Key words

Key words: the Internet, printing press, television, social media, new media, digital media, traditional press, interpersonal communication, mass media, broadcasting, radio, internet services, communications revolution, marketing, user, communication, groups, relationships.

Table of Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………….3
Chapter 1. The development background of Media in the 20th century………7
1.1. Literature review, Purpose and Aim of study………………………………7
1.2. Defining of Media………………………………………………………..12
1.3.History of Media ………………………………………………………….19
Chaper 2. Media affects society ………………………………………………26
2.1. The influence of The Printing Press………………………………………26
2.2. Significance of Era of Television………………………………………..32
2.3. The Meaning of The Internet……………………………………………..35
2.4. The empowerment of social media……………………………………….40
Chapter 3.Functions of Media…………………………………………………48
3.1.Spread of Information……………………………………………………..48
3.2.Influence on Culture………………………………………………………49
3.3.Role of Media in Political System…………………………………………50
3.4.Formation of Public Opinion………………………………………………53
3.5.1.Data collection …………………………………………………………56
3.5.2.Analysis of results ……………………………………………………..57
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………62
Thoughts and suggestions…………………………………………………….69
Bibliography…………………………………………………………………..70

Introduction
In the traditional sense, the media meant a kind of social institution that collects, processes, and distributes information to a mass audience. Instead of traditional media, “new media”, which represents a dynamic network formation, including not only the collection, processing and dissemination of information, but also the function of convenient feedback between the audience and the author, what became so popular and wide-spread. It gives great ability to connect people with each other and exchange huge amounts of data (social networks, internet blogs, etc.). From the middle of the XIX century the concept of media begins to be used in its modern sense – as the dissemination of messages using special technical means of communication (mail, telegraph).

The term “new media”, used as a synonym for the term “digital media”, points to the contrast of digital media from analog, “old”, traditional ones, emphasizes the revolutionary nature of the changes taking place in the media sphere.

New media is a broad term that appeared at the end of the 20th century to encompass the unification of traditional media such as film, images, music, spoken and written word, with the interactive power of computer technology and communication technologies allowed by the computer of consumer devices and, most importantly, with the Internet. Social media has become an integral part of modern society. There are social networks where registered users are more numerous than the population of many countries. There are sites for uploading photos, video files, status change services, sites for meeting new people and finding old friends.

In the beginning, the Internet was used strictly for scientific, educational, and military research. In 1991, regulations changed to allow businesses and consumers to connect as well. Since that time, the Internet has grown rapidly and now covers the globe. New technologies are continuously being developed that make the Internet easier and more attractive to use. Online applications are available to the Internet user, including e-mail, web browsing, streaming music and video, online gaming, and instant messaging.

So, at different periods of society, the term media included different concepts. With the development of new world technologies this definition has been transformed and is still changing, therefore the study of our topic is very significant which is why I have chosen this topic.

I would like to focus on that socio-cultural development of society has long been considered one of the most important subjects of research in the social and human sciences. In different historical periods, these or other factors that affect it, come to the fore, attracting the attention of scientists. If some time ago media was perceived by most researchers as what reproduces cultural values ??and norms, that is, participates in socio-cultural dynamics as an instrumental, utilitarian means, then with the development of television formats, as well as the Internet, computer and mobile technologies, researchers are increasingly turning attention to the fact that the role of media in sociocultural dynamics is more complex not so straightforward. Thus, possible problems can arise with deeper understanding of media which has not only advantages but brings some challenges to society.

The advent of the internet has brought specific new challenges and opportunities. No longer does the power to communicate on a mass scale rest solely in the hands elites, with the costs of setting up and operating a newspaper, radio station, or television show acting as natural barriers to participation from the wider public. Anyone with access to the internet can create and share or edit their own or others’ content. The explosion in digital communications – mobile phones, internet access, and digital cameras – is allowing citizens to engage in public debate on a level unparalleled in history. Of course, the traditional off-line media – print, radio and television – remain centrally important for most of the world’s population. But they are operating in a changing landscape where news and factual content is increasingly operating across multiple platforms. A particularly alarming trend for traditional media everywhere is the declining resource available for news and factual
information (as opposed to entertainment of all kinds). A combination of declining revenues in developed societies and market pressures in less developed, are squeezing the funds available for producing such content. This is having a severe impact upon investigative journalism. How to pay for content that is important to democracy is one of the most significant dilemmas facing the media, donors and anyone concerned with democracy and human rights. This changing landscape will require new analysis and methodologies.

Current state of the presented issues. Marshall McLuhan was one of the first who drew attention to this and analyzed the complex role of the media. However, his earlier works (the first half of the 1960s), which do not have that generalizing message, which is in the works of the late period (second half of the 1970s), were the more famous (translated into other languages ??and republished). However, in our opinion, many modern studies confirm the hypotheses abundantly present in McLuhan’s works. This caused a new wave of interest in the ideas of McLuhan in the 2010s. Modern media researchers, relying on his work and developing some provisions, describe the processes in modern media and modern culture.

According to Hoag (2008), “media refers to the traditional mass communications systems and content genres as well as other technologies for mediated human speech. This includes traditional publishing, traditional electronic media, motion pictures, video gaming, recorded music, advertising, etc”. Hang and van Weezel (2007, p.54), define media as “the industries that produce and sell information as well as entertainment products and services”. The Internet also offered the artists an indispensable tool to work as independent entrepreneur (Tuomola, 2004). Media entrepreneurs can compete in the markets without the need for extensive resources (Derham et a, 2011) because the internet covers their lack of skills, resources, and technical knowledge, as well as the cost of marketing and the connection with partners and to market their products, services, and brands (Harris and Rae, 2009).

The aim of the work is to study development of Media in the 20th century. According to the aim of this bachelor paper, it can identify the following tasks:
to investigate literature review, purpose and aim of study;
to give definition of Media;
to study history of Media;
to trace the influence of printing press;
to establish significance of era of television;
to explain the meaning of the Internet;
to study empowerment of social media;
to disclose such functions of media as spread of information, influence on culture, role of media in political system, formation of public Opinion.

So, on the basis of aforesaid we can say the hypothesis of our study is the assumption that the media have more positive impact on society and its development than the negative consequences.

The methods of investigations used in this diploma thesis are: descriptive method; the method of classification; comparative methods; the method of component analysis.

Chapter 1. The development background of Media in the 20th century
Literature review, Purpose and Aim of study
A lot of literature exists on the role and functions of the media, focusing primarily on the notions of forms of media and how particular media practices invariably set particular agendas. This chapter will lay the groundwork for much of the study and analysis that takes place in later chapters. So, the basis for this section will be to evolve a theoretical framework that examines the effects of media ownership and the impact of advertising. It will argue that they, rather than a free market of consumers, contribute to determine the diversity of media products.

Liberal Pluralist Theory supports a press that is free and unencumbered by government or legislative oversight, the press is supposed to be the watchdog of the government and inform the polity of government policies while supporting the entrenchment of democracy. Curran (2000) notes that the media can be viewed in liberal theory as an agency of information and debate that facilitates the functioning of democracy. It also provides a channel between government and the people in political discussion and debate on issues that affect the polity 4, p.34.

Habermas (1964) concept of the ‘public sphere’ gives credence to this notion of the media. He supports the expectation that the mass media should facilitate pluralist debate and the free formation of public opinion. Therefore, a liberal pluralist theory of the media will support a free and independent press, which operates in the role of the public watchdog, while also playing the consumer representation role. With the media operating in the marketplace, it is assumed to thereby reflect popular concerns and finally performing an informational role. This amplifies the media’s role in a democratic setting. Curran (2000) notes that media theorists generally view any government attempt at intervention in or regulation of the media with deep suspicion and emphasize that the media’s critical surveillance of government is fundamental to the functioning of a democracy . This collaborates with perspectives from Duncan and Seleoane (1998: 13) who note that “it is important for the press to check the excesses of the government in a representative democracy as it will keep the government representatives accountable to the electorate”. In a developing economy such as South Africa, the media’s role becomes central to the proper functioning of the system. For South Africa, democracy may depend on a media that will attempt to bridge the intellectual, political and economic gap created by apartheid 11, p.18.

Marxist and Neo-Marxist approaches however present a strong criticism of the independence of the mass media in capitalist liberal democracies. This tradition has been a catalyst in the evolution of research into the political economy of the media. The Marxist tradition sees the media as following the ideological interest of the dominant class in society; the media becomes integrated into the existing economic and political elites and is not free from their control . This is not far from the truth, since the media could pose a major threat to coalitions of power, like governments, political parties or large corporations. Control of the media is often attempted whether overtly or covertly. The media is also often dismissed as supporting big business. For Herman and Chomsky, 1988; Bagdikian 1998, this could be because the media has become big business, whoever owns the media controls what the media produces 7, p.5.

The newspaper industry has gone through several stages of development. The current 21st century newspaper model which is targeted at a mass audience is quite recent. It developed between the mid – late nineteenth century. Before this, the model was based on targeting specialized audiences. According to Picard (2002), the first 100-150 years of American newspapers were spent serving about 15-25 percent of the population. This was a small audience comprising of the social, political and economic elites. For newspapers to be profitable during this period, they had to depend on copy sales. Since advertising was minimal or almost nonexistent, the pricing structure or subscriptions to these newspapers were very high. The business model of this period depended on circulation. Picard (2002) notes that the next business model adopted was mainly affected by the increase in population, urbanization and the industrial revolution of the early nineteenth century with its attendant social changes. Newspapers began to target and serve large audiences, consequently adding new contents to meet the diverse needs of these markets.

