP), “Supply chain management encompasses the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement and all logistics management activities. Importantly, it also includes coordination and collaboration with channel partners, which can be suppliers, intermediaries, third party service providers, and customers. In essence, supply chain management integrates supply and demand management within and across companies, finances, and/or information from source to customer.” (CSCMP 2011).
The integration and coordination of processes throughout the supply chain is something that manufacturing managers should consider if they want to better serve their customers better. These processes (manufacturing, purchasing, selling, and logistics processes), in decisions making has become critically important in measuring performance at the supply chain level as well as organizational performance (Kenneth et al., 2008).
Vitasek (2010) also touched on ensuring the coordination and collaboration of partners within the chain directly or indirectly in ensuring a continuous flow of products, funds and related information from the point of origin to point of consumption.
The Supply Chain Management represents a strategic weapon for competitive advantage, being able to extend the principle of logistic integration to all companies in the supply chain through strategic partnership and co-operations arrangements
Every firm strives to match supply with demand in a timely fashion with the most efficient use of resources. Here are some of the important goals of supply chain management:
Supply chain partners work collaboratively at different levels to maximize resource productivity, construct standardized processes, remove duplicate efforts and minimize inventory levels. It also minimizes supply chain expenses, especially when there are economic uncertainties in companies regarding their wish to conserve capital. Finally, Cost efficient and cheap products are necessary, but supply chain managers need to concentrate on value creation for their customers and make gains.
2.2.1 Definitions of Supply Chain ManagementAccording to the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP), “Supply chain management encompasses the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement and all logistics management activities. Importantly, it also includes coordination and collaboration with channel partners, which can be suppliers, intermediaries, third party service providers, and customers. In essence, supply chain management integrates supply and demand management within and across companies, finances, and/or information from source to customer.”
According to Northouse (2007), all the external partners are central players in what he calls the extended supply chain.
He stated that the extended enterprise has a goal of doing a better job of serving the ultimate consumer. He further indicated that superior service leads to better market share. An increased share can result in competitive advantages such as lower transportation and warehousing costs, less waste, reduced inventory levels and reduced transaction costs. Singh (2004), vice president of integrated supply-chain management at Xerox confirmed that the consumer is the key to both measuring and communicating the supply chain’s value. He explained further that, you can attach customer values to profit & loss and to the balance sheet if you can start quantifying customer satisfaction coupled with what a supply chain can do for a customer and also link customer satisfaction in terms of earnings or revenue growth. Around the world, the best companies are realizing a potent latest source of competitive advantage. This is called supply-chain management which comprises all of those incorporated activities that bring goods to the market and create customer’s satisfaction.
2.3 Logistics ManagementThe Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) defines logistics management as, “the part of supply chain management that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverses flow and storage of goods, services and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customer’s requirement. Logistics management is an integrating function, which coordinates and optimizes all logistics activities, as well as integrates core logistics activities with other functions including marketing, sales manufacturing, finance, and information technology.”
Logistics management can also be noted as the operational component of supply chain management, including quantification, order processing, procurement, inventory management, transportation and fleet management, material management, data collection and communication. These components are as well the key logistics activities, which proves logistics to be a part of supply chain function. Supply chain management includes the logistics activities plus the coordination and collaboration of staff, levels, and functions. It also includes global manufacturers, supply and demand dynamics, but logistics tends to focus more on specific tasks within a particular program health system.
The performance of any business in recent times is determined by the role its logistics functions in ensuring the smooth flow of materials, goods, services and information across its entire supply chain (Kilasi, et al., 2013). Globalization has given much attention to logistics management in various areas such as cost reduction. That notwithstanding, firms are able to optimize their production and distribution process using the same resources to promote efficiency and competitiveness (Tseng, et al., 2005). Businesses through logistics management, have also gained competitive advantage through customer support by getting the right product to the pace at the right time (Buyukozkan et al., 2008).
Bazhin (2003) also stated the right product in the right place at the right time, at the right cost and in the right condition as the main logistics objective.
Zawawi et al., (2016), deployed these two dimensions of logistics performance: First, Effectiveness is described by the increase of on-time delivery performance, increase in the number of delivery per day and increase in the total loading capacity; and secondly, Efficiency is measured by the decrease in the total distribution cost, decrease in the total delivery cost, and decrease in the employees’ overtime hours.
Logistics can be groups into two activities:
Inbound logistics; refers to the inflow of materials, goods, services and related information from suppliers into an organization in a cost effective manner. (E.g. raw materials from suppliers). A good supplier relationship has to be maintained to manage the inbound logistics effectively.
Lastly, outbound logistics refers to the movement of materials, goods, services and related information from the organization to its customers. (E.g. the transportation of a consignment from the firm to a customer). To ensure efficacy of outbound logistics, a tight relationship must be developed with these transport operators and distributors (www.yourarticlelibrary.com).
2.3.1 Definitions of logisticsThe term logistics has its origins in the military. From that perspective, it applies to the process of supplying a theater of war with troops, equipment and supplies. Which industries have borrowed this term and have applied it to the discipline known as “business logistics.” Logistics is the management of the flow of goods, information and resources, including energy and people, from the point of origin and the point of consumption to meet the consumer’s requirement. Logistics involve the integration of activities such as information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, material-handling, and packaging (Wikipedia). Logistics can also defined as the planning, organization, and control of all activities in the material flow thus, from raw material to final consumption and reverse flows of the final product, with the aim of satisfying the customer’s and other party’s needs. Thus, to provide a good customer service, low cost, low tied-up capital and little environmental consequences (Jonsson and Mattsson, 2005).
Logistics is also seen as those activities that relate to receiving the right product or service in the right quantity, quality, place, time, customer, and at the right cost (The seven R’s) (Shapiro and Heskett, 1985). In most cases logistics is seen from the perspective of an operational way of transporting materials from one point to another or producing service. The credibility of this operation depends on a good design system.
According to CSMP, “Logistics is that part of supply chain management that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customer’s requirements. Logistics management activities typically include inbound and outbound transportation management, fleet management, warehousing, materials handling, order fulfillment, logistics network design, inventory management, supply/demand planning, and management of third party logistics services providers. To varying degrees, the logistics function also includes sourcing and procurement, production planning and scheduling, packaging and assembly, and customer service. It is involved in all levels of planning and execution thus strategic, operational, and tactical. Logistics management is an integrating function which coordinates and optimizes all logistics activities, as well as integrates logistics activities with other functions, including marketing, sales, manufacturing, finance, and information technology.” (Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals, 2004).
2.3.2 Logistics Operations
Logistics is that part of supply chain management that plans, implements and control the efficacy flow and storage goods, services and related information from the point of origin to consumption (CSCMP).
From the operations management point of view, operations as an activity are all the processes involved in converting an input into an output of goods or services. Facilities (equipment, technology and plants, buildings among others) and staff (people to operate and manage) are all needed in the operations processes.
The operations processes include; input (e.g. order information) to transformation (order processing) to output (service/order fulfilment) (Slack et al., 2007). Logistics operations can therefore be seen as the management of all the processes of the key logistics activities.
This is further supported by Leila and Valentinas (2014) assertion that, the logistical functions and operations in seaports are replicated in the process of tangible flow through the use of concepts and principles of logistics to establish the flow movement through the seaport in accordance with the consumer needs and expectations, at minimal cost, time and at a suitable place.
However, logistics management operations must be measured to determine its role in the firm in order to reduce operating cost hence increase revenue and enhance shareholder’s value.
Through measuring operating cost, one can identify when, where operational change should be made to regulate expenses and as well point out progress (Keebler and Plank, 2009).
Key logistics activities include:
Communication, Warehousing, Transportation, Customer service and Packaging
Communication: Logistics communication is a tool to the efficient survival of every system (e.g., a distribution system). An effective communication with a system can be a source of competitive advantage to an organization. Through Commutation transactional parties are able share information regarding the market position of goods and service to their mutual benefits. The supplier is able to supply the right products in their right quantities to the customer at the right time and place, which would have been impossible hence enhancing visibility throughout the supply chain. Communication is therefore the key most important logistical function in streamlining the various logistics activities into satisfying the end consumer. (e.g., example the marketing department feeds the production department with sales figures and customer requirement then production feeds the procurement department to get the required material for the production, then produced goods are kept in storage waiting for an order or transported to the market and the reverse).
Warehousing: warehousing in logistics is another key logistics activity that support time and place utility by allowing a product to be produced and stored for a later consumption. It protects the goods from damage, bad weather, and theft and also helps meet lead times, cover for uncertainties and increased customer satisfaction. Location, design, layout, ownership are among the decision to take when planning a warehouse. Due to the nature of facilities, staff and equipment required, makes warehouses the costly element in the supply chain and management would have to trade-off between costs and the desired service level they intend to achieve. Activities of a warehouse are; receiving and put-away (inbound flow), storage (material handling), and picking and shipping (outbound).
Goods are unloaded and moved to a receiving dock, inspected for damages and then receipt goods are compared to purchasing order to check for any variations. And are then moved from the dock to the storage area, here goods are identified and location for storage is as well identified and put to storage until an order arrives.
Order information is managed by checking the customer’s order against stock to enable accurate picking and finally labelled and arrangement is made for shipment.
Transportation: transportation is the key logistics activity that provides mobility to materials and goods from the point of origin to consumption and as well disposal. Transportation involves carrier selection, mode (i.e. rail, water, air, truck or pipeline), the routes, and ensuring compliance with regulation at the country of shipment. Transportation adds value to goods and services by providing time and place utility (i.e., getting the product or service to the right place at the right time) The volume of shipment, weight, distance to be traveled impacts transportation cost hugely. And can become less expensive when goods are handled in economically large quantities (Mensah, 2009).
Transportation serves as a key logistics activity, joining separated activities (production, warehousing and distribution). It represents almost one third of logistics cost and also influences the performance of logistics system hugely. Transportation is needed in the whole production process from manufacturing to delivery to end-user and returns. But only a good transportation system can bring about efficiency, minimum operational cost, and as well promote service quality. Nonetheless, coordination is key in transportation and other logistics components to maximize benefit (Tseng et al., 2005).
Transportation can be inbound or outbound. An inbound transportation involves the movement (transportation) of raw material and parts into an organization and outbound transportation has to do the transport of goods usually finished goods and related information outside an organization to a storage site, distribution center or even to the final consumer at a cost. (Lambert and Stock, 2011).
Customer service: customer service is the measure of how well the logistical system of a firm is performing in the provision of time and place utility for a product or service. A good customer service sustains a business by retaining and attracting nine potential customers and the contrary results in a loss of sales hence revenue. Customer service may include activities such as the ease at which an order can be placed, checking stock status and after sales service. Most companies regard customer service to be an important part of their business but finds it very difficult to describe what is meant by customer service and have always based it on what the customer wants rather than taking into accounts the real requirements of customers or at least the customer perception of what they require. Customer service and customer service requirement can vary from company to company and industry to industry (e.g., the maritime and hospitality industries) and even the market segment they serve. Customer service for that matter is inseparably linked to the distribution processes and logistics whose influences may be relevant to the customer. And may include, ease of ordering, stock availability and delivery reliability which will call for a balance between the level of service provided and the cost incurred in the service delivery. Many service offering fails because of the unrealistic service packages and to achieve a successful customer service policy, appropriate objectives through proper framework, which links with customers, then measure, monitor and control the procedures that have been set up.
Customer service can be classified into transactional related elements (pre-transactional, transactional and post transactional elements) where importance is placed on a specific service delivery (e.g., on time delivery) or as a functional attributes that are related to the overall aspect of order fulfillment (e.g., ease of order taking). These elements can be classified by many useful dimensions so as to measure the different components of service level across the whole organizational function to ensure a seamless service delivery hence customer satisfaction.
Customer satisfaction is a broader concept that encompasses customer service and can be termed as the customer’s overall assessment of all elements of the marketing mix (Product, Place, Price and promotion).
A match between what the customer expects and what the customer actually experience is termed service quality. A mismatch between the customers’ expectations and experience then becomes a “service quality gap” (Rushton et al., 2010).
Packaging can be said to be the science, art and technology of wrapping materials around a consumer item to contain, identify, describe, protect, promote, or make the product marketable and keep it clean. Packaging can also be seen as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, sales and end use.
Packaging from the logistics perspective, performs the following functions:
Containment, protection, apportionment, unitization, convenience and communication.
Standard packaging such as pallets (standard wooden trays, of about four feet square) is used to ease the movement of goods. Containers (twenty and forty foot metal boxes) are also standard packages used to move a large variety of goods for easy movement around the world which supports the use of multiple modes of transport. Putting goods together in these standard packages is termed unitization to form a unit load, which is much easier to move than it is to move in various items of different sizes and shapes. Standard packaging, enable material handling equipment to be used efficiently to load and unload goods without damage.
Packaging saves transportation cost, protective packaging reduces damage and theft in transit, enhances better utilization of warehouse and transportation space, it decreases shipment delays by providing information to trace and track lost shipment, density of loads can be
increased while reduced in freight rate, makes handling easier, assist in marketing, promoting, advertising and communicating to customers (Water, 2003).
2.4 Port OperationsPort operations is defined as the operation of a wharf and other port facilities, operation of port passenger transport service, operation of cargo loading/unloading, haulage and warehousing services within a port area (Osaretin, 2006).
Port operations can also be defined as all policies, reforms and regulations that influence the infrastructure and operations of port facilities including shipping services. Hence it is seen as a necessary tool to enable maritime trade between trading partners (Vince_V, 2003).
According to the Port Law, the term “Port” means a region comprising certain water and land areas, having the functions for vessels to enter, leave, lie at anchor and moor, for passengers to embark and disembark, and for goods to be loaded, unloaded, lightered and stored, and being equipped with the necessary dock facilities (Xu Ping, 2016). As a transitional area in international trade facilitation, the port serves as a place where cargo (whether imports or exports) is held until necessary documentation and payments are completed for either clearance or shipment (Anamoo, 2014).