This new model focused on acquiring more consumers and papers were sold at very low price. This new development led to the increased reliance on advertising. However due to massive copy sales’, advertising was still not considered a major source of revenue. Change however, was inevitable; advertising became a very important source of income. Picard (2002: 31) notes that “the magnitude of this change in the business model can be seen in the fact that advertising provided one-half of the revenue of newspapers in the United States by 1880. The amount rose to two-thirds by 1910 and to 80 percent in the year 2000”. The post-World War 11 era heralded the decline of newspaper readership as competition emerged in the form of television and radio. This has only increased as more forms of infotainment increases. Technological aided advances in the communications industry have been diversionary. Picard predicts that as these changes continue, changing audiences and use patterns of newspapers would continue. This will be mainly due to competition as other forms of communications evolve. He notes, “One can expect that there will come a time when newspaper readership will look more like its initial position rather than the position at its mid-twentieth century high” (ibid). If and when this happens, it’s only safe to assume that a new business model will evolve 3, p.43.

Mosco (1996) agrees that the political economy of the media concentrates on the set of social relations organized around power to control the production, distribution and consumption of news products. This agrees with perspectives from Herman and Chomsky (1988) who acknowledge the relationships between political power and news production. They note the ability of elites to control and manipulate public opinion as well use the media for personal gratification. However, it is often convenient for media owners and controllers to pay lip service to liberal-pluralistic ideals. While some media practitioners genuinely subscribe to these ideals, ironically this means entirely something different to most owners or representatives of media companies. Firstly, it can be argued to their credit, that media is big business therefore it must be profitable and protected as the asset it is (Hoskins, McFadyen and Finn, 2004; Picard, 1989). Secondly, most owners of large media corporations are in league with big business and government (see Herman and Chomsky, 1998; Bagdikian, 1998; Croteau and Hoynes, 2001), and sometimes media corporations are even owned by these businesses who also demand profits. So unless a rift appears between these cosy relationships, it is business as usual 2, p.43.

In order to understand the mass communication process, it is imperative to understand how the ownership and control of the media determines the structure and production of meaning in the society. McChesney and Nichols (2002) in their book which chronicles the political economy of the American media note that in the 19th century introduction of democracy, the role of the press was seen as central to democracy. But in the 21st century, American media has been highjacked by the elites. This, they noted, poses a threat to democracy; the quest for profit has affected the running of the media. Shareholders’ profit margins and advertisers now rule media operations. They acknowledge the role of the political class whose endorsement has given media conglomerates more access to expand and grow their empires. Government policies had been formulated in the last decades to favour the conglomerates, giving them increasing powers in media ownership. These policies, although made on the electorates’ behalf, were not at their behest 1, p.12.

Chambers (2000) concurs with theoretical perspectives from Garnham (1979), Ferguson (1990), Golding and Murdock (1991), Curran and Seaton (1997), Bagdikian (1988) that the study of the political economy of the media is important because it examines economic and political dynamics of media ownership and control and its effects on media practices (2000:92). Williams also is of the opinion that,
Political economy examines the media, the nature of the media activity, to identify the nature of corporate reach, the ‘commodification’ of media products and the changing nature of state and government intervention. Political economy sees the content, style and form of media product such as newspaper stories or computer games as shaped by structural features such as ownership, advertising and audience spending (2003:72) 34, p.16.

This leads to William’s conclusion that “the approach emphasizes analysis of the media as industries and businesses. It focuses on their organization, the way in which they operate and what they produce is shaped and determined by economic considerations and their attendant political aspects” (ibid: 56) 11, p.13.

Curran and Gurevitch (1996), Bagdikian, (2000), Murdock, and Golding, (1973) argue that the mass media are first and foremost industrial and commercial organizations which produce and distribute commodities. Murdock and Golding (1973) state that the most important aspect of the operation of media as business is that, the production is geared toward the making of profit. What sells most and realizes the greatest profit is the major determinant of what is produced. Thus the starting point of political economy is the economic and industrial organization of the media. They believe that the economic base of the media is a necessary and sufficient explanation of the cultural and ideological effects of the media 56, p.12.

Purpose and Aim of study. The mass media are often referred to as the fourth branch of government because of the power they wield and the oversight function they exercise. The media’s key role in democratic governance has been recognized since the late 17th century, and remains a fundamental principle of modern-day democratic theory and practice.

This paper examines the complex and multi-dimensional linkages among the media, democracy, good governance and peaceful development. The media shape public opinion, but they are in turn influenced and manipulated by different interest groups in society. The media can promote democracy by among other things, educating voters, protecting human rights, promoting tolerance among various social groups, and ensuring that governments are transparent and accountable. The media, however, can play antidemocratic roles as well. They can sow fear, division and violence. Instead of promoting democracy, they can contribute to democratic decay.

The paper explains the constraints that hobble the media’s ability to play a positive role in new democracies. Monopolistic ownership and stringent government controls are among those constraints. But the market – and the race among media firms for audience and market share – can degrade the quality of media reporting as well. In addition, unethical journalistic practices and the use of media organizations by various vested and sometimes, xenophobic, interests contribute to the media’s inability to fulfil their democratic function 18,p.45.

The paper looks at the variety of ways in which the various media have been used to support democracy and development. The media, for example, have exposed malfeasance in high office, resulting in the resignation or toppling of heads of state and in the enactment of governance reforms. In addition, in many new and restored democracies, the media have contributed to public education and enlightenment, reconciliation among warring social groups, and to initiating much-needed political and social reforms. The paper ends with a list recommendations that will help create an enabling environment for the media and ensure that they make a positive contribution to democratic development 45,p.34
1.2.Defining of Media
Social communication takes place at different levels (supra-national/global communication; society-wide, e.g. mass communication; institutional/organisational, e.g. political system or business firm; intergroup or association, e.g. local community; intragroup, e.g. family; interpersonal, e.g. dyad, couple) and can be “face-to- face” communication (interpersonal, intragroup, potentially also intergroup), or “mediated”.

Mediation can be analogue or, with convergence, increasingly electronic (e.g. taking the form of computer-mediated communication – CMC – i.e. any communicative transaction which occurs through the use of two or more networked computers). Mediated communication is conducted with the use of technologies allowing remote synchronous communication (e.g. telephone, traditional radio, television, videoconference) or asynchronous communication (e.g. letters, print media, telegraph, e-mail, fax, voicemail; Whittaker, n.d.). Mediation is common in interpersonal or inter- or intra-group communication (e-mail, video, audio or text chat, bulletin boards, list-servs, etc.), but is of course indispensable when large groups of receivers are involved 9, p.87.

As suggested by their very name, the media of mass communication are an instrument of mediated communication.

As traditionally understood, the mass media include the print media, film, broadcasting, recorded music, etc. Here, we are dealing primarily with “the press” (including print media and broadcasting), or “news media”, regardless of the platform on which they are disseminated, as they are crucial to freedom of expression, exercise of human rights and the operation of democracy, and so attract particular attention in terms of policy, regulation and standard-setting.

The news media, as indeed all mass media, are the organised technologies and organisations/institutions that make mass communication possible. They can be seen as “media organisations” (McQuail, 2005), operating in a field of social forces (social and political pressures, economic pressures, etc.), and performing a sequence of activities to obtain, select and process content, then assemble it into a media product and disseminate it, or have it disseminated, to the audience 10, p.23.

A key element of the news media from our point of view is the concept of “journalism” and “the journalist”. McQuail (2008) defines “journalism” as “the publication of accounts of contemporary events, conditions or persons of possible significance or interest to the public, based on information believed to be reliable”. He explains that what counts as journalism need not necessarily be done as work for financial reward, as this would exclude a range of journalistic activities undertaken for non-profit purposes or otherwise in non- institutionalised forms.

In view of this, we may say that while “hard”, formal criteria (technology for content dissemination, periodic dissemination, full-time journalists, etc.) are important, what really determines whether we have to do with a media organisation and media or media-like content is “soft” criteria, as identified in items 1, 2 and 6 of the above list of elements of a media organization 12, p.56:
Purpose; b) editorial policy and responsibility; c) awareness of, and at least attempted conformity with, normative, ethical, professional and legal standards.
Though insistence on these standards is often a defence tactic employed by professional journalists, one should perhaps agree with the view that “What distinguishes a journalist from the average citizen who records news on his or her cell phone are education, skill, and standards. Information without journalistic standards is called gossip” (cited after Cooper, 2008).

According to McQuail (2005): free media have responsibilities in the form of obligations which can be assigned, contracted, or self-chosen for which they are held accountable to individuals, organisations or society (legally, morally or socially) either in the sense of liability (for harm caused) or answerability (for quality of performance) 2, p.43.

The public responsibilities of professional media can, in general terms, be described as follows: support for basic social order; respect public mores; provide picture of social reality; meet informational needs; provide forum for public expression; act as ‘watchdog’ on powerful; promote social cohesion; provide for cultural/ entertainment needs; behave ethically; respect individual and human rights.

As noted above, the editorial responsibility and accountability of professional media can be said to take the form of either “answerability” (moral/social basis; voluntary; verbal forms; co-operative; non-material penalty; reference to quality) or “liability” (legal basis; imposed adjudication; adversarial; material penalty; reference to harm).

Evolution or transformation of the media, or the need to develop new media, are driven by situations when:
1. Existing media no longer deliver a satisfactory service, for technological, social or cultural reasons;
2. Technological innovation has resulted in such change in old forms of media that old notions no longer apply, or need to be revised or reformulated;
3. New forms of media have emerged, calling for new notions and new concepts 52, p.98.

4. The legal and regulatory framework applying to the media has lagged behind change and new developments, requiring its adjustment and modernisation.

According to Stober (2004), the evolution of media proceeds in three stages:
• the original invention of a new medium (mainly of a technical nature);
• followed by innovation (involving changes needed to introduce the new medium into social use and develop an economic model);
• and then diffusion, when the new medium becomes a new cultural technology for users, audiences and consumers 50, p.11.

Innovation, says Stober, may involve two kinds of improvements: adaptation – the improvement of a feature for the sake of its original purpose, or exaptation – a second-stage improvement, serving to perform new functions which may not have been envisaged at the time of invention 54, p.11.

In the 1980s, the term “new media” was used to denote cable and satellite television, the VCR, as well as teletext and videotext. Today, it is sometimes applied to “blogs, social networking sites, cell phone messaging, and other relatively new technology applications” (Khalatil, 2008). These applications do serve as media of communication, but it is doubtful they can all be classified as news media (as defined above). In general, the term “new media” applies precisely to digital and convergent media – new media: all those means of communication, representation and knowledge (i.e. media), in which we find the digitalisation of the signal and its content, that possess dimensions of multimediality and interactivity. This definition is comprehensive and inclusive of everything from the mobile phone to digital television and also embracing game consoles and the Internet … The new media may be termed thus because they are mediators of communication, because they introduce the novelty of incorporating new technological dimensions, because they combine interpersonal communication and mass media dimensions on one and the same platform, because they induce organisational change and new forms of time management and because they seek the synthesis of the textual and visual rhetoric, thus promoting new audiences and social reconstruction tools (Cardoso, 2006: 123-124; see also Rice, 1999) 56, p.17.

What this means in practice is that all media will one day turn into new media, so the distinction between “old” and “new” media is only temporary.

We may use the example of television to examine the transformation of an “old” medium into a “new” one.

The following stages of television’s evolution may be distinguished:
•”Paleo-television” – the initial age of public or state monopoly;
•”Neo-television” – the second stage after the dismantling of monopoly, when the public and commercial sector compete, and “broadcasting” coexisted with “narrowcasting”, i.e. thematic channels 55, p.16;
•”Post-television”, resulting from digital technology consolidation and continuous innovation, and characterised by multiplication and personalisation of programme offers, as non-linear delivery and individualised TV gain in prominence, while users are able to use time- and place-shifting technologies to receive content of their choice, also via alternative distribution platforms – mobile telephony, PDA or the Internet (Roel, 2008) 59, p.18.

A similar trajectory has been followed by the print media which have embraced the Internet, for example, and established online newspapers in one of three main versions: either an exact electronic copy of the newspaper as appearing in print, or a reduced version of the original, or indeed “virtual newspapers” – a much extended version of the original, offering more content (thanks to potentially unlimited “space” on the Internet); more up-to-date content (often foreshadowing news and articles to appear in print the next day); links to related content and information sources; specialised newsletters; ability to engage in e-mail correspondence with the editorial staff or other users, express oneself in a public forum, or take part in some sort of electronic community (Migaczewska, 2006) 60, p.87.

The archetypal “new medium” is the Internet – at the same time a mass medium and a medium of interpersonal communication. As a technological base, the
Internet serves both those dimensions and for that reason the market and the state have adopted it as the new central element in the media system.

One consequence of the emergence of “new media” in this sense is that all the levels of communication process and all the communication patterns involved, can now be conducted with the use of the new technologies – from interpersonal to mass communication, all on one and the same platform 62, p.44.

Table 1.1.1: “Old” and “new” media content
Characteristic “Old” Media Content “New” Media Content
Core customer proposition Information, education, entertainment Synthesis of information, communication and service
Basic communication paradigm One-to-many, mass Two-way, personalised, interactive, on- demand
What is quality? “Quality” content fulfils exalted goals and has intellectual and artistic merits “Quality” content keeps users on the site and is constantly refreshed and updated
Who produces content? Experts dictate
Content-generation relies on artistic expertise and discriminating minds Customer in the driving seat: decides what, when, and in which form; the end of “journalist knows best”; successful content often generated by users
Relationship with commercial elements Content and commerce strictly separated and clearly labelledContent and commerce inextricably linked
Nevertheless, on a conceptual level, this evolution of the media has prompted the development of new technology-neutral definitions of the media of (mass) communication 64, p.16.

One example is Recommendation CM/Rec (2007) 15 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on measures concerning media coverage of election campaigns. It states in the preamble that “the constant development of information and communication technology and the evolving media landscape … necessitates the revision of Recommendation No. R (99) 15 of the Committee of Ministers on measures concerning media coverage of election campaigns”. The difference between the concept of “media” in the two Recommendations on the same subject, adopted eight years one after the other, can be seen in Table .Table 1.1.2: The concept of “media” in two CM Recommendations
R (99) 15 CM/Rec (2007) 15
“Print and broadcast media” “The term ‘media’ refers to those responsible for the periodic creation of information and content and its dissemination over which there is editorial responsibility, irrespective of the means and technology used for delivery, which are intended for reception by, and which could have a clear impact on, a significant proportion of the general public. This could, inter alia, include print media (newspapers, periodicals) and media disseminated over electronic communication networks, such as broadcast media (radio, television and other linear audiovisual media services), online news-services (such as online editions of newspapers and newsletters) and non-linear audiovisual media services (such as on-demand television).”
Another well-known recent example of this search for a new, technology-neutral definition of the “media”, is the EU’s Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD). The definition of “audiovisual media service” is explained at length in recitals 16 to 25 of the preamble and is set out in Article 1 (a). It is composed of six cumulative criteria 63, p.12:
It must be a service thus requiring an economic activity (hence excluding private websites, services consisting of the provision or distribution of user generated audiovisual content for the purposes of sharing and exchange within communities of interest) 45, p.43;
mass media character (i.e. intended for reception by, and which could have a clear impact on, a significant proportion of the general public);
The function of the services is to inform, entertain and educate the general public. It presupposes an “impact of these services on the way people form their opinions”, as emphasised by recital 43;
The principal purpose should be the provision of programmes (as opposed to cases where audiovisual content is merely incidental), as emphasised by recital 18;
A service with audiovisual character (does not cover audio transmission or radio services or electronic versions of newspapers or magazines);
A service provided by electronic communications networks (e.g. excluding cinema, DVD) 38, p.43.

The directive is helpful in our search for a new notion of media, especially in that it unpacks the concepts of linear and non-linear audiovisual media services and defines their particular elements. Nevertheless, it is clearly designed primarily for specific regulatory purposes, to provide legal certainty as to the scope of application of this particular directive. Therefore, a number of traditional media (radio, electronic versions of newspapers or magazines, cinema, DVD) are excluded from this definition. The same is true of new borderline cases which under some circumstances potentially could be classified as media, e.g. private websites; blogs; services consisting of the provision or distribution of user generated audiovisual content for the purposes of sharing and exchange within communities of interest. This limits its usefulness for our purposes, as it leaves out of consideration forms and modes of communication which require close analysis precisely in order to establish whether they should, or should not, be classified as media – in general, or in some aspects of their operation 37, p.192.

History of Media
Throughout its history, mankind had to go through several information revolutions. The first revolution was the formation and development of the language, the second revolution was the spread of reading and writing in the Middle East, the third information revolution occurred in the middle of the 15th century, when Europe joined the “Gutenberg invention”.

The fourth information revolution, the revolution of our time, began with the experiments of Samuel Morse, Guglielmo Marconi and Thomas Edison in the nineteenth century and is currently gaining strength. Cinematography, sound recording, radio, telephone, computers, copying and duplicating equipment are its components, and television is the most powerful product of this revolution. The fifth one is invention of internet.

The practical advantages of radio communication were realized in the 1910s, and in 1912 the first broadcast was held from the Metropolitan Opera. However, during the First World War, the participating states monopolized the use of radio communications, which slowed down the development of commercial radio broadcasting 38, p.23.

At the beginning of 1920th, regular radio broadcasting starts in the US, which led to the creation of a fundamentally new situation in the functioning of the media. In 1920 in Pittsburgh under the leadership of Harry Davis KDKA begins to work – the first commercial radio station in the US. The first message, transmitted by KDKA, is information about the results of the presidential elections that ended with the victory of Warren Harding. New forms of media were actively mastered as information, and educational, religious, entertainment spheres. In addition to the news block, the KDKA radio station broadcast musical and sports programs, letters of listeners.

In 1922 there were 576 radio stations in the USA. Of these, 72 are educational, 29 are advertising, and 12 are religious. In the same year, 1922, the American telephone and telegraph company (ATT) began to create the first in the US network of radio stations, according to which information about the presidential elections of 1924 was broadcast on an audience of 12 million listeners. In 1926, the ATT network of radio stations was sold to RCA (Radio Corporation of America) and formed the basis of NBC (National Broadcasting Company), which became the national broadcasting corporation. In 1927, another broadcast monopoly, the CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System), was created, to which ABC (American Broadcasting Company) joined later 33, p.43.