2.4.1 Port logistics concept
The port logistics concept is brought about by the need for port to achieve the logistical goal, which is customer satisfaction. Under this mechanism, the port operations procedures should be integrated into the multimodal supply chain with regards to efficient physical cargo flows and common strategic objectives as well as innovative organizational relationships (Liu, 2012).
Port logistics as a social logistics refers to the port, under the platform of logistics park, distribution system, logistics information system, and commodity trading center, leverage the strength in its shoreline resources, infrastructure, good distribution to expand the logistics operations, seek the integration of transport, warehousing, loading, agents, easy processing, distribution, information processing (Ping, 2016).
Port entry, stevedoring, transit, storage and linkage system are all classified under physical flow, while information flow consist of all relevant operational information concerning the physical flow. Each sub-system is inter-connected with respect to the cargo flow within the port logistics concept. Also, ports within the system can add value- added services that can promote integration. (For example, quality control, repackaging, assembly, re-export among others). Port logistical system can thereby be seen as an intermediary connecting the whole logistical process (Liu, 2012).
2.4.2 Elements of port operationsPort operations consist of three operations
Seaside operations has to do with docking and berthing of ships before the cargo operations. These are the services the port renders to arriving vessels:
Pilotage: This engages the service of a pilot at the port to direct or manoeuver the ship into the port safely. This is usually common with ships calling at the port for the first time and not familiar with the port terrain.
Towage: This assistance rendered to an incoming vessels with the aid of a tug boat to tow it along to safety.
Berthing: This is the act of allocating berths to arriving vessel to berth (lay). Berth availability is an important competitive advantage that influences port choice decisions (Chang et al., 2008). Unavailability of suitable berths to accommodate an incoming vessel can cause berth problems at the port which could be due to insufficient number of quay cranes dedicated to a particular berth and could as well slow down the seaside operations (Elferjani, 2015).
Mooring: This is the act of securing the vessel to a quay after berthing (Alderton and Saieva, 2013).
Operations at the terminal starts when a vessel has being moored alongside a suitable berth
for operations. And involves all activities in the container handling which include the loading and unloading of cargo on vessels and loading and unloading unto trucks for storage or transshipment with the aid of handling equipment’s and machines such as (cranes, derricks, forklift, trailers, tractors etc.). These activities are carried out by terminal operators, mostly from private stevedoring companies (Elferjani, 2015).
These operations include receiving and arranging cargo to/from the wharf to stacking yard and also receiving and delivering of cargo to/from trucks or wagons as well as cargo storage (Manchanda, 2016). Landside operations also has to do with the various transport network connectivity (rail and road) necessary to move these goods to/from the stacking area for further transportation (Elferjani, 2015). The various port operations such as berthing, mooring, loading, unloading, and yard management are directly or indirectly interrelated and needs to be effectively coordinated in a timely manner in order to be competitive (Lee-Partridge et al., 2000).
The modern port is no longer a single entity but a component of the overall supply chain and its operations have implications on all activities associated with the transport of cargo and movement of goods. Thus, port operations are now integral part of supply chain management, hence its operational efficiency is criteria to ensuring customer satisfaction (UNCTAD, 2014). Due to the new development in the global economy, shipping ensures that the physical layouts of the ports are not essentially in line with user requirements and this somehow explains the increased privatization of port operations all over the world. For example, stevedoring operations in almost every port is now carried out by the private sector while most ports in the region are operating under the Landlord or fully privatized port formula through the involvement of multinational port operators (cf. Baird, 2002; Heaver, 2002; Ng, 2009; Liu, 2012). The berth throughput of a port and the quality of service rendered to inland vehicles (which is dependent on port infrastructure and labour) determines the quality of cargo handling at the port. Hence the productivity (throughput) is a measure of the port’s operational efficiency (Tongzon and Heng, 2006).
Not until 1970, GPHA performed all the cargo handling operations at the ports in Ghana (GPHA, 2014). Subsequently, the World Bank encouraged the government to privatize part of the stevedoring and other aspect of its operations (UNCTAD, 2014). The objective was to increase competition and enhance operational efficiency that will lead to quality services for customer satisfaction at the port. Currently, 10 licensed stevedoring companies operate in competition with GPHA’s stevedoring section at the Port of Tema (GPHA, 2014).
The last two decades saw a productive increase in the range and capabilities of mechanical handling equipment aside data processing computer software.
It is the believe of Richard Anamoo (2014) that if cargo has to be handled efficiently, critical factors such as the proper allocation, deployment and operation of technological equipment available must be taken into account. The participation of major and minor entities in the operations of seaports is very essential in ensuring efficient and prudent functioning of the port. The realization of port objectives greatly depends on the level of coordination and involvement of the various stakeholders within the port community (CEPS, 2016).
Presently, there is difficulty in defining port operational efficiency due to non-universal definition of what indicates an efficient port or what port operational efficiency entails. An efficient sea-port should be one that is competent in its operations leading to customer satisfaction (De Monie, 2009). Based on this definition, efficiency of a sea-port operation is determined by the duration (time) a ship stays at the port, quality of cargo handling and quality of services rendered to inland transport at the port. Many researchers have used various approaches to evaluate sea-port operational efficiency.
Annual firm level surveys have been employed as indicators of sea-port operational efficiency, but there was almost no information on how port operational efficiencies evolve over time and its effect on customer satisfaction (Blonigen and Wilson, 2006).
A number of studies have also used data on inputs, outputs and production function theory, by means of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), to estimate the most operational efficient production frontier across a set of sea-ports (Tongzon, 2001).
Again, it has been established that the size of a sea-port has a positive effect on its operational efficiency (Notleboom et al., 2000).
Transformation from public to private ownership is again believed to have improved sea-port operational efficiency without even a change in level of competition (Estrin and P erontin, 1991). Some other researcher contended that principal-agent problems may also arise in the private sector as a result of capital market imperfection (Tongzon and Heng, 2005).
2.4.3 Actors facilitating port operation Among the principal stakeholders involved in the overall day to day operations of the Tema port are:
Destination Inspection Companies
These are companies appointed or mandated by government to conduct inspection thus classification and valuation of import goods at the ports of clearance. Destination inspection was introduced in Ghana in April 2000 to replace Pre-shipment inspection. Pre-shipment inspection involved inspection of imports before shipment from the country of supply.
Inspection of goods used to be the exclusive preserve and responsibility of the Customs Exercise and Preventive Service until events of modern bulk packaging and transportation known as containerization by which large quantities of goods are packed into huge containers became the order of the day, and CEPS lacked the proper means by way of equipment for identifying and classifying goods packed and delivered in large containers into our ports. Also of importance is the fact that Pre-shipment inspection gave way to destination inspection as a result of new World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. Gateway Services Limited was the first company that was engaged to undertake destination inspection in the country.
The Customs Exercise and Preventive Service
The Customs Exercise and Preventive Service (CEPS) under the Ghana Revenue Authority plays indispensable role in the operations of ports. The service is mandated to collect import and export duty tax, petroleum tax and import excise. It promotes the protection of revenue through the prevention of smuggling of goods across Ghana’s borders.
Stevedoring companies are responsible for loading and offloading of goods on vessels. In port operations in Ghana, private stevedoring companies forms 75% whiles GPHA stevedoring forms
25%. Private stevedoring companies in Ghana include Atlantic Port Services Ltd, Advance Stevedoring Company Ltd, Ordert Stevedoring Company Ltd, Golden Gate Stevedoring Company Services Ltd and Safe Bond Company Ltd with GPHA serving as the only government stevedoring entity.
Ghana Ports and Harbour Authority
GPHA is practicing the hybrid module of Port operations. Mr. Asare Ansah (2014), Marketing and Public Relations manager of the Port of Tema said the landlord port approach which is being practiced in most of the countries along the sub region which is a World Bank agenda, stressing that this practice was not good for Ghana, so the GPHA opted for the hybrid way of operation which is yielding positive dividends. The hybrid module makes it possible for GPHA as a regulator to participate in cargo handling and marine operations as well as licensing private operators also to participate so as to attain sustainability emanating from the competition.
Individual Port Users (Shippers)
These include private individuals, agencies and groups who are involved in the maritime industry either by way of imports or export.
2.5 Logistics Activities at the port.These are activities carried out at the port to ensure the effective and efficient flow and storage of goods, services and related information from point of origin to the point of consumption. The logistics activities at the port includes;
2.5.1 Cargo HandlingThe port’s conventional role is seen as a place that handles ships and cargo with operational efficiency (Robinson, 2002).
The form of cargo-handling used at the port is mostly determined by the nature of the actual cargo and the type of packaging used. As far as dry bulk cargoes are concerned, handling comes in the form of use of power-propelled conveyor belts, usually fed at the landward end by a hopper or grabs, which may be magnetic for handling ores, fixed to a high capacity travel1ing crane or gantries.
These gantries does not move only parallel to the quay, but also run back for a number of distances, and cover a large stacking area, and are able to plumb the ship’s hold (IMO, 2015). For liquid cargo, (thus handling the movement of liquid bulk cargo, crude oil and derivatives), from the tanker ship is undertaken by means of pipelines connected to the shore-based storage tanks.
Oil cargo is discharged from the vessel’s tanks, through the cargo piping system to the main ship’s manifold usually situated amidships, on either port or starboard side. Through shore-based loading arms oil is transferred to the shore manifold and is then distributed to shore-based storage tanks on the oil terminal.
The loading arm hose must be flanged oil-tight to the ship’s manifold so that spillage can be avoided.
In the case of general cargo (goods, merchandise, commodities), also referred to as break bulk cargo, almost 90 percent of all such cargoes are containerized. Meanwhile the manual system of handling cargo will continue, but doubtless effort will have to be made to expand the already extensive use of the various types of mechanized cargo-hand1ing equipment (IMO, 2015). However, general cargo is handled by cranes on the quay (floating cranes) or by the ship’s own cargo gear (deck cranes, derricks, etc.) (IMO, 2015) and are the most essential equipment in cargo handling process (SCI, 2010; Lu et al., 2012) with their efficiency impacting throughput. Berth allocation can be made easy by efficiently using and scheduling quay cranes to reduce ship service time (turnaround time) and increase productivity (Zhang and Jiang, 2008).
In an attempt to minimize ship turnaround time as a result berths allocation issue, the port of Tema owns 12 multi-purpose berths for handling general cargo and a dedicated terminal for liquid cargo (GPHA, 2015).
Again, cargo handling includes the use of equipment to move cargo to and from vessels, trucks and yards for storage or transshipment.
This equipment typically operates at the terminals or at rail yards and are expected to be used efficiently to increase productivity. Aside the availability of equipment there are other salient features which have direct correlation with performance, motivation is one among them, and this is evident by the various ships calling at the port, those with motivations (incentives) yield better results than those without motivation from the same operators.
Studies shows that none motivating ships makes 15 moves per hour while those with incentives are making as high as 40 moves per hour. Ships planning also play an important role in measuring Vessel performance and the features which drives the performance are cargo handling equipment allocation to a particular ships such as the number of SSG (Ship to Shore Gantry), TT (Telegraphic Transfer) etc., these enables the ship to have a well-coordinated
flow of cargo loading and unloading. Safety, cargo loss and damage are other important factors influencing port performance (Gekara and Chhetri, 2013) aside the technical operational specification (equipment). With regard to African ports, it is important to note that the efficiency of these ports and the entire logistics chain is not solely dependent on the management structure or ports authorities. (Langat, 2013; Ruto and Datche, 2015).
2.5.2 Warehousing Colin Aidrie, a logistics expert of Logistics Bureau defined a warehouse as “a planned space for the efficient storage and handling of goods and materials”.
A warehouse can also be seen as an essential limb of the industrial unit (Sexan, 2003; Mensah, 2009).
Warehousing and storage systems at the port may vary in nature, depending on their usage and ownership, with the aim of facilitating the movement of goods through the supply chain. Goods can also be given temporal storage in order to carry out administrative procedures such as custom documentation, scanning and inspection among others.
Warehousing, storage and distribution centers exist primarily to facilitate the movement of goods to the end user and should be operated as an integral components of the supply chains. Decisions regarding the setup of such facilities should be determined by the overall logistics strategies for service and cost (Mensah, 2009).
The role of warehouses
Warehouses at the port assumes different roles at any point in time for imports and exports. The port serving as a logistics hub for the hinterlands and landlocked countries (Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso), handles different kinds of goods assuming different stages within the supply chain (e.g. from raw materials, semi-finished goods, finished goods, assemble parts, to dangerous goods, security goods, bullions among others). Warehouses can therefore play as:
Consolidating center: Due to the increasing demand for products variety in this current trend, customers order different product from different suppliers, and would normally prefer they are delivered together. Which would cause for grouping these products to make a single for shipment in order to reduce cost.
Cross-dock Center: This is where imported goods are transferred from the ship directly unto a loading truck for onward transportation without being put to storage. Lead times are shortened, hence increased customers service as well as a reduction in inventory cost when goods are cross- docked.
Sortation Center: This is a kind of cross-dock center but tends to be used for parcel carrier depots, where goods are brought to the warehouse specifically for the purpose of sorting to a specific region or customer.
Transshipment Point: This is where cargo is given temporal storage and then loaded to a different means of transport (e.g. trucks and trailers) for further distribution, mostly to the hinterlands and landlocked countries.
Collation and value added services: The warehouse also serve as a center where goods are picked and packed or assembled together to secure it together for a transit. This may include labelling and kitting.
Marshalling and Dispatch: Here the cargoes are marshalled together to form a vehicle load in the dispatch area and then loaded on to an outbound vehicle for onward dispatch to the next node in the supply chain (e.g. transshipment depot or to a freight forwarder’s depot for grouping/consolidation. (Coyle et al., 2011).
Types of Warehouses
Warehouses at the port can be Private, Public, Government and Bonded warehouses.