Radio actively penetrates the social and cultural life of many European countries. Thus, in Berlin in 1923 an hour-long broadcast from a radio studio is marked with beginning of broadcasting in Germany. Though the first radio broadcast had no more than 400 listeners, then in 1924 their number was already 100,000, and in 1932 – 4 million. The emphasis in the development of European broadcasting was placed on cultural and educational issues. When opening a radio station in Germany, Hans Bedov said: “In times of severe economic need and political pressure, the radio should be open to the general. It should no longer serve only economic goals, but should implement cultural progress in order to give the German people the impetus and joy of life. ”
In the 1920s. there was a birth of a new genre – radio plays. It is believed that the British were the first to approach the radio, and the first radio show – the Richard Hughes drama “Danger” – was sounded on January 15th, 1924. The press quickly moved from ignoring the new form of media to cooperation – magazines devoted special sections to radio broadcasting programs. in this field in the United States the pioneers were Collier’s Magazine and Literary Digest. In addition, new magazines such as Radio Broadcast appeared, fully dedicated to a new phenomenon in the life of Americans 32, p.32.

However, in the 1930s. an “undeclared war” began between the American press and the radio for the distribution of information, Press representatives managed to prohibit the use of newspaper news on the radio. In response, William Paley – the head of the corporation CBS – instructed the editor of news from the “The New Times” Ed Claubert to organize his own news service in 1930, which can be considered as the beginning of a new form of journalism – radio journalism. The most significant event of the 1930s, which demonstrated the possibilities of a new form of media, was a radio report from the site of the death of the Hindenburg airship, handed over by Herb Morrison to NBC.

Propaganda capabilities of the radio were quickly mastered by politicians. The Nazi propaganda machine in many respects depended on the radio broadcasts of the Fuhrer’s hypnotic speeches, patriotic music, reports from party rallies. He became the first President of the United States, who actively communicated with fellow citizens through radio. Since 1933 Fr. Roosevelt, regularly communicated with the nation in his famous confidential radio interviews, known as “conversations by the fireplace.” Through his “conversations” he entered every house, explaining to the Americans, who fell into the situation of the Great Depression, the goals and objectives of their “new course.”
During the presidential election of 1936, almost 80% of the American press was opposed to the election of Fr. Roosevelt, but Roosevelt relied on radio propaganda and won. When in 1939, the magazine “The Fortune” conducted a sociological survey on the trust in various forms of the media, then the question “Who do you trust more – radio or newspapers” received the following data – 40.3% of the respondents preferred radio, and only 26.9% of the respondents trusted the newspapers 35, p.14.

During the Second World War, radio became the main channel for obtaining information for the overwhelming majority of the population of the belligerent countries.

Television became widespread only after the Second World War. The emergence of American television was in sharp competition with the British, whose technical development was funded by the British government. The first successful transmission of a TV signal from New York to Washington took place in 1927. In 1928, General Electric produced the first TV drama. It was created on the basis of the old play of Harleigh Menners “Queen’s Messenger”.

April 30, 1939 was the first television broadcast from the World Fair in New York with a radius of 25 miles. Speaking on this telecast, President Fr. Roosevelt opened the era of television broadcasting in the United States 34, p.32.

During the war, television served as a means of conducting military-patriotic propaganda, and only in the postwar period does the appearance of a network of commercial television companies begin. Television at its creation was based on the commercial capabilities of American radio, whose main companies became the financial and production base for television, accelerating the pace of its development. In the development of US television the leading role belonged to three broadcasting corporations – National Broadcasting Company (NBC), Columbia Broadcasting Systems (CBS) and, later, American Broadcasting Company (ABC)). These corporations formed three main television networks of the country, whose products fill the bulk of the airtime of most US television stations. Along with commercial television in the United States there is also non-commercial television. Television quickly found its own language and manner of broadcasting. There were television genres: quiz shows, various TV shows with a permanent presenter, documentary programs, news blocks, commercials, music videos, television performances, television films and television series. The birth of the first television series is related to the activities of the British Air Force Company.

Internet – Interconnecting Networks is a global information system, parts of which are interconnected based on the TCP / IP protocol. The Internet network unites national, regional and local computer networks in which there is a free exchange of information 30, p.12.

History of the Internet. An indirect impetus to the creation of the Internet was the launching by the Soviet Union of the first artificial Earth satellite in 1957. Then the technological arms race between the two superpowers – the USSR and the USA – was launched. In early 1958, at the direction of D. Eisenhower, within the framework of the US Department of Defense, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created, whose task was to develop a technology that would prevent the destruction of the American communications system in the event of a nuclear strike by the Soviet Union. The result of the agency’s work was a network architecture, which consisted of thousands of interconnected autonomous computer networks that did not have a supervisory center. The destruction of part of this system would not affect the transmission of the signal through the network 29, p.54.

In 1961, the first theoretical developments in this field were proposed, sponsored by Leonard Kleinrock, who is often called the father of the Internet. One of the leading roles in creating the network belongs to John Liklayderu (John Licklider). In his work “Galactic Network” he predicted the possibility of the future existence of a global computer connection between people who have instant access to programs and databases from anywhere in the world. His prediction reflects the modern structure of the international Internet.

In 1969, for the first time in the world, the computers of four US universities were merged into a single network, called ARPANET. This year is considered as year of the birth of the Internet.

In 1972, the technology of the network was presented to the whole world. In 1973, the first international network connection was established between Great Britain and Norway. In the late 1980s, the Soviet Union joined the APRAnet network 27, p.190.

In the 1980s there was a rapid growth in the number of networks around the world and the number of connections to them. Internet technology is already supported by a wide range of researchers, and the network is starting to use people of various categories for everyday computer communications.

In 1971, e-mail technology was developed – the text messaging system, authored by Ray Tomlinson. The first mailing lists appeared in 1975, which, in fact, became the prototype of the network publications, since for the first time mass publications were distributed in a computer network. In 1979, USENET, the largest and oldest newsgroup, started its work, the messages of which were created and distributed by the readers themselves.

Until the mid-1990s, the Internet was accessible only to the scientific and educational community and government structures, mostly in the United States. However, since 1991 the Internet has become available to everyone thanks to the invention of the WWW (World Wide Web) technology and the emergence of the first graphics browsers – Mosaic and Netscape 19, p.43.

The creator of WWW technology is the British Tim Berners-Lee (Tim Berners-Lee), an employee of the European Physical Laboratory CERN. Unlike many other inventions that propelled the world forward, this invention was made by one person. And it was Tim Berners-Lee who fought the most to keep the web open, free, not belonging to anyone. A powerful communication system, which was used exclusively by the elite, he turned into the media.

Berners-Lee inventions-the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for communication between documents, the hypertext markup language (HTML), the universal document address search engine (URL) and the Internet browser-opened the way for information to tens of millions of people and significantly changed the world and humanity. It should be noted that most of the information documents, including the network versions of traditional newspapers and the network publications themselves, use the WWW service for broadcasting.

Internet Services. The Internet is a technology for organizing information transfer channels, based on a digital method of transferring data between computers. The very communication in the global network is carried out using Internet services.

E-mail (e-mail) is the first and most common Internet service. Refers to the system of individual communication, allows you to create and forward e-mails from one source to one or more recipients 54, p.11.

Chats (IRC – stands for Internet Real Chat or “chat over the Internet”) is an interactive collective communication system that supports written discussions in real time. The chat service is used mainly for entertainment purposes. However, it can also be used for serious international discussions. This service is similar to Usenet, but the messaging is conducted in it without delays in real time. On the Internet there is a network of IRC servers. Users join one of the channels – the thematic group and participate in the conversation, which is conducted in text mode.

ICQ service (“I seek you”) is a service that allows network users to exchange messages in real time, as well as organize chat, transfer files and much more.

The FTP service (File Transfer Protocol) is a service that allows you to copy files (programs, video, audio files, documentation, etc.) in real time from both the remote computer to your own computer and vice versa 43, p.43.

WWW (World Wide Web) is the most popular Internet service and the most convenient means of working with information. WWW is a system for organizing information on the Internet, which allows you to combine information elements of different origin (text, images, sound) in one structured document (Web page), and also include links to other documents located in arbitrary places of the network in any document hyperlinks. Currently, WWW technology is so convenient and popular that many users of the network confuse the service of WWW and global networks in general. Thus, the WWW software is universal for various network services.
The Telnet service allows computers connected to the Internet to contact and search for other computers. After communicating with the remote computer via telephone and modem, the user can search the remote system as if it were its own computer 35, p.32.

Chaper 2. Media affects society
2.1. The influence of The Printing Press
In the fall of 1999, Arts & Entertainment Television aired a three-hour series titled, “Biography of the Millennium.” The show picked Johannes Gutenberg as the most influential person of the last thousand years. In the 1450s. Gutenberg revolutionized the world by inventing the printing press. Many experts were surprised and even outraged by A & E’s choice. Yes, Gutenberg was a significant inventor, but was he as important as scientific geniuses like Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, and Albert Einstein? And certainly he could not hold a candle to great artists and thinkers like Michelangelo, William Shakespeare, or Thomas Jefferson.

The A & E expert panel vigorously defended Gutenberg. They argued that without his invention all of the above thinkers would never have emerged. Newton (#2 on the list), for example, developed his scientific theories only after reading the works of other great thinkers. Yes, Newton was brilliant (after all, he did invent calculus), but he stood on the shoulders of other thinkers whom he had only met through written works 8, p.89.
The Communications Revolution. Gutenberg’s invention was really the end of a long evolution in human communication. At some point in human development, man developed a spoken language. Where language comes from is difficult to say. Some think that long before our ancestors began to speak, about 25.000 years ago, they used sign language. This ability may have developed as early as two million years ago. Much later, about 20,000 years ago, our human ancestors drew pictures on cave walls in France, and about 8,000 years ago the Mesopotamians developed picture writing. The Egyptians wrote hieroglyphics, combining pictures, letters and syllables on papyrus (which is formed by layering reeds) as early as 3100 BCE.

Probably the greatest event in the evolution of human communication before the printing press was the invention of the alphabet. When and where the alphabet was first used remains a matter of debate. Best guesses attribute the beginning to the Phoenicians about 1500 BCE. The amazing thing about the alphabet is that every sound we can imagine can be shown by some combination of 26 letters. The alphabet is powerful because it is so simple. It is its simplicity that allows it to be used by inventions like the printing press in unique ways.

Even after the invention of the printing press in 1445, handwritten manuscript copies of books continued to be made into the 16th century. Even though some medieval scriptoria employed several scribes copying the same book, many others, like the one portrayed in the document, employed only one or a few scribes laboriously copying a book either from dictation or from an earlier hand- copied text.

Woodblock printing of images such as the one from which this image was imprinted were widely reproduced before the invention of moveable type. They could not be used for printing texts because of the impracticality of craftsmen carving multiple letters in wood, and because wooden type could not withstand repeated impressions 7, p.34.

One 20th century scholar estimates that a man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which more than ten million books had been printed, more perhaps than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in AD 330. •Despite some initial resistance, printing spread throughout Europe in the following fifty years with incredible speed. The map shows the growth of the establishment of printing presses in all the major countries of Europe. By 1500 historians estimate that European presses had produced 20 million books and about 30,000 different titles. It is interesting to note that printing took over two decades to reach England. William Caxton was the first man to print books in the English language.

Much of his early work was done in the Netherlands, but he moved back to England in 1476 and established the first English print shop right in Westminster Abbey. Here he printed nearly 100 publications-most of them in English. This is remarkable because the vast majority of printers on the continent were using Latin in nearly all of their editions He also chose to go beyond religious and classical texts to pnnt English poets and works like Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. Many of these works became known to later writers like William Shakespeare. Thus, Caxton was one of the most significant agents in establishing English as a respectable literary language.

Several things are important to note about Luther as students examine the documents. Luther initially had no intentions of starting a revolution that would reshape all of Europe. His original aim was to challenge the growing practice of selling indulgences. Yet. when Luther’s protest was rebuffed by the Catholic Church hierarchy, he soon began to challenge the entire foundation of Catholic teaching. By 1520, Luther had challenged and published letters arguing that priests should be able to marry (as he did), that the Bible should be translated from Latin so average people could read it, and ultimately that the Pope had no real authority over matters as important as salvation. By the 1520s attacks by Luther and his supporters on the Pope had become very severe. Consider this piece of writing published in the 1537, titled Of the Power and Primacy of the Pope written by a group of established theologians.

The Roman Pontiff claims for himself in the first place that by divine right he is (supreme) above all bishops and pastors (in all Christendom).

Secondly, he adds also that by divine right he has both swords, i.e., the authority also of bestowing kingdoms (enthroning and deposing kings, regulating secular dominions etc.) 6, p.123.And thirdly, he says that to believe this is necessary for salvation. And for these reasons the Roman bishop calls himself (and boasts that he is) the vicar of Christ on earth. These three articles we hold to be false, godless, tyrannical, and (quite) pernicious to the Church.

There is considerable debate among historians about whether the printing press was one of the primary causes of the Protestant Reformation. Some suggest that the ideas that fueled the break with Rome would have spread, just more slowly.

But the bulk of Reformation historians would probably agree with John Man’s words. Most would also agree with Margaret Aston who wrote that, “The advent of printing was an important precondition for the Protestant Reformation taken as a whole; for without it one could not implement a priesthood of all believers. At the same time, however, the new medium also acted as a precipitant. It provided the stroke of magic by which an obscure theologian in Wittenberg managed to shake Saint Peter’s throne.”
In 1520, Luther published his Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation where he called upon the ruling class in Germany, including the emperor, to reform the church externally by returning it to roots based in poverty and simplicity. The Reformation was now officially in motion and demanding continent-wide interest at the highest levels. The ideas and emotions that fueled the Reformation were passed on by the press not only through strident and inflammatory words, but by early visual propaganda. Since most of Europe was illiterate, these woodcuts had a powerful appeal in spreading anti-papal views to the masses.

Outside Germany and Scandinavia, John Calvin (1509-1564) guided the Reformation from his stronghold in Geneva, Switzerland. He preached a severe doctrine of moral righteousness and carefully regulated morality. Calvin also emphasized the importance of education and reading – if the Bible was Truth, then one must be able to read in order truly to understand. The fact that the printing press made available exact reproducible texts of the Bible encouraged the notion of a singular truth that all could follow. Protestantism spread throughout Europe but mainly in the northern countries farthest from the influence of Rome.

20th century Europe bears the imprint of the Reformation. Italy, France, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, the south of Germany, Austria, and Hungary, Poland, and parts of the Balkans in Eastern Europe, have con’fnued to be predominantly Catholic. The rest, Scandinavia. England, Scotland, Switzerland, the north and east of Germany, and parts of Eastern Europe have largely remained Protestant. In 1967 John Carter and Percy H. Muir compiled a catalogue of 424 works which illustrated the historical evolution of printing for the purpose of reminding the general public what civilization owes to print. Most of the books cited in the catalogue were written after the invention of Gutenberg’s printing press in 1445, but many of the great works of Classical and Medieval writers that had a wider dissemination with the impetus of the printing press are also represented 31, p.54.

Many of the early printers, especially the Venetian Aldus Manutius, are viewed by historians as heroes. They were responsible for salvaging many ancient works that would have been lost without mass printings. Venice was at the crossroads of Renaissance Europe and the expanding Ottoman Empire and was uniquely situated to acquire and print manuscripts coming from East and West.

Isaac Newton is considered by many to be the greatest scientist of all time and is often given the title “Father of the Scientific Revolution.” His ideas concerning the principles of all motion are the basis for modern physics and our understanding of much of the universe. His description of the rational, empirical method of hypothesis and generalization laid the foundation of modern scientific discourse. Although not the first to use observation and experimental procedure, Newton’s findings were so profound that his ideas were quickly popularized among the educated. The founders of the modern scientific revolution carried on extensive correspondence outside the realm of their published works, notably between Galileo and Johannes Kepler (Kepler revised the notions of Copernicus to accurately describe planetary orbits as elliptical). However, since the full fruits of this remarkable era took a century and a half to ripen, it is clear that personal correspondence alone would have been insufficient. Below is a short description of the flow of scientific ideas in the 16th and 17th century that led to Newton’s discoveries 36, p.55.

Newton was born in 1642, the year Galileo Galilei died in Florence under house arrest. The Catholic Church had convicted Galileo of “suspicion of heresy” in 1633 for the publication and dissemination of his views that the earth moved and was not the center of the universe. He was censured, made to recant, and condemned to house arrest for the remainder of his life. Galileo was indeed one of the “giants” on whose shoulders Newton stood, and given that direct conversation between the two was impossible, Galileo’s publications had to speak for him. Galileo’s works include, The Starry Messenger, in which he speaks with pride of his discovery of four moons of Jupiter (the fact that these moons orbited something other than the earth suggested that perhaps the earth was not the center of the universe): The Assayer, in which he argues that the material world is simpler than it appears; and his controversial Dialogue Concerning the two Chief World Systems, in which he argues convincingly for the system favored by science and against the system favored by the Church. This last was written in Italian as opposed to Latin, intended for wide distribution, and submitted to the Church for approval, with fateful results.

Galileo’s Dialogue properly credited his predecessor, Nicholas Copernicus, who lived from 1473 until 1543. Copernicus was the first modern astronomer to claim that the earth revolved around the sun and rotated on its axis. Since Copernicus died before Galileo’s birth in 1564, Copernicus’ publications had to serve as Galileo’s reference. Copernicus feared persecution by the Church, and refrained from publishing his views until the year of his death – his On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres was only published in 1543 on the urging of his friends, lest his revolutionary ideas die with him. It is uncertain whether Copernicus would have met the same fate as Galileo, however, since he wrote in Latin and aimed his book at the intellectual elite. Galileo’s intentions and methods of publication were more likely to raise the ire of the Church fathers. In addition, Galileo was writing at the height of the Thirty Years’ War between Catholics and Protestants and during a particularly conservative period of the Counter-Reformation, the organized reaction of the Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation begun by Martin Luther in the preceding century 38, p.17.

The map traces the extremely rapid dissemination of the Columbus letter through its first published editions. It is impossible to date all the editions precisely, but we can discern the basic pattern of the diffusion of this new knowledge to the major urban centers of Western Europe. No less than eleven editions were published in 1493. They were issued across Western Europe, in Spain, Italy, France, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Six more editions were published in 1494-97. Today, the only known copy of the first printed letter is housed in the New York Public Library.

These maps demonstrate the European progression ot geographical knowledge from the late 15th to the late 16th centuries. The printing press was instrumental in spreading the knowledge of the new explorations not only through explorers’ letters and accounts, but also through geographic images and increasingly more accurate maps. Before printed maps, manuscript maps were only available to a handful of explorers and scholars. Before the press a process which historians call incremental fact checking, which is at the heart of cartography, could not occur. Because of the press, over time (sometimes centuries) voyagers were provided with uniform maps and encouraged to exchange information with map publishers. In 1487, the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and returned with proof that there was a sea route to Asia. This 1489 map is the first to show that Africa had a southern border. The second map is the famous 1507 Waldseemuller World Map. It has the nickname “America’s Birth Certificate” because it is the first known map to record the existence of the American continents (albeit in a strange, inaccurate shape). The 1507 map shows the progression of geographic knowledge. Note for example the advancement in knowledge about Africa’s true shape and the more detailed understanding of the Indian Ocean.