Private warehouses: These are warehouses owned and managed by the private individual and mostly constructed near business centers. These types of warehouses are designed and provided with facilities according to the nature of the products to be stored.
Public warehouses: These are warehouses owned by an individual, a partnership, firm or a company licensed and regulated by the government. These warehouses are mostly used by manufacturers, wholesalers, importers, exporters and government agencies (e.g., Ghana shippers’ warehouse).
Government warehouses: These are warehouses owned, managed and controlled by the central government, corporations, or local authorities and available for use by both private and government enterprises.
Bonded warehouses: These are warehouses owned, managed, and controlled by government as well as private agencies and are usually found around ports. These warehouses are used to store imported goods for which import duty is yet to be paid and upon which the goods would be allowed out of the warehouse. (ivkwarehousing.weebly.com).
2.5.3 Transportation at the port
In port history (commercial port), competitiveness has been determined by the physical characteristics and geographical location and their relationship with land side transportation system (Le-Griffin, 2008). Efficient and successful ports are regarded as those with good inland transport connectivity (e.g., road and rail). (Gekara and Chhtri, 2013; Chang et al., 2008). Consequently, road and rail network are expected to optimize container flow to increase productivity (Panova and Korovyakovsky, 2013). Containerization, since the 1950s has improved intermodal transport efficiency and has strengthened the competition among ports (Wang et al., 2013). And has resulted in port congestion as well (Elferjani, 2015). A comparison made by Sambracos and Maniati (2012) on road and freight transport based on private and social cost indicated that, sea transport was considerably more competitive than road to transport freight between port of Patras and Eleusis in Greece, even though road transport is fast and flexible.
The different modes of transport at the port
The mode of transportation matters most when planning a shipment. Factors such as the urgency of the shipment, the cost, value, volume, size, weight of the shipment as well as the distance involved are all to be taken into account. Below are the mode at Tema port:
Sea; Specialization and mass production has led to the need for market expansion to distant locations, which has also raised the demand for freight transportation. Freight transportation is generally referred to as a derived demand, which is triggered by the customer’s demand for goods and services (Coyle et al., 2011).
Sea transport is the backbone of global trade and bout 90% of non-bulk cargoes are transported by containers making shipping networks important components in global supply chains. In designing the shipping route both maritime and inland factors should be considered in order to optimize container flow through an end to end service (shipping and inland connections) in order to minimize total cost (Tran et al., 2017).
According to UNCTAD (2015), 1687 million tons were carried in about 177.6 million containers covering 998 billion per ton-miles and undoubtedly, freight transport accounted for about 90% of the global trade and this can be attributed to some cargo characteristics such as volume, size, weight and shape, makes them economically unviable to be moved by other modes of transport than sea. Some of the benefits of sea transport are, it is suitable for a wide range of products with long lead times, they have high carrying capacity of about 20,000 twenty- footers equivalent unit (TEU), wider coverage around the world, multi carrier options and economical (Carnarius, Freight hub 2018).
Rail: Rail transport has a high carrying capacity and lower energy consumption and less expensive on long distance, with low gas emission, they burn less fuel per ton-mile as compared to trucks but at each end of rail transit, a road delivery is needed hence handling cost of container transfer between train and truck. However, rail transport have strong safety record, reliable transit times and schedules, and are the most efficient form of land transport (Carnarius, Freight hub 2018). The rail is also a convenient mode for carrying large volume of goods to and from the ports, which are mostly mining material and equipment and other voluminous raw material. Rail lines are regard as capital intensive in terms of construction and maintenance rendering most rail lines in the country dormant, due to high maintenance cost (e.g., Tema port rail) since 2014.
Pipeline: This is the transportation of goods (oil) through laid pipes. This mode is transshipped directly from the tanker vessels carrying the cargo through the laid pipes to the importer/receiver’s end. For example the arriving tanker ships carrying the bulk oil is offloaded directly into the pipe lines to TOR (Tema Oil Refinery). This mode can be regarded as the safest so far in terms of multi- handling, theft and damage.
Road: Road transport is the most widely used among all the other modes at the port. It involves the use of trucks, container trailers among others to move goods to/from or within the port. Road transport is the most cost effective, flexible, delivers door-to door services and possible to trace truck and cargo. It requires a single custom processed document for a seamless movement of goods across various locations (Carnarius, Freight hub 2018).
According to GPHA, (2015) there are general transportation services at the port that are being provided by other stakeholders for moving cargoes from one destination to another.
The port also owns a fleet of trucks that are in full operation and also have a strategic alliance with third party trucks to ensure effective haulage services from Tema to Takoradi and Lome (Togo) ports terminals and other locations throughout the country and beyond the shores/borders of Ghana.
The third party trucks, GPHA works with includes May & Glisbys, Cargil Ghana, MAERSK Ghana, SDV Ghana, MPS, Sunda investments, Coca Cola Ghana limited, Pertproj Company limited, Kavage Ltd etc and also hauling containers from Tema harbour, Takoradi harbour, Kotoka international Airport, Aviance-Accra to local and international destinations such as Burkina-Faso, Niger, Mali, Mauritania, Togo and Cote D’ivore.
These haulage services are uniquely tailored to customers in a form of convenient, reliable safe and cost effective. They also aim to build the port’s capacity to effectively manage the transportation of goods and freight safely and in a timely manner. These trucks have GPS monitoring equipment to assure the safety of clients’ capital cargoes.
Multimodal: Multimodal transportation is a key component of modern logistics systems especially for long distance transnational transportation (Seo, 2017).
This mode combines different modes of transport such as rail, road, and sea. It allows the shipper to cost-effectively manage shipment throughout the chain ensuring maximum care and efficiency in every step of the journey. An example of multimodal transport is Sea-Air, which is regarded less expensive than air and quicker than sea transport.
It offers the global transportation industry with time and cost savings together with eco-friendliness. And is also a mode used to avoid cargo been put to storage, also allows cargo to be moved to any part of the world using multiple modes, makes it possible for an entity to handle all modes of transport under one shipping document, reduces the distance between customer and supplier as well as providing cost-efficient delivery options to customer. Multimodal transport is mostly used to avoid demurrage (a charge for delay of cargo at the port) (Carnarius, Freight hub 2018).
2.6 Port EfficiencyEfficiency is defined as the performance of any firm as against the bench mark (Liu, 2010).
From the field of operations management, Stevenson (2001) views efficiency as a tool to improve productivity, but efficiency should not be confused with productivity. Efficiency is a narrower concept that “pertains to getting the most out of a fixed set of resources; productivity is a broader concept that pertains to effective use of overall resources”.
Heizer and Render (1999) define productivity as the ratio of outputs (goods and service) to inputs (resources, such as labour and capital). The Job of the operations manager is to improve this ratio, “improving productivity means improving efficiency” (Ibid, P. 16). Chase et al. (2006) defines efficiency as doing something at the lowest possible cost”. Later they defined it as a ratio of actual output of a process relative to some standard or to measure the cost or gain in a process.
Port efficiency is often associated with productivity and performance; however, their focus is narrowed on measuring operating technology or total traffic volume of seaports. Another determinant of port efficiency is how efficient ports uses their inputs to produce current output level and whether the technologies adopted are the most efficient, critical to determine port efficiency (Merk et al., 2012). According to Clark et al. (2004), port efficiencies vary from country to country and region to region. They stated that, Asia has the most efficient ports in the world (Singapore and Hong Kong) and the most inefficient ports are in Africa (i.e., Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Malawi) and South America (Columbia, Venezuela and Ecuador). They added that a survey by the Inter-American Development Bank and World Bank shows that, the median number of days for African ports to clear customs is 12 days. With East and South African countries with the higher delays while Cameroon (12 days), Nigeria (18 days) and Malawi recording (17 days) making West African the highest in delay. They also concluded that, port efficiency is an important determinant of handling cost hence countries with inefficiencies have higher handling costs while efficient ports like Singapore having lower handling costs.
The smoothness of cargo flows along the supply chain is highly dependent on whether ports can act as an effective intersection point between ships and other transport modes where their efficiency and performance would be pivotal in deciding the level of optimization of the maritime logistics system (Liu, 2012).
In an attempt to ensure efficiency at the Tema port, management introduced an Automated System for Custom Data and subsequently GCNet (CEPS, 2013). The effect of all the improvement in operational efficiency at the port of Tema on customers’ satisfaction is as follows;
According to Bainiah (2008), the transferring of electronic message between customs and importers through the GCNet helps to save time, loss of document and resources with respect to the movement of customers from one office to the other. Again, the improvement in operational efficiency due to the introduction of the automated system (GCNet) has resulted in the following benefits to the customer;
Reduction in clearance time. Clearance time which used to be at least three days has reduced to at most two days. This helps importers to avoid demurrage and also prevent the lock up of capital in cargoes.
Bureaucratic processes due to the use of manual system leading to the extortion of money from customers have stopped to the satisfaction of clients.
An Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) can therefore improve port efficiency by reducing paperwork, improving customs clearance, and reducing lead-time. Horst and Langen, (2013) asserted that a deficit in information exchange at a port terminal adversely impacts the terminal’s logistical operational efficiency. Moreover, factors including, cost, time, dependability, infrastructure and yard capacity have all been cited by researchers as components of examining efficiency in port operations (Kennedy et al., 2011; Moon and Woo 2014; Ruto and Datche 2015).
2.7 Port Performance.Performance is a general industrial term to assess an organizations success in achieving some level of its strategic goals (Feng et al., 2013).
Logistics performance can as well be defined as the extent to which a firm’s goals are achieved (Bonney, 2014). Criteria’s for port performance are often found as determinants or factors influencing port competitiveness (Tongzon and Heng, 2015).
Performance has several dimensions and no single measure suffices for performance (Bonney, 2014). Port performance can be measured by three categories, port productivity, port efficiency and service quality (Elferjani, 2015).
Ports have always determined their performance by comparing their actual output to optimum output (measured in tonnage or number of containers handled). Also, it has been shown that ports with larger throughput seem to have certain performance advantage over those with smaller throughput (Cullinane et al., 2002).
The success of a firm can be defined in many ways including low cost, profit maximization, optimal efficiency or customer satisfaction in which if achieved, then firm’s performance is realized (Fugate et al., 2010).
Laird (2012), also added that, logistics information systems influence performance on suppliers, delivery performance, customer service, and inventory/logistics costs and then performance metrics are aligned with customer satisfaction, basically making customer satisfaction the definition of success hence positively influencing a firm’s performance.
Port performance can also be determined by comparing its performance with other ports or comparing the performances of the same port in different periods (Talley, 2007).
The production output of a port is measured by the volume of containers (i.e., Twenty- footer Equivalent Unit, TEUs) and production inputs which consist of regular “capital input” which are cargo handling equipment, terminal infrastructure and storage facilities. Also, port input includes several individual attributes and environmental variables (i.e., Degenerative inputs) such as the number of operators in a port, level of managerial coordination, gross domestic product (GDP), import and export. Thus “capital inputs” are regular and endogenous in terms of port technology as a production function, while individual attributes are degenerative and exogenous in terms of individual system heterogeneity of port production. In short, a port production function is expressed as in terms of output volume (y) as a function of regular input (x) (Liu, 2012).
Performance is considered to have improved over time if the actual throughput approaches its optimum throughput and also when the set target (profit) is met, at a particular period. Ruto and Datche, (2015) stated that, infrastructure such as cargo handling, yard capacity and customer services are some of the key logistical components that determines port performance. In order to enhance port competiveness, decision makers are focused to change their attention from the traditional issue of whether the port possesses the capacity to handle a given amount of cargo effectively to whether the port possesses the capacity to attract potential customers. Such changes pose significant implications for the methods used in assessing port performance because this where “port choice” has been put into question (Ng, 2009; Liu, 2012).
And as long as port users are offered varieties to choose from, rather than measuring physical output, port performance within a competitive market should be assessed through evaluating the economic cost, thus the ability of a port in attracting potential customers to use it and fighting off competitors (Liu, 2012).
Deepen (2007) also stated in his book that, logistics performance consists of two elements, logistics cost and logistics services. According to him, the logistic cost is comprised of all cost incurred to provide the chosen level of logistics services whiles the logistics services include the capability of supplying customers timely, reliably, and flexibly with quality products that suit the demands of the market. It can therefore be regarded in the above assertion that; port performance is greatly dependent on the logistics performance of the port. Some authors have also based logistics performance on four categories which are, effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction as well as IT and innovation. Studies by Neely et al., (1995) have proven that, quality, cost, time, and flexibility are four components that influence customers in choosing LSPs (Logistics Service Providers).
Nonetheless, performance is a multi-dimensional hence no single measure is available for performance (Bonney, 2014). Stakeholders measure port performance differently based on their interest and the nature of their businesses. For example, carriers are particular on seaside accessibility plus loading and unloading operational efficiency which relies on the efficiency of cargo handling equipment. The efficiency of loading and unloading, however, determines the ships turnaround time and schedule reliability. On the other hand, the freight forwarder is concerned about the reliability and efficiency of cargo clearance processes.
Criteria’s for port performance however, are mostly found as determinants of port competiveness or factors influencing port competitiveness (Tongzon and Heng, 2015). And can be measured by service quality, port throughput, seaside accessibility, landside connectivity, storage facilities and capacity, cargo dwell time, technology, ships turnaround time, transaction process, cost, port efficiency and additional service provided (Liu 2009, Le-Griffin, 2008, Acosta et al., 2011, Haezendonck et al., 2011 and Yan et al., 2009). These factors measure Port productivity, Port efficiency, and Service quality (Elferjani, 2015).
Conclusively, container ports have to advance their capacities by embracing strategies like new port designs, sophisticated infrastructure, long term planning, more efficient handling equipment, improved storage yard, advanced information technology and software programming (Asteris et al., 2012, Beskovnik, 2008 and Chang et al., 2008).
2.8 Conceptual FrameworkVarious theories and researched by scholars have established that, logistic operations, related supply chains have a direct import on the performance of ports.