2.2. Significance of Era of Television
Television is currently engaged in an array of changes that affect how it is financed, produced, distributed, experienced, and linked with the rest of culture. For the past two decades, the domestic set itself has been transforming, in fits and starts, from an analog, low-definition receiver of broadcast signals to a digital, high-definition, customizable multimedia portal, incorporating hundreds of channels, an augmented audiovisual range, and a greater capacity for interactivity. These changes stem from shifts in the institutions of the media, as new technologies, business models, regulatory structures, programming forms, and modes of viewing interact with the old, with widely varying and often unpredictable results. Because so many of these forces are in flux and subject to external political and economic events, the outcome of this period is a matter of great debate. It is impossible to gauge exactly what “television” will be in another decade or so. However, it is clear that the centralized, mass-disseminated cultural institution that has held sway since the middle of the twentieth century is largely ceding to a regime premised on individual choice, marked by highly diversified content, atomized reception, and malleable technologies 40, p.29.

While this transition will likely not mark the end of television’s particular role in the reproduction of culture, it still confronts us with the necessity to rethink long-held conceptions of the medium and of the media in general. The current changes around television are part of a larger conceptual shift across all media, as the boundaries between previously discrete forms (text, film, broadcasting, video, and sound recordings) are increasingly blurred—aesthetically, technologically, industrially, and culturally—challenging established theoretical paradigms. Technology, industry, and culture are not autonomous domains; each is shaped by the other in particular ways, helping construct particular media forms and practices in particular contexts. It is crucial to remember this point as we investigate the media’s past and speculate on its future, for its aesthetic forms, industrial and regulatory practices, and uses and meanings are all tied together.

Within this “forest” of media change, it is still important to study how particular “trees” are adapting to the new environment. For television, these changes began in the mid-1970s, at a pivotal moment in media history: the introduction of home video.1 Home video devices—in particular, videocassette recorders (VCRs), but also video cameras (camcorders), laserdisc players, digital/personal video recorders (DVRs/PVRs), and digital versatile disc (DVD) players—differ in their specific functions, but all have in common the primary innovation of video technology: the ability to selectively play back prerecorded programs.2 In addition, and just as significant, most of these devices can also record audio-video signals onto the fixed media of tape or disc. In performing these tasks, they are inevitably connected to domestic television sets, forcing television— as both a technology and cultural form, to borrow Raymond Williams’s description—into a complex relationship with home video that foregrounds its function as an audiovisual display device rather than its more established role as a dominant modern cultural institution. This physical and cultural connection between television and home video enables people to use their sets to create or access programming on their own terms rather than stay locked to the fare and schedule dictated by the broadcasting industry.3
However, despite the ubiquity and unique qualities of home video technology, it has been sorely understudied in the academy. Several important articles, collections, and books were published in the wake of the initial video expansion in the late 1980s and early 1990s, but as the devices became part of everyday life, scholarly interest in this area waned and has been almost nonexistent when compared to more established fields of study like film and television or recently emerging concerns like new media and the Internet.4 This is unfortunate but not surprising given the dominant impression of home video as a neutral adjunct to both film and television. The VCR, for example, sits in the public and academic imaginary as it does in our living rooms, quietly next to the set, a seemingly functional means to an end: the unfettered reproduction of extant film and television programming. However, each of these sleek boxes, ranging from the first VCR to the latest PVR, are not mere enhancements of media; they are reconceptions, profoundly altering our relationship with dominant media institutions and with media culture in general.

While home video has been physically connected to television at the level of technology and everyday use, it has not been as attached to the television industry (i.e., production studios, networks, and stations). Instead, the VCR has functioned predominately as a domestic extension of the film industry rather than as a supplement to television. As Frederick Wasser (2001) explores in his study of the relationship between home video and Hollywood, while the film industry first viewed the VCR with suspicion, it has since become its most crucial technology, fostering new markets for their products and providing the majority of their revenue since the late 1980s. By contrast, television had never, until recently, established the same relationship with home video. Television’s primary goal is selling potential audiences to advertisers, not selling products to consumers. Accordingly, home video releases of television series have been a relatively marginal cultural form during the video era.

The industrial and technological changes of the past several years have considerably altered these relationships, as the boundaries between media producers and distributors have all but vanished in the age of synergy, and the VCR has largely given way to the DVD player. All six national commercial broadcast networks in the United States are now part of larger megamedia corporations with interests in film and television production and distribution, cable programming networks, cable system operation, book and magazine publishing, sound recording production and distribution, and home video distribution, among other endeavors.5 This has facilitated the “horizontal” exploitation of media properties across different forms and venues (i.e., television, film, recordings, books, video), enabling new revenue possibilities. DVD technology, introduced in 1997, has been especially critical in this regard, not only for the film industry but even more so for television. With much higher resolution sound and image, random access capability, a smaller size, and most significant, a larger storage capacity, the DVD has rejuvenated the home video industry and has finally enabled television to achieve what film had by the mid-1980s, namely, a viable direct-to-consumer market for its programming 62, p.43.

The pivotal innovation of this achievement is the season box set: a multiple-disc DVD package containing an entire season’s worth of episodes from a particular television series. First introduced by Fox with the release of the first season of The X-Files in April 2000, the box set materializes all the significant discourses of early twenty-first century media change: high technology, corporate consolidation, user convenience, and commodity fetishism. It extends the reach of the institution of television into home video to an unprecedented degree and functions as an intriguing aesthetic object in its own right. It culminates the decades-long relationship between television and its viewers, completing the circle through the material purchase—rather than only the ephemeral viewing—of broadcast texts.

2.3. The Meaning of The Internet
The Internet is the largest computer network in the world, connecting more than a billion computer users. The Internet is most often used for three main purposes:
1. Communication
2. Buying and selling (e-commerce)
3. Searching for information
One of the most important things you need to know about the Internet is that it is a self-publishing medium, which means that no one is in charge of the content found on it. Anyone can publish anything on the Internet, whether the information is true or not. Later in this Learning Unit, you will learn some tips for evaluating the information you find on websites 34, p.13.

It might be helpful to think of the Internet as a vast system of roads all connecting to each other. You may have heard the term “information superhighway.” It’s a vast infrastructure of pathways allowing computers to “talk” to each other, even though the computers may use different operating systems. They do this through unique identification numbers called Internet Protocol Addresses (IP addresses).

The abbreviation “www” stands for World Wide Web. Many people think the World Wide Web is the same thing as the Internet. It isn’t. While the Internet is a large connection of networks (hardware), the World Wide Web is a way to access the information on the Internet. It’s like the software you need to run programs on the hardware of your computer. So, the Internet is broader than the World Wide Web.

The Web uses common communication protocols (sets of rules) and special languages. One of these is called HyperText Markup Language (HTML). These special languages act as a bridge, allowing computers to communicate that don’t use compatible operating systems. This means that you don’t have to use a specific type of computer in order to access a website.

The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network of networks. Through interconnected computer networks, the Internet enables individuals and businesses to share information, resources, and services. Because no single individual or group of individuals controls the Internet, it is imperative that certain rules and guidelines are adhered to so that it can function efficiently.

In the beginning, the Internet was used strictly for scientific, educational, and military research. In 1991, regulations changed to allow businesses and consumers to connect as well. Since that time, the Internet has grown rapidly and now covers the globe. New technologies are continuously being developed that make the Internet easier and more attractive to use. Online applications are available to the Internet user, including e-mail, web browsing, streaming music and video, online gaming, and instant messaging.

The way people interact, share information, and even do business is changing to keep up with the continuous evolution of this global network. The Internet is creating a wider audience and consumer base for whatever message, product, or service can be delivered. For many businesses, having Internet access has become critical, not only for communication, but also for day-to-day operation. This includes e-commerce, communications, and collaboration and training, as shown in Figure 1-1 and described in the next sections.

E-Commerce. Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is any business activity that can be conducted over the web. This includes using web space for advertisements, brochures, and catalogs, as well as ordering and distribution services. Companies can sell products and services over the Internet from their own websites, through auction sites, or through affiliated websites.

Communications. Communications refers to any electronic method of communication, such as the use of e-mail, instant messaging, and online chat. In addition, many businesses use internal phone systems that operate over the Internet using IP phones and voice over IP (VoIP) technology to reduce phone costs.

Collaboration and Training. The Internet enables the sharing of documents, presentations, and spreadsheets among users around the world. It allows teams of people to work together virtually from remote locations for business and training purposes. Examples include videoconferencing, virtual meeting places, virtual classrooms, online learning, online bulletin boards, FTP sites, and password-protected databases and applications. With the increasing number of new devices and technologies coming online, it is important that all users and technologies adhere to a set of rules or guidelines. This allows services such as e-mail to be reliably delivered to all users. These rules and guidelines are known as Internet standards.

A standard is a set of rules for how something must be done. Networking and Internet standards ensure that all devices connecting to the network use the same set of rules. By having standards, different types of devices can send information to each other over the Internet. For example, an e-mail message is formatted, forwarded, and received by all devices in a standardized manner. If someone sends an e-mail via a PC, someone else can use a mobile phone to receive and read the e-mail as long as the mobile phone uses the same standards 45, p.34.

An Internet standard is the end result of a comprehensive cycle of discussion, problem solving, and testing. When a new standard is proposed, each stage of the development and approval process is recorded in a numbered Request for Comments (RFC) document so that the evolution of the standard is tracked.?
Thousands of Internet standards help define the rules for how devices communicate on networks. These different standards are developed, published, and maintained by a variety of organizations. These include the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Because these organizations create and maintain standards, millions of individuals can connect to the Internet using a variety of devices, including PCs, cellular phones, handheld personal digital assistants (PDA), MP3 players, and even televisions.

There are different interpretations of Open Educational Resources (OER). For example, on the webpage of their OER survey, the OECD’s Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) states that this would comprise “Open courseware and content; Open software tools; Open material for e-learning capacity building of faculty staff; Repositories of learning objects; Free educational courses” (Hylen, 2007).

According to Gesser (2007), OER have the following core attributes:
that access to open content (including metadata) is provided free of charge for educational institutions, content services, and the end-users such as teachers, students and lifelong learners;
that the content is liberally licensed for re-use in educational activities, favourably free from restrictions to modify, combine and repurpose the content; consequently, that the content should ideally be designed for easy re-use in that open content standards and formats are being employed;
that for educational systems/tools software is used for which the source code is available (i.e. Open Source software) and that there are open Application Programming Interfaces (open APIs) and authorisations to re-use Web-based services as well as resources (e.g. for educational content RSS feeds).

The appearance of the Internet has changed the education significantly. Properly used information from the Internet, represent added value to the education.

Limiting the government’s financial and human resources, consequently, has greatly increased the need to introduce new educational methods. E-learning has been in use for over a decade. During this time, both the advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for learning have clearly demonstrated. In recent years, OER development has contributed to a higher quality and efficiency of e-learning.

The concept of using the educational resources has changed significantly. The development led from free content that one can individually teach himself, to social learning, where users have the possibility of mutual communication and exchange of opinions. Linking databases of resources, which will allow the user to use the information adapted to his previous knowledge, is expected in the near future. More about e-learning, its future and good practices will be presented in the book “E-learning Good Practices”, which will be published both online and in printed edition in 2012 45, p.32.

There are many good practices scattered on the web, but still a lot of things should be done to come to the critical mass of high quality educational content which is free for everybody and easy to use in different learning contexts and needs.

2.4. The empowerment of social media
It is possible to trace the emergence of social media to when Tim O’Reilly introduced the term ‘Web 2.0’ in 2005. While O’Reilly claims that ‘Web 2.0′ denotes actual changes whereby users’ collective intelligence co-create the value of platforms like Google, Amazon, Wikipedia or Craigslist in a “community of connected users,” he admits that the term was mainly created for identifying the need of new economic strategies of Internet companies after the ‘dot-com’ crisis, in which the bursting of financial bubbles caused the collapse of many Internet companies. So he states in a paper published five years after the creation of the invention of the term ‘Web 2.0’ that this category was “a statement about the second coming of the Web after the dotcom bust” at a conference that was “designed to restore confidence in an industry that had lost its way after the dotcom bust” (ibid.) 48, p.43.

Michael Mandiberg argues that the notion of ‘social media’ has been associated with multiple concepts: “the corporate media favourite ‘user-generated content,’ Henry Jenkins’ media-industries-focused ‘convergence culture,’ Jay Rosen’s ‘the people formerly known as the audience,’ the politically infused ‘participatory media,’ Yochai Benkler’s process-oriented ‘peer-production,’ and Tim O’Reilly’s computer-programming-oriented ‘Web 2.0′” (Mandiberg 2012, 2). The question of if and how social the web is or has become depends on a profoundly social theoretical question: what does it mean to be social? Are human beings always social or only if they interact with others? In sociological theory, there are different concepts of the social, such as Emile Durkheim’s social facts, Max Weber’s social action, Karl Marx’s notion of collaborative work (also employed in the concept of computer-supported collaborative work—CSCW) or Ferdinand Tonnies’ notion of community (for a detailed discussion, see Fuchs 2014d). Depending on which concept of sociality one employs, one gets different answers to the questions of whether the web is social and whether sociality is a new quality of the web. Community aspects of the web have certainly not started with Facebook, which was founded in 2004 but was already described as characteristic of 1980s bulletin board systems, like The WELL, that he characterises as virtual communities (Rheingold 2000). Collaborative work, as, for example, the cooperative editing of articles performed on Wikipedia, is rather new as a dominant phenomenon on the WWW, but not new in computing. The concept of CSCW (computer supported cooperative work) was subject of a conference series that started in December 1986 with the 1st ACM Conference on CSCW in Austin, Texas. A theoretical approach is needed that identifies multiple dimensions of sociality (such as cognition, communication, and cooperation), based on which the continuities and discontinuities of the development of the Internet can be empirically studied. Neither is the wiki-concept new itself: the WikiWikiWeb was introduced by Ward Cunningham in 1984.
All computing systems, and therefore all web applications, and also all forms of media can be considered as social because they store and transmit human knowledge that originates in social relations in society. They are objectifications of society and human social relations. Whenever a human uses a computing system or a medium (also if she or he is alone in a room), then she or he cognises based on objectified knowledge that is the out- come of social relations. But not all computing systems and web applications support direct communication between humans, in which at least two humans mutually exchange symbols that are interpreted as being meaningful. Amazon mainly provides information about books and other goods one can buy; it is not primarily a tool of communication, but rather a tool of information, whereas Facebook has in-built communication features that are frequently used (mail system, walls for comments, forums, etc.) 54, p.34.The discussion shows that it is not a simple question to decide if and how social the WWW actually is. Therefore a social theory approach of clarifying the notion of ‘social media’ can be advanced by identifying three social information processes that constitute three forms of sociality:
•Cognition
•Communication
•Cooperation
According to this view, individuals have certain cognitive features that they use to interact with others so that shared spaces of interaction are created. In some cases, these spaces are used not just for communication but also for the coproduction of novel qualities of overall social systems and for community building. The three notions relate to different forms of sociality: the notion of cognition is related to Emile Durkheim’s concept of social facts, the communication concept to Max Weber’s notions of social actions and social relations, the cooperation concept to the notions of communities and collaborative work. According to this model, media and online plat- forms that primarily support cognition (such as the websites of newspapers) are social media (1), those that primarily support communication (such as e-mail) are social media (2), and those that primarily support community building and collaborative work (such as Wikipedia, Facebook) are social media (3). This means that social media is a complex term and that there are different types of social media. Empirical studies show that the most recent development is that there is a certain increase of the importance of social media (3) on the Internet, which is especially due to the rise of social networking sites such as Facebook, wikis like Wikipedia, and microblogs such as Twitter and Weibo and Ellison (2008, 211) define social network sites as “web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.” In network analysis, a network is defined as a system of interconnected nodes (Wasserman and Faust 1997; Barabasi 2003). Therefore, based on a strict theoretical understanding, all networked tools that allow establishing connections between at least two humans have to be understood as social network platforms. This includes not only the platforms that boyd and Ellison have in mind but also chats, discussion boards, mailing lists, email, etc.—all Web 2.0 and 3.0 technologies. ‘Social network site’ is therefore an imprecise term. David Beer argues that this definition is too broad and does not distinguish different types of sites such as wikis, folksonomies, mash-ups and social net- working sites: “My argument here is simply that we should be moving toward more differentiated classifications of the new online cultures not away from them” (Beer 2008, 519.). He suggests using Web 2.0, not SNS, as an umbrella term 35, p.32.

What makes sites like Facebook distinct is that they are integrated platforms that combine many media and information and communication technologies, such as webpage, webmail, digital image, digital video, discussion group, guest book, connection list or search engine. Many of these technologies are social network tools themselves. It surely is feasible, as Loyd and Ellison argue, that profiles, connection lists and tools for establishing connections are the central elements, but missing is the insight that these technologies are meta-communication technologies, technologies of communication technologies. It is therefore more appropriate to speak of social networking sites (SNS) that function as integrated tools of cognition, communication and cooperation. SNS are web-based platforms that integrate different media, information and communication technologies and that allow at least the generation of profiles that display information that describes the users, the display of connections (connection list), the establishment of connections between users that are displayed on their connection lists and the communication between users. SNS are just like all computer technologies cognitive systems because they reflect and display dominant collective values of society that become objectified and confront users. They are communication technologies because they are used for communication and establishing connections in the form of connection lists. SNS are cooperative technologies because they allow the establishment of new friendships and communities and the maintenance of existing friendships. By friendship we mean a continuous social relationship between humans that is based on empathy and sympathy. Therefore SNS provide means for establishing virtual communities understood as “social aggregations that emerge from the Net when enough people carry on those public discussions long enough, with sufficient human feeling, to form webs of personal relationship in cyber- space” (Rheingold 2000). For Rheingold a virtual community is not the same as computer-mediated communication (CMC), but continuous CMC that results in feelings of affiliation 15, p.54.