This research therefore intends to find out the influence logistics operations and related supply chains has on ports performance at the Tema port. By making inferences from various theoretical and empirical studies, with independent and dependent variables relating to determine the influence on performance.
The diagram below represents this concept based on systems and activities at almost all ports. Following the diagram is a review of literature on the variables
24098254445178689034671000left5080Port Staff Competence
00Port Staff Competence
297471814592Logistics Service Delivery
00Logistics Service Delivery
left212090Port Customs Process
00Port Customs Process
187642584455 Dependent Variable
192405046736076200283210Port Information System
00Port Information System
Figure 1; Research model.
Source; Researcher’s own construct (2018).
The following discusses the various variables of the research model.
Port Information System
Information systems have become a necessity to the competitiveness of ports, enhancing communication and decision making for ensuring visibility, efficiency, reliability and security in port operations under given conditions. The provision of value added information services and analytics is increasingly important to maintain a competitive edge and to meet regulatory requirements (Heilig and Vo?, 2017).
Logistics information system is a computer based information system (IS) that supports every phase of logistics management and includes the coordination and management of various activities such as fleet scheduling, inventory replenishment and flow planning (Chang and Lee 2007). Logistics information system supports various automated decision making processes that generates less human errors and lower costs, more accurate results and as well increase the overall profitability and operational efficiency (Hofenk et al., 2011). Seven kinds of LIS applied in the logistics industry include: Load Planning System (LPS), Terminal Management System (TeMS), Vendor Selection System and Warehouse Management System (WMS), Finance Management System, Electronic Customer Relationship Management and Transportation Management System (TMS) (Shi et al., 2011). According to Bardaki et al., (2011) recent developed ICT such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Global Positioning System (GPS), Wireless mesh network and smart sensors provide real time tracking information on moving objects to enable firms better manage their logistics through improved and accurate delivery and tracking.
Bardaki et al., (2011) asserted that the successful integration of information within an entity is a strong enabler to reduced cost, increased productivity and improved customer service. Logistics planning and operations is one of the first intensive adaptation of advanced IT for reliable information for efficient operations. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Vehicle routing and scheduling and inventory replenishment are all examples of early applications (Wang et al., 2008). Through IT most daily logistics activities are automated while managers stay focused on strategic issues and core competencies (Bardaki et al., 2011).
Agostino et al., (2002) also indicated that, it is necessary to coordinate resources and information in order to achieve set goals in the port setting due to the complexity of port operations by having an efficient information and communication plan. Golicic et al., (2002) also indicated that collaboration among parties within the supply chain via real time information, improves supply chain visibility and delivery time.
The business of import and export in the world becomes quite cumbersome when stakeholders fail to reduce and simplify documentations required. Some of these procedures in the documentations for good clearance are useless and could cost about 1 to 15 percent of the import value (Ringborg and Sanga, 2009). It is therefore prudent to adopt a simple commercial framework to do business in the import and export sector.
To enhance logistic competiveness, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a vital tool which is now widely accepted (Feng and Yuan, 2006) and is also considered as a primary enabling tool for safe and efficient freight transportation systems (Giannopoulos, 2004). This is further supported by Shi et al. (2011) with the introduction of an efficient optimization based heuristics model based on the real time information to support the decision making process of a freight transportation network which resulted in improvement of logistics management and performance of retail businesses in China.
An Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) base application is an example of ICT application that have been used in various ports to improve logistics efficiency by eliminating unnecessary documentation, reducing paper work, reducing lead-time and improving customs clearance (Paik and Bagchi, 2000).
The Single Window concept which was developed during the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) by the UN Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) included ICT as a major component in the Single Window facility where individual data elements are submitted once. They defined the Single Window as; “a facility that allows parties involved in trade and transport to lodge standardized information and documents with a single entry point to fulfil all import, export, and transit-related regulatory requirements. If information is electronic, then individual data elements should only be submitted once”.
According to Lee-Partridge et al., (2000), regardless of the limited land resources of the Port of Singapore, authorities have used Information technology as tool to eliminate the effect of its small land size as compared to other countries to remain competitive. The World Bank report on LPI of 80 countries ranked Singapore fifth in the world with and LPI score of 4.14 with a performance percentage of 97.4 (World Bank, 2016). This shows that, though Ports may not be able to dramatically increase its land size, ICT can be used to increase the capacity to its constrained physical resources to run a virtual large port and still be more efficient and globally competitive. Through advance ICT, modern ports are able to integrate their operations, reduce labour force and consequently cut down cost and efficiently managing data and information in enhancing operational visibility (Gekara and Fairbrother, 2013). Beskovnik (2008), added that the use of new ICT to manage Seaside, terminal and land operations is another important determinant of port performance aside container handling equipment.
Ghana continues to infuse the Single Window concept in her port operations which includes the Ghana National Single Window (GNSW)-GCNet and the Paperless System which have all been introduced to make the two major Ports in the country more efficient and globally competitive.
According to the IT manager at the Tema port, GPHA (Ghana Ports and Habour Authority) was adjudged the best port in MIS (Management Information System) within the West and Central Africa Regions at the 2017 African Ports Awards ceremony held in Dakar for being regular on updating website news and accurate data among the ports in the West and Central Africa. These included; information on vessel call, vessel schedules, statistical data and news update among others.
He added that, the online vessel booking system introduced by the port Authority has led to improved communication and customer satisfaction as the time and cost shipping lines use in getting berthing space for their vessels has significantly reduced. And some other IT initiatives introduced by the port to improve the port processes are: the implementation of Terminal Operation Systems, which is a key part of the supply chain and primarily aims to control the movement and storage of various types of cargo in and around a container terminal to improve service delivery to clients and an initiative to tighten port security in order to minimize pilferage and theft (GPHA, 2017).
2. Port Infrastructure
Infrastructure comprises Human and Financial resources, Packaging materials, Warehouses, Transportation, and Communications (Tseng et al., 2005). These are structures, interrelated by function to enhance logistics operations at the port. (Example without handling equipment, port terminal and transportation and telecommunication networks) cargo would not gain mobility hence limiting trade. According to Myung-Shi (2003), deploying efficient cargo handling equipment is vital to provide a good customer service and minimizing ship’s turnaround time (Beskovnic, 2009, Lau and Zhao, 2008). Vince_V (2017) also asserted that, infrastructure and connectivity are a major importance for traders to bring their goods to destination.
Storage yard is also cited as one of the important elements in a container port, used to determine the volume of containers that can be stored and processed hence the type and number of handling equipment needed (Ioannou et al.,2000a; Wiese et al., 2010 and Alessandri et al., 2007).
A wider research was conducted by Chen (1999), on the main causes of unproductivity in the container movement process and it turned out that, many factors influenced operational efficiency and caused non-productive moves and these included shortage of storage capacity, poor quality of container information received and operational rules. However, it was found that, higher container storage had a serious impact on the number of unproductive moves and on delivery operations as well. Small storage space was maximized to contain more containers by stacking containers vertically, which also required the use of special and expensive stacking equipment to perform. This method of stacking therefore required double handling in retrieving stacked containers, which was time consuming, hence affecting container port performance (Alessandri et al., 2007 and Kozan, 2006). And as well affects quay cranes (handling equipment) performance, consequently ship turnaround time (Steenken et al., 2004a).
According to Ports Infrastructure Development Conference (2017), Sea-ports are under the pressure to adapt their infrastructure if they intend to grow in business and stay competitive. The current trend is, increasing vessel size, climate change, and existing structures moving beyond their intended design life and failure to adapt, maintain or rehabilitate structures could lead to operational challenges and even loss of business. These trend comes along with new level of congestion and activity that requires more land and higher automation and mega ships with mega dimensions, also creating the need to increase depth, replace locks and bridges as well as other infrastructure fixes like strengthening quays and cranes.
However, for ports to stay ahead and continue to grow in a competitive industry, they must become innovative, agile and flexible to be able to stand all potential impact in future.
Infrastructure development physically is one of the main elements which boost port performance. The UNCTAD in its report on LPI of over 70 countries, cited soft and hard infrastructure development as a major component in evaluating port performance in the supply chain. (UNTCAD, 2016). This can attest to the comparison study conducted by Myung-Shi (2003), on service quality at 15 major ports which indicated that, cost and port facilities emerged the highest priority to port users followed by customer convenience and information.
According to Ricky and Titus (2017), Port infrastructure are expensive and requires huge investment and cost. Most of these expensive resources including storage space (warehouse), container carriers, quay cranes and berths, roads and rails together, improve port performance by delivering on time services at a lower cost.
According to G.K. (2015), the Ghana Ports and Habours Authority is undertaking a project worth $1.5 billion to construct four deep water berths and access channels in order to accommodate larger vessels with high capacity equipment with an expected output of 3.5 million TEU (Twenty foot Equivalent Unit) per annum once completed in 2018.
However, some ports close to urban dwellings are spatially and environmentally constraint to accommodate infrastructure upgrading. This could be as a result lack of foresight by authorities during the construction of ports. While major port expansions have been spatially planned away from urban cores (e.g. Rotterdam’s Second Maasvlakte), much of the offloaded goods still need to be funneled through already congested metropolitan infrastructure corridors towards distribution centers and final markets in the hinterland. For this reason, logistics activities and distributions are increasingly being developed further inland and away from the congested ports, in turn making their intermodal connectivity with the ports and the coordination between various transport intermediaries of upmost importance (Notteboom and Rodrigue, 2005; Horst and Langen, 2008).
Port Staff competence
Competence is the ability of an individual to perform a job properly (Wikipedia). Human competence is indispensable in any organization that is determined to achieve its goals effectively. Lucia and Lespinger (1999), described competence as skills, behaviors, knowledge and personal characteristics a company needs from its employees in order to meet its strategic goals. Many researchers have also defined competency with slight similarities in all. Traditionally, Hayes (1980) defined competency by looking at the superior performance of an individual on the job. He stated that, skills, self-image, traits, motives and generic knowledge are all factors that contribute to an individual’s competencies. Human resource development is very vital when it comes to industrial development.
The growing competitiveness of ports in the world have been heavily linked to human resource development for growth potential and the port of Tema is no exception if better performance is to be achieved in order to be competitive in the Sub-African region.
All the other named factors which are required for efficient logistic service delivery in ports require effective human resources to function. If the port of Tema is to compete with the likes of South Africa and Egypt, human resource development through training and the hiring of competence and experienced staff is inevitable.
The seaport is now an indispensable transport node for the flow of product and information in the global supply chain require employees with the necessary competencies to contribute to port efficiency by providing services at a timely and cost effective manner. When these services are provided in a timely manner, incidence of delays, damage, and pilferage will be a thing of the past in a present efficient port and when efficiency becomes a hallmark, port user’s would, comfortably rely on it for the best of service at all times, earning the port a competitive edge.
Port Customs Processes
The laid down procedures required for the shipment and clearance of goods can be termed as the customs processes. Shippers and stakeholder who engage in the shipment and clearance of goods are expected to benefit a smooth and efficient logistic delivery at ports by way of a reduction in cost and timely delivery which could help them to compete globally and eventually move into new business opportunities.
The clearance processes at port has a significant bearing on the logistics services delivery. As the processes could be corrupted by various unforeseen or undocumented charges and bureaucracies causing delay to the customer. Almost all ports in the world have sought to improve their performance in terms of efficiency by implementing schemes to eliminate bureaucracies of documentation processing in good clearance.
A survey conducted by International Peace Information Service and Trans-Arms Research revealed the factors which affect cargo dwell time and performance are, system reliability for port authorities and rigidity of the clearance process. They stated that, most errors in declaration and manifest could take an average of seven days to rectify causing shippers to incur storage and demurrage charges, complexity in fulfilling documentation for transit related cargo and too many government agencies involvement in the clearance process. However, the clearance process remains one of the important measures to spot illegal things and to maintain safety at every port (Mussema, 2016).
Import clearance at the seaport of Ghana goes through several phases before the cargo is released to exit the port. Before goods are declared and released to exit the ports of Ghana, it should satisfactory go through the various stages in clearing.
The consignments also go through verification at the Compliance Section of CEPS, release by the Shipping Agent, delivery by Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority (GPHA), and CEPS physical examination or scanning of cargo before it exits the port.
Importers must appoint a licensed Customs House Agent/clearing agent (Legislative Instrument 1178 1978) with a credible reputation for the clearance of cargo at any freight station in Ghana (USAID, 2008). These processes are cumbersome but could be eased by various reforms and efficient management for early delivery and clearance of goods
The clearance processes at the port of Tema and typically every port Cochran (2016). Are as follows:
i. Submission of Manifest
The first step of any import clearance process for sea and air shipments in relation to Customs operation is the submission of the Master Manifest.
The Shipping agent, the Airline, or the Courier Company submits the Master Manifest electronically to Customs through the TradeNet in the form of an EDI message. After successful integration of the Manifest into GCMS, the system is then open for the acceptance of either the Declarations from the Declarants, or House Manifest from Forwarding agent (in the case of consolidation). This then proceeds with the submission of the Declaration (www.gcnet.gh.com, April 2014).
This stage of the clearance process requires importers to enter details from the Final Classification and Valuation Report FCVR) and relevant documents related to the consignment into the Ghana Customs Management System (GCMS) / the Ghana Community Network Services Limited (GCNET).
The system then validates inputs and assigns a Customs Declaration Form which is then printed by the importer. Once the validation is complete, the Declarant transmits the Declaration in the form of an EDI message also called CusDec (Customs Declaration) to TradeNet.
A legal Declaration number is generated upon successful completion of all levels of the declaration validation. Upon validation however, three possible options may engage; either declaration is rejected, validated and not selected by the Risk Assessment Module (RAM), or validated and accepted by the RAM. The GCMS validation process is performed at four levels:
i. Manifest Matching
ii. Checking of Reference Codes
ii. Computation of taxes and duties
iv. Filtering through the Selectivity Module
The GCMS reject the Declaration in cases where errors are detected during validation. In such cases, GCMS sends a response back to the Declarant listing all errors detected. The Declarant is then required to correct errors and resubmit. In the second scenario, it occurs when the GCMS RAM has found the declarations to be low risk; GCMS sends a response back to the
Declarant stating that the Declaration has not been selected.
This Declaration shall be processed by the Document Verification Office of Customs. Lastly, the third option occurs when GCMS RAM has found that the consignment is medium to high risk, GCMS sends a response back to the Declarant stating that the Declaration has been selected. This Declaration shall be processed by the Compliance Office of Customs. Once the validation process is complete, GCMS sends the CusRes (Customs Response) to TradeNet which in turn relays it back to the Declarant.
Upon receipt of the CusRes from GCMS, the Declarant shall print the Declaration from his/her FES at his/her office. All supporting documents as indicated on the Declaration e.g. hard copies of Bill of Lading, Invoice, Packing List, FCVR, IDF and other permits/certificates should then be attached to the Declaration ready for submission to Customs (Document Verification or Compliance). This then follows with the payment of necessary charges or duties at Bank.
iii Bank Payments
With the Customs Declaration Form, importers then proceed to the respective participating Bank to make payment of calculated or indicated duties and or taxes. Thus, having prepared all necessary documentation after validation of the Declaration in GCMS, the Declarant shall proceed to any of the participating banks and settle applicable duties, taxes and other charges.
There are currently two GCNet participating banks – Ghana Commercial Bank and Ecobank (www.gcnet.com.gh, April 2014).
Selected branches are connected to the GCMS server to collect all Customs Duties and Taxes. The bank is networked to GCMS and will confirm payment electronically. They also send the confirmation of payment in hand copy. The confirmation of payment from the bank of all applicable duties, taxes and other charges enables the file to be further processed in GCMS.
Failure from the bank to confirm payment of such charges in full will result in the file being “blocked” in GCMS. Declarant is to attach the receipt to the main documents for submission to Customs. After the Bank Payment Receipt is issued, the importer or his representative proceeds to the compliance and verification phase.
iv. Compliance / Verification
The importer submits a hard copy of Customs Declaration Form, Bank Payment Receipt and accompanying customs documents to compliance officer. The compliance officer then checks the documents and receipts for verification purposes. If any omissions are detected, the importer is made to put in a post entry to correct it. When all customs documents are verified and confirmed to be in order, the declaration is forwarded to an examination officer who then inspects the consignment.
In the examination room, the officer inspects the consignment and enters results in the GCMS. A hand copy is given to the officer in charge in the long room.
The consignment is also inspected by an inspection company i.e. BIVAC. The inspection company then issues a Final Classification and Valuation Report (FCVR) upon completion of inspection. This form is given to the officer in the long room who compares the FCVR with the Customs Declaration Form. During inspection however, refunds are made in cases where duties and taxes are overpaid by the importer or his representative. Also in situations of tax and or duties underpayment, the importer or consignee is made or required to pay the balance along with a penalty.
After this stage, additional certification, confirmation, and inspection is required for High Risk Goods. During this stage, homogeneous consignments and a limited number of heterogeneous consignments are typically scanned.
The officer in charge gives a copy of the Customs Declaration Form, and FCVR (where applicable), to the Assistant Commissioner. The Assistant Commissioner releases declaration to Chief Collector Preventive who finally submits declaration to the Loading Task Force.
vii. Release / Clearance
After all these above mentioned processes have been successfully carried out, with all valuation, payments, examinations, and confirmation and permits been granted, and declaration submitted to the Loading Task Force, the Task Force then releases goods to last gate for exit.
In the case of non-selected Declarations, Clearance of the consignment takes place immediately after submission of the hard copy of the Customs Declaration with all supporting documents to the Document Verification Officer. If the Declaration is selected for Compliance, clearance can only take place after successful physical examination.
(www.borderlesswa.com, May, 2014).
To boost trade and allow goods to reach their destinations needs efficient infrastructure as well as streamlined customs procedure (Hummels, 2012).
Electronics customs process could improve the efficiency of time and cost spent at port. And in fact, reduce corruption through transparency and the harmonization rules (Raus et al., 2012). Despite the introduction of paperless procedures that improve customs efficiency, the provision of excellent service is still lacking.
Logistics Service Delivery
Logistics service is one of the components of logistics system that aids the flow of materials and products from inputs through production to consumers, as well as related waste disposal and reverse flows. These include activities performed in-house by the users of the services (example, storage or inventory control at the manufacturer’s plant) and the operations of external service providers. Logistics service consist of physical activities such as transport and storage and non-physical activities such as supply chain design, selections of contractors and freightage negotiations which are mostly bi-directional (Tseng et al., 2005).
From the above, logistics service can be explained as being a part of the logistic system (infrastructure, port information system and customs processes) that work together to achieve the common logistics goal. And adds meaning to these logistics activities in a cost effective manner.
From the port perspective, it is easy for one to term these activities as both physical and non-physical under the shore handling operations, which talks about receipt, storage, transportation of cargo and other administrative services rendered to the importer/exporter. Logistics service therefore plays an important role in the entire logistic supply chain of the port.
And to achieve a successful logistics service, all players involved must be able to coordinate their activities with the activities of the other components of the logistics system (thus Information system and Infrastructure/ Resources) to provide a timely and cost efficient services to the port user. These systems should not just provide service, but quality service such as innovative variety of value- added activities and services to the customers to gain their loyalty (Misurata Free Zone, 2013).
Lack of coordination and communication among these stakeholders (port authorities, private terminal operators, and large shippers and government agencies) will adversely affect the entire port system.
Efficient logistic service delivery at the port is however dependent on how well the various systems in the port are managed which includes, infrastructure, Information systems, customs processes and competences of staff as shown in Figure 1.
The research model and hypothesis were developed for the study based on the relationship between the various indicators in the proposed model. The figure below defined the proposed model for the study. Based on this model, the researcher proposes that each of the factors (IT, port infrastructure, staff competency and custom clearance) highly affect the quality of logistics service delivery which intend impact the overall port performance. The hypothesized relationships between these indicators would be tested for statistical support using SPSS.
Information System and Logistics Service Delivery
Logistics Information continues to offer businesses enormous benefits which have been translated in competitiveness of many enterprises in recent time. Within the logistics industry particularly in port operations, the use of IT to coordinate operational activities has contributed significantly to logistics service delivery. Information system have become a necessity to the competitiveness of ports, enhancing communication and decision making for ensuring visibility, efficiency, reliability and security in port operations under given conditions. The provision of value added information services and analytics is increasingly important to maintain a competitive edge and to meet regulatory requirements (Heilig and Vo?, 2017).
Agostino et al., (2002) also indicated that, it is necessary to coordinate resources through an efficient information and communication plan in order to achieve set goals due to the complexity of port operations.
The business of import and export in the world has become quite complex especially when players within the industry fail to reduce and simplify documentations required. Some of these procedures in the documentations for good clearance are useless and could cost about 1 to 15 percent of the import value (Ringborg and Sanga, 2009) and have resulted in poor logistics service delivery.
As a result of these inefficiencies, it is therefore prudent that port operations are managed through the adoption of effective IT systems capable of coordinating all import and export transactions. To enhance logistics service delivery systems and the overall competitiveness, IT is a vital tool which is now widely accepted and considered as a primary enabler for safe and efficient freight transportation system (Feng and Yuan, 2006: Giannopoulos, 2004). Information system includes: efficacy, value addition, time, interactivity, user friendly and ease of use. This was adopted from Elferjani (2015).
On the bases of this development the study therefore hypothesized that Information Systems have an impact on logistics service delivery.
H1: Information systems have a positive impact on logistics service delivery
Port Infrastructure and Logistics Service Delivery
Port Infrastructure is undoubtedly a major facilitator of service delivery at port. They are structures interrelated by function to enhance logistics operations and without which (e.g. handling equipment, terminal, transportation and communication networks) meant for shipment would not be a success (Tseng et al., 2015).
According to UNCTAD (2016), infrastructure development physically is one of the main elements which boost port performance and it is regarded as a major component in evaluating port performance in the supply chain. Also Ports and Infrastructure Development Conference (2017), indicated that seaports are under the pressure to adopt infrastructure if they intend to grow in business and stay competitive.
Port infrastructure includes; handling equipment, location, terminal size, terminal connections, internal and external transportation and warehousing facilities. These variables were adopted from Mussema (2016) and modified
Therefore the study thus proposes that port infrastructure affects logistics service delivery, leading to the following hypothesis
H2: Port infrastructure has a positive impact on the quality of logistics service delivery
Staff Competence and Logistics Service Delivery
Staff competence is indispensable in any organization that determined to achieve set goals effectively.
Competency can be described as the skills, behaviors, knowledge and personnel characteristics a company needs from its employee in order to meet its strategic goals Lucia and Lespinger (1999).
The ever growing competitiveness of ports in the world have been heavily linked to human resource development for growth potential and Tema Port is no exception if better performance is to be achieved in order to be competitive in the Sub-African region.
Human resource is therefore required to manage all of the above factors for efficient logistics delivery at seaport. If the port of Tema is to compare with the likes of South African and Egypt, human resource development through training and hiring of competent and experienced staff is inevitable.
Staff competence include: staff knowledge, expertise, skills, capabilities and communication. These are as well adopted from Mussema (2016) and modified per the objectives of the study
Consistency with the discussions illustrated above, the study hypothesized that staff competency has a larger influence on effective logistics service delivery.
H3: Staff competency has a positive impact on the quality of logistics service delivery
Custom Process and Logistics Service Delivery
Custom processes are the laid down procedures required for the shipment and clearance of goods at the port. Every importer and exporter’s expectations is an efficient and smooth logistics service delivery by way of cost reduction and timely delivery.
The clearance process ensures that shipments are verified and the right duties paid to the government and other stakeholders involved through the classification and valuation of goods. A survey conducted by International Peace Information Service and Trans-Arms Research revealed that, factors which affect cargo dwell time and performance are, system reliability for port authorities and rigidity of the clearance process. They added that, most errors in declaration and manifest could take an average of seven days to rectify causing shippers to incur storage and demurrage charges, complexity in fulfilling documentation for transit related cargo and too many government agencies involvement in the clearance process.
However, before goods are declared and released to exit the ports of Ghana, it should satisfactory go through the various phases in clearing.
The consignments also goes through verification at the Compliance Section of CEPS, release by the Shipping Agent, delivery by Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority (GPHA), and CEPS physical examination or scanning of cargo before it exits the port (www. boarderlesswa.com, May, 2014).
Custom clearance processes is measured by speed, simplicity, coordination, understandability and attitude of official in the processes. These variables were adopted from Mussema (2016) and modified to meet the objectives of the study.
On the basis of this, the researcher proposes that custom procedures have a major influence on the level of service delivery
H4: Custom processes have a positive impact on the quality of logistics service delivery
Logistics Service Delivery and Port Performance
Logistics service is one of the components of logistics systems that aid the flow of materials and products from inputs through production to consumers, as well as related waste disposal and reverse flows. These include activities performed in-house by the users of the service (example, storage or inventory control at the manufacturer’s plant) and the operations of external service providers. Logistics service consist of physical activities such as transport and storage and non- physical activities such as supply chain design, selection of contractors and freightage negotiations which are mostly bi-directional (Tseng et al., 2005) which impact largely on the overall performance of port operations.
From the above, logistics service can be explained as being a part of the logistics system (infrastructure, port information system and customs processes) that work together to achieve the common logistical goal. Successful coordination of these components have resulted in higher levels of efficiencies which intend have a major impact on port performance. It is also clear from the discussion that the level of quality of service delivery will increase operational performance through flexible operations, cost reduction (efficiency) and speedy service delivery.
Service delivery at the port include: cargo clearing time, cargo throughput, flow of activities at the yard, speed of service, consistency of service, customer waiting time, customer service time, and flexibility of customer service. These variables were as well adopted from Mussema (2016) and modified meet objectives of the study.
Based on the above discussions, it can be seen that logistics service delivery has greater impact on port performance, therefore the study hypothesized that;
H5: Logistics service delivery has a major impact on the overall port performance
CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGY3.0 IntroductionPurpose of this chapter is to present the research methods that will be used for gathering the needed data for this study. The description of different research methods and reasoning of their use in this study work which includes the sources of data, data collection technique, sampling technique, sample size determination, data presentation and analysis will be explained in this chapter.
3.1 Research DesignFor the purpose of meeting the objectives of this study, the descriptive research designs will be adopted.
Churchill (1991) defined descriptive study as the determining of the frequency with which something occurs or relationship between variables. In descriptive study, information is collected without changing the environment; that is nothing is manipulated.
To demonstrate relationships and explain things as they are, descriptive studies is usually the best method for obtaining information.
Descriptive study provides information or data to describe or define a phenomenon (Cooper and Schindler 2003). With regards to this study, data regarding service delivery at the Tema port is described or defined in order to draw a certain conclusion.
3.2 Research Approach The researcher adopted the quantitative research approach to collect data and to make a quantitative analysis using SPSS and Excel to present data for easy interpretation. Quantitative research method is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world. This research method is used to determine the cause-and-effect interactions between variables (Burns and Grove, 2005).
3.3 Population of the studyPopulation is defined as the entire aggregation of respondents that meet the designated set of criteria (Kothari, 2004). It is a set of all members of a real or hypothetical set of people, events or subjects to which a researcher wishes to generalize his/her results (Ngechu, 2004).
In this study the population as clearly specified by the scope of the study which is the Tema port community; Port users, Port authority staff, Logistics service providers, various terminal operators and Government agencies within the port.
3.4 Sample SizeSaunders et al., (2012) refers to sample as a subset of the target population. A sample can be used to derive inferences about the population if appropriate sample size and sampling techniques are used.
A sample size is the number of units of observation that the researcher intends to collect information from. As a result of cost and time constraints, a convenient sample size of 150 selected respondents comprising males and females which included Port users, Port authority, and other stakeholders within the port (such as Logistics service providers, terminal operators, Destination inspection companies, Customs, agents’/ Freight forwarders and other Government agencies).
3.4.1 Sampling TechniquesPurposive sampling technique was used for this study. Purposive sampling is a series of strategic choices about with whom, where and how one does a research. This type of sampling is a non-probabilistic sampling technique where views are elicited from particular stakeholders with particular expertise and knowledge about a project under study.
Plays (2008) described purposive sampling as a stakeholder sampling in the context of evaluation research and policy analysis which involves identifying who the major stakeholders who are involve in designing, giving, receiving or administering the program being evaluated and who might otherwise be affected by it.
These studies depict an exact case by engaging stakeholders involved in the Logistics operations and services delivery at the port of Tema. This study therefore purposively selected the following stakeholders as respondents; Port Authority staff, Port users, Logistic, Terminal Operators and Government agencies (e.g. CEPS).
3.5 Source of data
The source of data collected for the study consisted of primary and secondary data.
3.5.1 Primary dataPrimary data are data which are collected from the target respondents using structured quantitative questionnaires.
The closed-ended questionnaires were used to get the unbiased opinion of respondents Specimen of the questionnaires would be attached as Appendix A. The data collection instrument were made prudent for respondents to offer the information required for the analysis.
3.5.2 Secondary DataSecondary data refers to data collected by other source than the user. Relevant literature which formed the major sources of secondary data was reviewed from sources such as corporate journals, thesis and electronic libraries among others to appreciate literature on key concepts, issues and component relating to the study area.
3.6 Data Collection InstrumentThe instruments used for the collection of the primary data were structured questionnaires. Questionnaires were administered and collected within a month. The study relied extensively on primary data in addressing the set objectives of the research. Secondary data was particularly useful in establishing some critical findings. 3.7 Variables for designing the questionnairesInformation system includes: Ease of use, simplicity, interactivity, value addition, reliability
3.8 Pre-testingA pre-testing activity of the data collection instruments is used to ascertain the adequacy of the questionnaire in obtaining the desired response. Issues focused on were the construction of the English Language, validity and reliability of the questions. There were a couple of ambiguities relating to the construction of the questions which were subsequently modified.
The pilot test was very helpful to the researcher because it gave the researcher the confidence that the questions were going to elicit the needed response required for the study. It also gave an indication that there were follow up questions aiming at clarifying some answers.
3.9 Ethical IssuesAlmost all the stakeholders have strict policy on confidentiality. Disclosing information to a third party can expose their institution to public criticism and therefore being mindful of this ethical issue, the respondents were sometimes careful in the disclosure of information.
This was addressed by constantly assuring them that the data was purposely for academic exercise and their confidentiality was highly assured. In furtherance to that names and other information that could easily reveal the identity of respondent were not disclosed in the data collected.
Participation was voluntary as their consent were appropriately sought before administering the data instruments and sources of information for this study were duly acknowledged as required.3.9 Data AnalysisData from the respondent were collected, entered, processed and result generated through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) soft version 20. SPSS is a tool that help the researcher to present findings in a quantitative manner which increases the understanding of the finding through the use of the descriptive statistics. Specifically, descriptive statistics will be done using percentages and then presentation done in simple bar chart, pie chart and histogram aside descriptive narration.
The data collected was scrutinized to determine their suitability, reliability and adequacy and accuracy. Statistical tools were used to convey the meaning of the data gathered and as such made the analysis straight forward.
CHAPTER FOURDATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS4.0 IntroductionFor the purpose of the research, this chapter presents the analysis of data obtained from the various respondents on factors which are influencing port performance at the Tema Port. From the analysis, this chapter also contain tables and charts which shows statistical representation of the results obtained.
4.1 ValidityTo ensure validity of the construct. The Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO) and Barlett’s Test of Sphericity which measures the sampling adequacy to check to variable ratio were used for the factor analysis. These two test have been used in most academic works for the acceptance of sampling adequacy. The KMO ranges from 0 to 1 which shows increasing order of adequacy. KMO of over 0.5 to 1 is the accepted index. The Barlett’s Test of spherecity which relates to the suitability of the responds rate of the study must be less than 0.05.
The study therefore used these two test to show if thr relationship among variable are significant or not. The results is shown in table 4.1. Factor one which represented staff competence used 10 items. Factor 2 which indicates custom processes used 6 items. Factor 3 which looked at the infrastructure at the port represented 10 items. Factor four showing the port’s information system represented 7 items and factor five which indicates logistics service delivery at the port had 9 items. From the test, KMO’s measure of sampling adequacy had a value of 0.785 which shows high acceptance of the items used in the survey. The Barlett’s Test of Sphericity showed a value of 0.000 being less than 0.05 and therefore indicates high significant relationship among variables.
KMO and Bartlett’s Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .785
Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 3442.621
Table 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC 1KMO and Barllet Test
4.2 Reliability AnalysisTo produce stable and consistent results, reliability test was carried out prior to the actual study. This was a way to carry out pre-testing of the research instrument. The result for the various variables and their reliability test value (Cronbach’s Alpha) is shown in table 4.2 The pilot study showed that all the four categories were reliable since their values exceeded the prescribed value of 0.7 (Bryman and Bell, 2015).
Number of Items Cronbach’s Alpha Remarks
Staff Competence 10 0.858 Accepted
Custom Process 6 0.813 Accepted
Port Infrastructure 10 0.830 Accepted
Information System 7 0.765 Accepted
Logistics Service Delivery 9 0.855 Accepted
Table 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC 2 Reliability Analysis
4.3 Background informationThe research gathered certain background information of the respondents including their level of education, company they are working in or the form of their involvement with port activities and their working experience.
Valid Female 37 24.7
Male 113 75.3
Total 150 100.0
Table 4. SEQ Table * ARABIC 3 Gender of Respondents
4.3.1 Level of EducationThe study sought to find out the level of education of the respondents which showed that 44% of them had first degree education followed by secondary education at 23.3% and Diploma at 16.7% and Master’s degree at 13.3%. Only 2.7% of the respondents had no education as shown in table 4.4 This showed that almost all the respondents are well educated to be able to give good and reliable answers to the items in questionnaires.
Level of Education
Valid Diploma 25 16.7
First Degree 66 44.0
Master’s Degree 20 13.3
No Education 4 2.7
Secondary 35 23.3
Total 150 100.0
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4.4 level of Education
4.3.2 Company/Position of RespondentsVarious stakeholders at the Tema port were interviewed. The highest being 48.7% were port users including Agents, Shippers freight forwarder and Transport operators at the Tema Port. Others were Logistic Service Providers (Terminal Operators, Stevedore and etc) at 18% of the population. Government Agencies such as CEPS, Police and Immigration were 6.7%. Employees at the port were categorized into lower level, middle and senior employees who were 4%, 16% and 4% respectively. So in total, employees at the Tema port who participated as respondents were 24%. This indicated that, most of the respondents were port users(customers) and employees at the Port. This is shown in table 4.5.
Valid A customer/Client of Tema Port 3 2.0
A front-line/lower level employee of Tema Port Authority 6 4.0
A middle level employee of Tema Port Authority 24 16.0
Government agencies (e.g. CEPS, Police, Immigration 10 6.7
Logistics Service Provider(e.g. Terminal Operator, Stevedore 27 18.0
Other(s), please indicate 1 .7
Port users (e.g. Agent, Shipping line, ShippersFreight Forwarder, Transport Operator) at the Tema Port 73 48.7
Senior level employee of Tema Port Authority 6 4.0
Total 150 100.0
Table 4.5. Position of Respondents
4.3.3 Working ExperienceThe working experience of the respondents were also established in the research. From the results, those who have worked between 1 – 3 years were 2%, between 3-4 years were 6%, between 4 – 5 years were 11.3% and those who have worked above 5 years were 78.7% as shown in Table 4.6 This indicate that most of the respondents were having working experience above 5 years.
Level of experience
Valid About 3 years 3 2.0
About 4 years 9 6.0
About 5 years 17 11.3
More than 5 years 118 78.7
n/a 3 2.0
Total 150 100.0
Table 4.6 Level of Experience
4.4 Analysis of ObjectivesThe researcher adopted a rating scale ranging from 1 to 7 which indicate the state of various items in the questionnaire relating to operations at the Tema port where 1 indicate strongly disagree state and 7 being strongly agree. Respondents were asked to choose the number which is suitable to the various items in the questionnaires. From their responds, analysis for mean and standard deviation were calculated on this rating scale.
4.4.1 Staff CompetenceTo establish the effect of staff competence on logistics service delivery at the Port, respondents were asked to give their opinion on 10 items that sort to evaluate the competence of the Tema port. The statement that the staff are knowledgeable about their work had a mean score of 5.4 and a standard deviation of 0.905. The statement staff are knowledgeable about the use of service delivery tools and technology had a mean score of 4.47 and a standard deviation of 0.924. The statement that staff have the required professional expertise to perform their work had a mean score of 4.71 and a standard deviation(SD) of 0.816. The statement in agreement that staff possess the technical skills to solve customers’ problem on time had a mean score of 3.88 and a SD 0.590. These and other statement and their mean and SD are shown in table 4.7 From the table, the competence of the staff is mostly rated from 4 to 5 mean scores which shows quite satisfactory competence level. A lower standard deviation indicates that, most of the opinion of the respondents were close to the mean obtained while a high standard deviation tells otherwise. The low standard deviations obtained shows that, most of the respondent had their opinion close to the mean or they were mostly of the same view.
Descriptive Statistics (Staff Competence)
N Mean Std. Deviation
Are knowledgeable about their work 150 5.40 .905
Are knowledgeable about the use of service delivery tools and technology 150 4.47 .924
Have the required professional expertise to perform their work 150 4.71 .816
Have the skills required to understand the specific needs and preference of customers 150 4.39 .758
Have the capability to respond to service failure and restore operation promptly 150 4.09 .617
Have the ability to complete their work on time 150 3.91 .623
Possess the technical skills to solve customers’ problem on time 150 3.88 .590
Possess the expertise to effectively analyse customers’ problem and concern 150 4.06 .546
Have the ability to communicate effectively when dealing with customer issues 150 3.95 .583
Possess the knowledge to help customer better understand the service delivery processes 150 4.06 .546
Valid N (listwise) 150 Table 4.7 Descriptive Statistics(Staff Competence)
4.4.2 Custom Processes
The second objective was to establish how the port’s custom process influence logistics service delivery. The respondents therefore responded to statements which relates to the Port’s custom processes. The statement that custom processes at Tema Port’s easy to understand had a mean score of 3.45 and a SD of 0.641. The statement that custom clearance processes at Tema Port is fast enough had a mean score of 2.53 and a standard deviation of 0.808. The statement that Tema port has minimal level of delays in its custom processes had a mean score of 2.17 being the lowest and a SD of 0.775. The statement that the Tema port has simplified custom processes had a mean score of 2.67 and a SD of 0.671. These and other statements and their descriptive statistics are shown in table…. The mean scores obtained for the statements are low which show a poor custom processes at the port as expressed by the respondents.
Descriptive Statistics (Custom Process)
N Mean Std. Deviation
Custom processes at Tema Port’s easy to understand 150 3.45 .641
Custom clearance processes at Tema Port is fast enough 150 2.53 .808
Tema Port’s custom processes are well-coordinated and synchronized 150 3.50 .730
Tema port has minimal level of delays in its custom processes 150 2.17 .775
Tema port has simplified custom processes 150 2.67 .671
Tema Port’s custom processes are free from unfair and dishonest practices 150 2.40 .705
Valid N (listwise) 150 Table 4.8 Descriptive Statistics (Custom Process)
4.4.3 Port InfrastructureInfrastructure is one of the key component in logistic service delivery. The study therefore sought to establish the effect of the Tema Port infrastructure on logistic service delivery. The respondents were given statements in relation to port infrastructure to respond according to their opinion. The statement that Tema Port has handling equipment that are readily available had a mean score of 4.29 and a standard deviation(SD) of 0.710. The statement that the Tema Port has handling equipment that are readily accessible had a mean score of 4.21 and a SD of 0.681. The statement that the Tema Port has handling equipment that are easy to use had a mean score of 3.79 and a SD of 0.822. The statement that the Tema Port handling equipment are always in good shape/condition for use had a mean score of 2.95 and a SD of 0.745. The statement that the terminal size of the port is large enough to meet prevailing demands has a mean score of 3.74 and a SD of 0.670. These and other statements and their descriptive statistics are shown in table 4.9. The mean score obtained for most of the items relating to the Port’s infrastructure is 4 in approximation which indicated that, the infrastructure at the port is quite satisfactory but still needs improvement.
Descriptive Statistics (Port Infrastructure)
N Mean Std. Deviation
Tema Port has handling equipment that are readily available 150 4.29 .710
Tema Port has handling equipment that are readily accessible 150 4.21 .681
Tema Port has handling equipment that are easy to use 150 3.79 .822
Tema Port handling equipment are always in good shape/condition for use 150 2.95 .745
The location of Tema Port is ideal (for customers, agents, etc.) 150 4.09 .383
The terminal size of the port is large enough to meet prevailing demands 150 3.74 .670
Terminal connection layout at the Tema Port is good 150 3.81 .584
Tema Port has effective and efficient internal transportation network systems 150 3.18 .666
Tema Port has effective and efficient external transportation network systems 150 3.68 .717
The Port has adequate warehousing facilities 150 3.77 .984
Valid N (listwise) 150 Table 4.9 Descriptive Statistics (Port Infrastructure)
4.4.4 Information SystemThe fourth objective as to establish how the information system at the Tema Port affect logistic service delivery. In their responds to the various statement relating to the port’s information system, the statement that, the information system at the port is user-friendly had a mean score of 3.73 and a SD of 0.564. The statement that the information system at the port allow users to save time had a mean score of 3.78 and a standard deviation of 0.542. The statement that the port information system makes service delivery processes effective and efficient had a mean score of 4.11 and SD of 0.661. The statement that the system is interactive enough to use had a mean score of 4.03 and a SD of 0.523. The statement that the Port’s information system adds significant value to the service delivery process had a mean score of 4.18 and SD of 0.742. These and other statement with their descriptive statistics are shown table 4.10
Descriptive Statistics (Information System)
N Mean Std. Deviation
Is user-friendly (i.e easy to use by fronyline employees, customers, agents, etc.) 150 3.73 .564
Allows user (i.e easy to use by frontline employees, customers, agents, etc.) to save time 150 3.78 .542
Makes service delivery processes effective and efficient 150 4.11 .661
Is interactive enough for users 150 4.03 .523
Requires less effort to use it 150 3.24 .792
Adds significant value to the service delivery process 150 4.18 .742
Is reliable enough for users 146 2.39 .668
Valid N (listwise) 146 Table 4.10. Descriptive Statistics (Information System)
4.4.5 Logistics Service DeliveryThe study which is to examine the effect of the four variables being Information System, Custom Processes, Port Infrastructure, Staff Competence on logistic service delivery at the Tema Port also sort to find out the state of logistic service delivery at the Port. Respondents were therefore asked to rate various service delivery at the port from being poor to excellent in a range of 1 to 7 respectively. From their responds, the rate for cargo clearing time at the port had a mean score of 3.25 and a SD of 0.687 which indicate somewhat a poor cargo clearing time. The rate for cargo through put had a mean score of 4.27 and a SD of 0.644 which is quite satisfactory according to the respondents. The rate for the flow activities at the Tema Port yard had a mean score of 4.38 and a SD 0.662 which also a quite satisfactory score. The speed at which the port addresses customers need had a mean score of 2.89 and a SD of 0.608 which indicate poor state at which customers’ needs are addressed. All the various items relating customer’s needs in service delivery had a low mean score in the range of 2 to 3 which is quite poor according to the respondents as shown in table 4.11. Respondents were asked to rate the performance of overall logistic service delivery. This had a mean score of 3.59 and a standard deviation of 0.626 which is somewhat satisfactory according to the respondents.
Descriptive Statistics (Logistic Service Delivery)
N Mean Std. Deviation
Cargo clearing time (i.e. the time cargo arrives and leaves the port) at Tema Port is 150 3.25 .687
Cargo throughputs (i.e. volume of cargos that arrive and leave the port) at Tema Port is 150 4.27 .644
The flow of activities at the Tema Port yard is 150 4.38 .662
The speed at which Tema Port addresses customer needs is 150 2.89 .608
The consistency at which Tema Port addresses customer needs on time is 150 2.94 .546
The time it takes for Tema Port’s customers to wait-in to be attended to is 150 2.96 .542
The time it takes for Tema Port to process customers’ requests is 150 3.01 .498
The flexibility at which Tema Port addresses customer needs is 150 2.99 .573
Tema Port’s overall service delivery performance is 150 3.59 .626
Valid N (listwise) 150 Table 4.11. Descriptive Statistics (Logistic Service Delivery)
4.5 Correlation AnalysisIn establishing the relation between the independent variables (Information System, Custom Processes, Port Infrastructure, Staff Competence) and the dependent variable (Logistic service delivery), correlation analysis including coefficient of correlation and coefficient of determination were conducted.
4.5.1 Coefficient of CorrelationThe Pearson Bivariate correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between the dependent and independent variables. A linear relationship of dependent and independent variables has a correlation coefficient ranging from -1.0 to 1 where -1 indicate a perfect negative correlation and +1 indicate a perfect positive correlation. This help to determine the strength of relation between independent and independent variables. (Engman, 2009). The results obtained for this study is shown in table 4.12. The results showed a positive correlation between the independent variables and the dependent variable. The coefficient of correlation(r) were, 0.506, 0.398, 0.539 and 0.241 for Staff Competence, Custom Processes, Port Infrastructure and Information System respectively.
Logistics Service Delivery Staff Competence Custom Processes Port Infrastructure Information System
Logistics Service Delivery Pearson Correlation 1 .506** .398** .539** .241**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .003
N 150 150 150 150 150
Staff Competence Pearson Correlation .506** 1 .436** .518** .333**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000
N 150 150 150 150 150
Custom Processes Pearson Correlation .398** .436** 1 .378** .266**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .001
N 150 150 150 150 150
Port Infrastructure Pearson Correlation .539** .518** .378** 1 .314**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000
N 150 150 150 150 150
Information System Pearson Correlation .241** .333** .266** .314** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .003 .000 .001 .000 N 150 150 150 150 150
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table 4.12. Table 5Pearson Bivariate correlation coefficient
4.5.2. Coefficient of Determination (R2)The four factors affecting logistics service delivery at the port were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the research model. A linear regression analysis was therefore computed to predict the casual relationship between the independent variables (Staff Competence, Custom Processes, Port Infrastructure and Port Information system) and the dependent variable (Logistic service delivery). The result of the regression analysis is shown in table 4.13. In a social research, a model is still good even if the Coefficient of Determination (R2) is as much lower value between 0.1 – 0.20 (Cooper and Schinder, 2013). From the results obtained, (0.285) 28.5% variance explains the effect of Information System, Custom Processes, Port Infrastructure and Staff Competence on logistic service delivery. The value obtained showed that, there are other factors that can be used to determine logistics service delivery. Meanwhile the value obtained for the four variables is valid for the research (Cooper and Schinder, 2013)
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
R Square Change F Change Sig. F Change
1 .534a .285 .265 .31396 .285 14.064 .000
Table 4.13. Coefficient of Determination (R2)
a. Predictors: (Constant), Information System, Custom Processes, Port Infrastructure, Staff Competence
4.6 Regression Analysis4.6.1 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)In testing the significance of the regression model, statistical significance was known to be significant if the p-value as less than 0.05. The ANOVA test from table 4.14. Indicated that, the significance of the regression model is 0.00 which is below 0.05. The regression model is therefore statistically significant in predicting factors affecting logistic service delivery. At a confidence level of 95%, the model shown to be highly significant with the overall ANOVA results of the model at F = 14.064 and p = 0.000
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 5.545 4 1.386 14.064 .000b
Residual 13.899 141 .099 Total 19.444 145 a. Dependent Variable: Logistics Service Delivery
b. Predictors: (Constant), Information System, Custom Processes, Port Infrastructure, Staff Competence
Table 4.14. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
4.6.2 Multiple RegressionThe relationship between value chain and the four variables were conducted using the multiple regression. The result is indicated in table 4.15.
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1.133 .309 3.669 .000
Staff Competence .172 .071 .207 2.436 .016
Custom Processes .114 .057 .160 2.011 .046
Port Infrastructure .202 .066 .254 3.070 .003
Information System .087 .071 .099 1.235 .219
Table 4.15 Multiple Regression
Dependent Variable: Logistics Service Delivery
The regression equation was:
Y = 1.133 + 0.172X1 + 0.114X2 + 0.202X3 + 0.07X4
Where; Y = the dependent variable (Logistics Service Delivery)
X1 = port staff competence
X2 = port customs processes
X3 = port infrastructure
X4= information system
From the results, when all factors are taken into account, constant at zero logistic service delivery will be 1.133. From the table 4.15, the findings also show that when all the independent variables are at zero, a unit increase in the staff competence, custom processes, port infrastructure and information system will lead to 0.172, 0.114, 0.202 and 0.087 increase in the score of logistics service delivery respectively. This shows that all the four variable have a positive relationship with the dependent variable, logistic service delivery with port infrastructure contributing the most.
CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATION5.1 IntroductionThis chapter involves a summary of the findings in the previous chapter and give conclusion on the findings. The chapter finally gives recommendation based on the results obtained.
5.2 Summary of the ResultsThe study was conducted to examine the factors that affect logistic service delivery at the Tema Port. The study was on conducted on some stakeholders of the Tema port at a sampling size of 150. Structured questionnaires constituting 42 items were electronically submitted to the respondents to responds the items. The respondents were employees at the port, port users including agents, Freight Forwarders and Transport Operators. and Logistics Service Providers. The data obtained was analyzed using frequencies, mean score, percentages standard, deviation, correlation and regression.
From the results, there was a strong positive correlation between the independent variables and the dependent variable.
5.2.1 Port Staff CompetenceThe results revealed that, the staff at the port are quite knowledgeable about their work and also have the needed skills to go about their duties. Their relationship with the customers are also quite satisfactory. Notwithstanding, there are still more room for improvement when it comes to staff competence.
5.2.2 Port Custom ProcessesThe study indicated a poor custom process. The processes at the port is not easy to understand, it’s not fast enough and customers have to go through a lot of processes and delays before clearing their good. The custom processes is also not done fairly and characterized with some bad practice which have a negative effect on logistic service delivery.
5.2.3 Port InfrastructureInfrastructure at the port is quite satisfactory. Handling equipment are readily available and easily accessible and somewhat easy to use. The handling equipment are not in good shape. The port has enough space to accommodate for increasing demands and adequate warehousing facilities.
5.2.4. Port Information SystemThe information system at the port is fairly good. They are user friendly and quite interactive. The information system makes logistics service delivery at the port quite effective and efficient. Meanwhile, the system cannot be that reliable enough for users.
5.3 ConclusionIn conclusion, the findings from the survey shows that, the independent variables being staff competence, custom processes, infrastructure and information system have a significant effect on the dependent variable, logistics service delivery. This was indicated by a strong coefficient of correlation and the p-value which is less the 0.05. The coefficient of determination also showed that the factors analyzed arid valid in determining logistic service delivery. The studied variables were also significant at the calculated 95% level of significance.
The stepwise multiple regression also shown that, among the factors influencing logistic service delivery at the port, port infrastructure had more effect on logistic service delivery followed by staff competence, custom process and information system in the order of decreasing effect.
5.4 RecommendationFrom the study the following recommendation are given
The custom processes at the Tema Port should be improve to make the process fast and fair.
The infrastructure at the port should always be checked and serviced to ensure they are always in good condition.
The information system at the port should be improved to make it reliable enough for users.
Abrams, L.S (2010): Sampling ‘Hard to Reach’ Populations in Qualitative Research: The Case of Incarcerated Youth. Qualitative Social Work 2010, 536
African Development Bank (2013). African Development Report 2013: Ports, Logistics, and Trade in Africa. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
Agbesi, K. (2013) The impact of ICT on the clearing of goods at Ghana ports: a study of Tema and Takoradi ports. Academic Research International Department of Computer Science, ACCRA Polytechnic GHANA.
Ali, R., Jaafar, H. S., & Mohamad, S. (2013). Logistics and Supply Chain in Malaysia?: Issues and Challenges. In Malaysian Universities Transport Research Forum Conference (MUTRC13) (Vol. 2013, pp. 1–11). Johor.
American Heritage Dictionary, (2012).Mass market pear back, 5th ed., Houghton MiffinCompany.
Ameke, Y. V. (2016) The Effect of Operational Efficiency On Customer Satisfaction: The Case Of Port Of Tema: The case study of the Tema Port. A Special Study report submitted to University of Ghana, Accra.
Andersson, M., & Banomyong, R. (2010). The implications of deregulation & liberalization on the logistics service industry in Lao PDR. International Journal of Production Economics, 128(1), 68–76. doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2010.08.028
Asuliwonno, C. (2011) Improving Port Efficiency and Custom Operations in Ghana: The Case of Ghana Community Network Services Limited (GCNet) under Customs Excise and Preventive Service (CEPS). A Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi.
Ax, C., Johansson, C. & Kullven, H. (2009). Den nya ekonomistyrningen, Malmo, Liber
Banomyong, R., & Supatn, N. (2011). Developing a supply chain performance tool for SMEs in Thailand. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 16(1), 20–31. doi:10.1108/13598541111103476
Baron, M.L. & Mathieu, H. (2013). PCS interoperability in Europe: A market for PCS operators? International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 24(1), 117-129.
Bichou, K. & Gray, R. (2004). A logistics and supply chain management approach to port performance measurement. Maritime Policy & Management, 31(1), 47-67.
Buyukozkan, G., Feyzioglu, O. &Nebol, E. (2013).Selection of the strategic alliance partner in logistics value chain: International Journal of Production Economics, 113, 148-158.
Bowersox, D. J., Closs, D. J., & Cooper, M. B. (2010). Supply Chain Logistics Management (3rd Ed); Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill.
Bowersox, D. J., Closs, D. J. (2010). Logistical management. UK: McGraw- Hill. ISBN-10: 0070068836
Baradwaj, (2013) Logistics information systems: The strategic role of top management”, Journal of Business Logistics, 15(1), 23-30.
Bujak, A., Orze?, A., Miler, R., (2014). Telematics of Supply Chain – Areas, opportunities, Challenges, Telematics – Support for transport, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 185-196
Chen, I. J. and Paulraj, A., 2004. Towards a theory of supply chain management: the constructs and measurements. Journal of Operations Management, 22 (2), pp. 119-150.
Clark, X., Dollar, D. & Micco, A. (2004) Port efficiency, maritime transport costs, and bilateral trade. Journal of Development Economics, 75: 417-450.
Chopra, S. and Meindl, P., 2007. Supply chain management: strategy, planning, and operation. 3rd edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Cohen, S. and Roussel, J. (2005), Strategic Supply Chain Management: The Five Disciplines for Top Performance, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Cooper, D. and Schindler, P. (2013) Business Research Methods. New Delhi: Tata McGraw. Cox, T. & Ghonein, K. (2006) the Agile Supply Chain; Competing in Volatile Markets”, Journal of academic Industrial Marketing Management, 29(1) 37-38.
Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (2007), “Supply chain management and logistics management definitions”, available at: www.cscmp.org/Website/ About CSCMP/Definitions/Definitions.asp.
Customs Excise and Preventive Services (2016). Corporates Strategic Plan 2012 – 2017. An unpublished document prepared by Custom Excise and Preventive Service to guide their operations, Accra – Ghana.
Chang S. C., and Lee M. S., (2015). The effects of organizational culture and knowledge management mechanisms on organizational innovation: An empirical study in Taiwan. The Business Review, Cambridge 7(1): 295–302.
Creswell, (2005). Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches. UK: SAGE.
De Martino, M.; Marasco, A.; Morvillo, A. Supply chain integration and port competitiveness: A network approach. In Supply Chain Innovation for Competing in Highly Dynamic Markets. Challenges and Solutions; IGI Global: Hershey, PA, USA, 2011; pp. 62–77.
De Wulf, L. (2015) Tradenet in Ghana Best Practice of the Use of Information Technology, World Development Report.
Demirbas, D., Flint, H. & Bennett, D. (2014). Supply chain interfaces between a port utilizing organisation and port operator. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 19(1), 79-97.
Eliasson, G & Samuelsson, L. A. (2011). Produktivitet och Lonsamhet, Lund, Student Litterature.
Feng, L.; Notteboom, T. 2013. Peripheral challenge by Small and Medium Sized Ports (SMPs) in MultiPort Gateway Regions: the case study of northeast of China, Polish Maritime Research 20: 55–66. https://doi.org/10.2478/pomr20130027Forslund, H., (2014), “Performance Management in Supply Chains: Logistics Service Provdiers’ Perspective”, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 296-311.
Fugate, Brian S., John T. Mentzer, & Stank T. P. (2010). Logistics Performance: Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Differentiation: Journal of Business Logistics 31(1) 43-62
Ganotakis, P. & Love, J. (2010). The Innovation Value Chain in New Technology Based Firms: Evidence from the UK. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 3(4), 34-42.
Giannopoulos G.A., (2014). The application of information and communication technologies in transport. Eur J Oper Res., 152, pp. 302-320.
Hummels, D and Schaur, G (2012) Time as a trade barrier (No w17758), National Bureau of Economic Research
Kang, S.-H., Kang, B., Shin, K., Kim, D. & Han, J. (2012).A theoretical framework for strategy development to introduce sustainable supply chain management: Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences.40, 631-635.
Keebler, J.S. & Plank, R.E. (2014).Logistics performance measurement in the supply chain: a benchmark: benchmarking: An International Journal 16 (6), 785-798
KPA, (2015). Kenya Ports Authority Annual Review and Bulletin of Statistics 2015, 10
Kunadhamraks, P., & Hanaoka, S. (2013). Evaluating the logistics performance of intermodal transportation in Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 20(3), 323–342. doi:10.1108/13555850810890084
Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority (1991) Ghana International Harbour and Shipping Handbook. GPHA Printing Press, Tema, Ghana.
Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority (2013). ‘Ghana Ports and Harbours News Letter’. Retrieved on October 28, 2017, from http://www.ghanaports.gov.ghGhana Ports and Harbours Authority (2015). ‘Ghana Ports and Harbours News Letter’. Retrieved on October 21, 2017, from http://www.ghanaports.gov.ghGiannopoulos, G. A. (2004) The Application of Information and Communication Technologies in Transport. European Journal of Operational Research, 152, 302-320.
Gu J., Goetschalckx M., and McGinnis L. F., (2010).Solving the forward-reserve allocation problem in warehouse order picking systems. Journal of the Operational Research Society 61(6): 1013–1021.
Gaur, P. (2005): ‘Port Planning as a Strategic Tool: A Typology’, Institute of Transport and
Maritime Management Antwerp, University of Antwerp.
Hokey M. (2013). Benchmarking the operational efficiency of third party logistics providers using data envelopment analysis Supply chain management, An International Journal, 11: 259 – 265.
Hoyle.B.S and Pinder, D. A. (2002). European Port Cities in Transition. Belhaven Press London.
Hummels, D. (2001). “Time as a Trade Barrier.” GTAP Working Paper 1152, Center for Global Trade Analysis. Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University
IMO Working Group on Air Pollution from Ships (2015), Review of MARPOL Annex VI And The NOx Technical Code: Report of the Working Group, edited by IMO Submittal, Intersessional Meeting of the BLG Working Group on Air Pollution, 1st session, Agenda item 2.
IMO (2009). Second IMO GHG study 2009. International Maritime Organization. London.
Kenneth, H. (2015) Inclusive supply chain using electronic market- places”, Integrated Manufacturing Systems. Open University Press, Buckingham: Philadelphia
Kilasi, L. B., Juma, D., ;Mathooko, P. M. (2013).The impact of Outsourcing of Logistics on the Competitive Advantage strategy of East African Breweries Limited: International Journal of Social Sciences and entrepreneurship 1 (3), 521-529
Kari, N. ; Wong, K., (2011). Analysis of the bundling effects of resources based logistics: a survey of Malaysian logistics service providers. Logistics Research Network (2011) Conference, Plymouth, September 2011.
Kenneth W. Green Jr; Dwayne W; R. Anthony Inman (2008), “The impact of logistics performance on organizational performance in a supply chain context”, Vol. 13 pp. 325.
Koellinger, N.J. (2016) Critical success factors of web-based supply-chain management systems. An exploratory study”, Production Planning & Control. NSW: Elsevier Australia
Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology – Methods and techniques, 2nd edition new Age Tecno Press, New Delhi.
Lai, K.-H., Wong, C. W. Y. & Cheng, T. C. E. (2016). Bundling digitized logistics activities and its performance implications. Industrial Marketing Management.39, 273-286.
Laird, M. (2012). Logistics Management: A Firm’s Efficiency Performance Model, Unpublished BBA Thesis presented to Ohio University, USA.
Langat, G. (2013) Cost, Time and Complexity of the East African Logistics Chai, Nairobi Kenya. Kenya Shippers Council Publication
LaLonde, Bernard J. and Richard F. Powers (1993), “Disintegration and Reintegration: Logistics of the 21st Century,” International Journal of Logistics Management, 4 (2), 1–12.
Mahlknecht, S., Madani, S.A., (2013). Architecture of Low Power Wireless Sensor Networks for Container Tracking and Monitoring Applications, 5th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (Volume: 1), Vienna 2007, pp.353 – 358
Mentzer, J.T., DeWitt, W., Keebler, J.S., Min, S., Nix, N.W., Smith, C.D. and Zacharia, Z.G. (2001), “Defining supply chain management”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp. 1-25.
Meyer, I.H.(2009): Sampling Populations.Journal of Counseling Psychology 2009,56:23?31.
Miller, M (2015) Impact of Supply Chain Management and ERP on Organizational Performance and Competitive Advantage: Case of Tunisian Companies”, Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 27(2) 131-141.
Miler, R., Bujak, A., 2014. Electronic cargo tracking systems as a part of the intelligent freight technologies. Their impact on the global integrated supply chain security and effectiveness based on the Avante system, Archives of Transport System Telematics, Volume 7, Issue 3, Katowice, pp.31-37
Moon, D.S.H. ; Woo, J.K. (2014). The impact of port operations on efficient ship operation from both economic and environmental perspectives. Marine Policy ; Management, 41(5), 444-461.
Ngechu, M. (2004), Understanding the research process and methods. An introduction to research methods. Acts Press, Nairobi.
Njambi, E. ;Katuse, P. (2013). Third party logistics in distribution efficiency delivery for competitive advantage in fast moving consumer goods companies in Kenya. International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship 1 (8), 15-27.
Notteboom, T. ; Winkelmans, W., (2001). Structural changes in logistics: How will port Authorities face the challenge? Maritime Policy ; Management, 28, 71-89.
Notteboom, T.E. ; Merckx, F. (2006), ‘Freight Integration in Liner Shipping: A Strategy Serving Global Production Networks’, Growth and Change, Vol. 37, pp.550-569.
Oduro, K. (1999) The Performance of Takoradi Harbour in Cargo Handling. A Special Study submitted to the Department of Planning, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi.
Owusu-Mensah, B. (2007) Ghana Ports Handbook: Our Aim is Quality Port Services for Ghana and Her Neighbours. Tema, Ghana.
Pálsson, G, Harding, A. ; Raballand, G. (2015) Port and Maritime Transport Challenges in West and Central Africa, SSATP Working Paper No. 84.
Pfeffer, J. ; Salancik, G. R. (2013). The external control of organizations: a resource dependence perspective, Stanford Business Books.
Panayides, P. (2006), ‘Maritime logistics and global supply chains: towards a research agenda’, Maritime Economics and Logistics, Vol.8, pp.3-18.
Puertas, R.; Marti, L.; Garcia, L. 2014. Logistics performance and export competitiveness: European experience, Empirica 41(3): 467–480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s106630139241z
Rakovska, ?. (2006) Supply Chain Management for Cosmetic and Confectionery Products in Bulgaria, A Dissertation for a PhD Degree, (in Bulgarian), Sofia.
Ramstedt, L. ; Woxenius, J. (2016). Modelling Approaches to Operational Decision-Making in Freight Transport Chains.In Proceeding of the 18th NOFOMA Conference, Oslo, 78 June 2016, Norway.
Raus, M., Flügge, B., ; Boutellier, R. (2015). Electronic customs innovation: An improvement of governmental infrastructures. Government Information Quarterly, 26(2), 246–256.
Robson, C. (2002). Real World Research. (2ndEd.) Blackwell.
Rodrigues, A.M., Bowersox, D.J. and Calantone, R.J. (2005), “Estimation of global and national logistics expenditures: 2002 data update”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 26 No. 2, pp. 1-15.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., ;Thornhill, A. (2007).Research Methods for Business Students, (4thEd.). Prentice Hall Financial Times, Harlow
Sanchez-Rodrigues, V., Cowburn, J., Potter, A., Naim, M.M.,;Whiteing, A. (2013).Defining extra distance’ as a measure to evaluate road transport performance: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Logistics, Istanbul, Turkey, 5-7 July, pp.680-68
Song, D.W.; Parola, F. Strategising port logistics management and operations for value creation in global supply chains. Int. J. Logist. Res. Appl. 2015, 18, 189–192. CrossRef
Suárez-Aleman, A. & Hernández, A. (2014). Incentives to reduce port inefficiency a theoretical approach. Maritime Policy & Management: The Flagship Journal of International Shipping and Port Research, 41(5), 462-479.
Sullivan, T. (2015), “The relationship between technology and logistics third-party providers”,Oxford: Oxford University Press. technology, Journal of Business Logistics. Oak Brook. 16 (1), 65-81.
Simchi-Levi, David, Kaminsky, P., and Edith S., (2013), Designing and Managing Unicontrol Commodity, (Undated), A Hand Book on Bulk goods Handling. Pp 3-7.the Supply Chain, Irwin Professional Pub.
Stank, T.P., Davis, B.R. and Fugate, B.S. (2005), “A strategic framework for supply chain oriented logistics”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 26 No. 2, pp. 27-45.
Stevenson, W. J. (2009). Operations Management. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 2009.
Sheng, Z. 2015. The evaluation of regional logistics competitiveness of agricultural products in China and spatial analysis on the differences, Pakistan Journal of Statistics 30(5): 683–702
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students, (5th edn.), Financial Times Prentice Hall, London.
Stopford, M. (1997), Maritime Economics, Routledge, London, p. 29.
Tukamuhabwa, B.R. Eyaa, S. & Derek, F., (2011).Mediating Variables in the Relationship between Market Orientation and Supply Chain Performance: A Theoretical Approach; International Journal of Business and Social Science 2 (22).
The GCNet System (ND). Missions and Objectives. Retrieved October, 2017, from http://www.ghanatradenet.com/mission_objectives.asp?PCH_ID=4Liu, C.-L., & Lyons, A. C. (2014).An analysis of third-party logistics performance and service provision. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review47, 547-570.
Tilokavichai, V.,&Sophatsathit, P. (2015).An Organization-Wide Analysis of ERP and Information Systems Interrelationship for Logistics Support’, Journal of System and Management Sciences1 (1), 59-68.
Tseng, Y-Y., Yue, W. L.,; Taylor, M. A., (2015).The Role of Transportation in Logistics Chain; Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies 5, 1657 – 1672.
UNCTAD (2013) Classification of Non-Tariff Measures, February 2012 Version, UNCTAD/DITC/TAB2012/2, United Nations, New York and Geneva
UNCTAD, (2014). United Nations Conference on Trade and Development; annual review of maritime transport.
UNCTAD, (2016). United Nations Conference on Trade and Development; annual review of maritime transport
VAN Der Horst, M. ; De Langen, P.W. (2013). Coordination in hinterland transport chains: A major challenge for the seaport community. Maritime Economics ; Logistics, 10, 108-129.
Yang, C. C., Marlow, P. B., ; Lu, C. S. (2014). Assessing resources, logistics service capabilities, innovation capabilities and the performance of container shipping service in Taiwan. International Journal of Production Economics 122, 4-20.
Wilson, JS, Mann, CL and Otsuki, T (2005) Assessing the benefits of trade facilitation: A global perspective, The World Economy, 28(6), pp 841–71
World Bank (2010) Doing Business: Measuring Business Regulations. The World Bank Group: Washington, DC. (Accessed on 26th Sept, 2017)
Wong, C. Y., ;Karia, N. (2010).Explaining the competitive advantage of logistics providers: A resource-based view approach. International Journal of Production Economics 128, 51-67.
Wulf L. ; Sokol, J. B. (2014). Customs Modernization Handbook. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
Yun, W.Y ; Choi, Y.S., (1999). A simulation model for container terminal operation analysis using object-oriented approach. International Journal of Production Economics, 59:221–230.
Zima, P. V. (2007).What is theory? Cultural Theory as Discourse and Dialogue: .London: Continuum. http://www.avantetech.com/products/ shipping/ (date of access: Oct.18, 2017)