Not all social relations established or maintained on SNS are forms of community. There might be superficial relations that just exist by a display of connection in the connection list. This can be the case, for example, if one adds friends of friends whom one has never met and with whom one does not continuously interact, if one adds people arbitrarily in order to increase one’s friends list, or if one adds people who share one’s interests, but with whom one also does not communicate. In this case, the usage of SNS remains on the communication level. Cooperation technologies in the sense of a virtual community are then a mere unrealized potential. It is likely that any concrete SNS will consist of many loose connections and many virtual communities that exist in parallel. SNS on the technological level provide potentials for communication and cooperation. Only the communicative level is automatically realized by establishing connections; the emergence of communities on SNS requires more sustained communicative work so that social bonds emerge. Feelings of community can either emerge on SNS or be imported from the outside world. If individuals make use of SNS for staying in touch with already established friends and contacts more easily and over distance, then existing communities or parts of them are transformed into virtual communities that crystallise on SNS. If individuals make new social bonds with people whom they did not know in advance and whom they have met on SNS, then community emerges inherently from SNS. One can speak of a virtual community in both cases. Cooperation technologies are (besides collaborative online labour, which can be found in the case of wikis, but is not a necessary condition) about the production of social bonds and feelings of belonging and togetherness 18, p.45.

‘Social media’ such as Facebook support cognition, communication/networking and cooperation (communities, collaborative work, sharing of user-generated and other content). Therefore a lot of personal and social data about users is generated. The question of broader social phenomena on social media, such as politics, protest, crime and revolutions, rests on an understanding of these concepts, as well as an understanding of their relation to modern society. These are considered ahead.

The study of social media activity is due to the novelty of blogs and social networks like Facebook and Twitter, a relatively young endeavour. Based on the theoretical assumptions about the information process and society, we can describe social media surveillance based on social theory. Thus far, social theory foundations of social media activity have been underrepresented in scholarly literature.?
Some constitutive features of social media like Facebook are the following:
Integrated sociality: Social media enable the convergence of the three modes of sociality (cognition, communication, cooperation) in an integrated sociality. This means, for example, on Facebook, an individual creates multi-media content like a video on the cognitive level, publishes it so that others can comment (the communicative level) and allows others to manipulate and remix the content, so that new content with multiple authorship can emerge. One step does not necessarily result in the next, but the technology has the potential to enable the combination of all three activities in one space. Facebook, by default, encourages the transition from one stage of sociality to the next, within the same social space.

Integrated roles: Social media like Facebook are based on the creation of personal profiles that describe the various roles of a human being’s life. In contemporary modern society, different social roles tend to converge in various social spaces. The boundaries between public life and private life as well as the workplace and the home have become porous. As we have seen, Habermas identified systems (the economy, the state) and the lifeworld as central realms of modern society. The lifeworld can be further divided into culture and civil society. We act in different social roles in these spheres: for example, as employees and consumers in the economic systems, as clients and citizens in the state system, as activists in the sociopolitical sphere and as lovers and consumers in socio-economic sphere. We also act as family members in the private sphere, or as fan community members, parishioners, professional association members, etc. in the sociocultural sphere. A new form of liquid and porous sociality has emerged, in which we partly act in different social roles in the same social space. On social media like Facebook, we act in various roles, but all of these roles become mapped onto single profiles that are observed by different people who are associated with our different social roles. This means that social media like Facebook are social spaces, in which social roles tend to converge and become integrated in single profiles.

Integrated and converging communication on social media: On social media like Facebook, various social activities (cognition, communication, cooperation) in different social roles that belong to our behaviour in systems (economy, state) and the lifeworld (the private sphere, the socio-economic sphere, the sociopolitical sphere, the sociocultural sphere) are mapped to single profiles. In this mapping process, data about (a) social activities within (b) social roles are generated. This means that a Facebook profile holds (a1) personal data, (a2) communicative data, (a3) social net- work data/community data in relation to (b1) private roles (friend, lover, relative, father, mother, child, etc.), (b2) civic roles (sociocultural roles as fan community members, neighbourhood association members, etc.), (b3) public roles (socio-economic and sociopolitical roles as activists and advocates) and (b4) systemic roles (in politics: voter, citizen, client, politician, bureaucrat, etc.; in the economy: worker, manager, owner, purchaser/ consumer, etc.). The different social roles and activities tend to converge, as, for example, in the situation where the workplace is also a playground, where friendships and intimate relations are formed and dissolved and where spare time activities are conducted. This means that social media surveillance is an integrated form of surveillance, in which one finds surveillance of different (partly converging) activities in different partly converging social roles with the help of profiles that hold a complex networked multitude of data about humans.

Figure 2.4.1 visualises the communication process on one single social media system (such as Facebook, etc.). The total social media communication process is a combination and network of a multitude of such processes. The integration of different forms of sociality and social roles on social media means that there is a myriad of possible social functions that any single platform can serve. Individual may use it to communicate with other citizens in the context of any number of social roles, as well as for purposes that may transcend roles. They may also communicate with organizations and institutions for the same purposes. They may also simply monitor the communication in which any of these social actors are engaged. Institutions, including branches of the state, may do all of the foregoing as well. For this reason, the following section considers a theoretical understanding of the state, and of related concepts, in order to underscore the relevance of social media for modern society and phenomena such as politics, protest, crime and revolution
34, p.67.Figure 2.4.1. The process of social media communication.

Chapter 3.Functions of Media
3.1. Spread of Information
When public service television was founded in Britain in 1927 Lord Reith’s classic definition of the core responsibilities of the BBC was to “entertain, inform and educate”, an ethos widely adopted in other European countries. As such the duty was certainly to provide popular entertainment, such as music, arts and drama, but also to serve the public by extended coverage of public affairs, world events and parliamentary debate. Although public television has been transformed over the years, from the wireless to the Internet Age, nevertheless these core principles continue to be reflected in the standards guiding broadcasters. In contrast, we expect that most broadcasting stations totally financed through advertising are mainly interested in attracting a large audience, unless a regulatory framework exists which mandates them to target minority groups. Any decision will therefore be guided by the goal of maximizing their audience. This has consequences for the overall structure of programming and the balance between information and entertainment. As a result we expect that commercial channels will usually broadcast more programmes at peak-time designed to attract the mass audience, such as movies, sports, game shows, telenovelas, and popular sit coms, while in contrast public-service channels will tend to give higher priority to documentaries, current affairs, news and arts. This distinction between sectors is not watertight; for example obviously we would not expect this pattern to apply to commercial channels devoted to 24-hour rolling news, such as SKY News and CNN International. Some public sector channels and programmes are also designed to be more mainstream and popular than others. For example, content analysis comparing the amount of coverage of international affairs across European channels in the 15 member states of the EU found considerable variations among channels within each sector, as well as differences between sectors. Nevertheless as a working proposition we assume that there is still a distinction in programming between sectors, so that the balance of coverage would usually be more informational on public service stations and more entertainment-oriented on commercial channels 45, p.32.

3.2. Influence on Culture
Mass-media influences a society on all the channels that it has, and the consumer is the one that rejects or decodes the information. Even if the consumer can never be obliged through mass-media channels to react in a way wished by the one that transmits the information, even though mass-media creates currents, modifies opinions builds or destroys personalities, promotes models with or without intention, the impact with the consumer is overwhelming because does not address itself to a single individual which can refuse the non-value, the bad taste, the illiteracy, the kitsch, the dilettantism, immorality, the subproject, but it addresses an immense mass of consumers and always a big part of them (especially if they are young) can be modeled in a negative sense.

To become operational mass media can consume a longer or shorter time. The effect of mass media on the individual, when the promoted values and opinions converge makes the individual adhering to the message, an
evident thing especially regarding the youngsters and especially in the entertainment domain or can make the individual assimilate the behavior values and models transmitted by mass-media and to use them as personal values.

After Bunescu G. and Negreanu E. (2005, p.15) “the concept of social, communicational influence can be defined as being:
•A form of efficient action on someone;
•An action of an individual or a group oriented towards the modification of the options and manifestation of someone;
•The communication mode has persuasion as principal resort;
•The capacity to generate conformity to the suggestions of the influencer (making use of positive reason).”It is to state that one of the objectives of media is the product dependence making 33, p.14.

In this perspective school life and the daily extracurricular experiences do not satisfy the curiosity and the wish of knowledge of children and youngsters. After Albulescu I. (2003, p. 17) “the education of the young generation is not an exclusive job in school. The personality development of the child is an objective to which the whole social system contributes trough many involved factors. School, family, affiliation group, mass-media, other institutions that assume this kind of attributions influence both children’s training efforts, but also their leisure practices. ”
The mass media information presented accessibly, nicely attracts the child or the youth and stimulates it intellectually and affectively and a convergent action school-mass-media focalized on the student can be extremely effective in the formation of necessary aptitudes in the modern society, but it has to be extremely efficient in aptitude formation necessary to the modern society, because it has to be used correctly because family, school and mass-media model behavior.

Promoting values as freedom, dignity, honor etc. have to be projected and promoted in detriment of passivity, commodity in behavior and thinking, the search of superficiality, aesthetical and moral mediocrity, antisocial acts that instigate, homogenization and behavioral standardization, the sexual emphasis, violence instigation, spiritual homogenization, inadequate vocabulary or mass-media excess that leads to dependence that brings about nervous exhaustion, stress and even depressions.

Using the reasoning methods of research, the inductive reasoning more, and the deductive one less, we identified several conclusions, which led us to recommendations 29, p.49.

3.3. Role of Media in Political System
Democracy depends on people being able to shape the society they live in, and in order to do this they need to express themselves. The right to freedom of expression is widely seen as underpinning human rights and democratic freedoms in that it guarantees the exchange of views and opinions necessary to inform public debate as well as supporting freedom of association, the right to form political parties, the questioning and challenging of public officials, and so on. It has long been valued as a foundation right in all democratic societies.

Freedom of expression, however, requires public platforms. It can only be an effective pillar of democracy and human rights if it can be exercised publically – if information and ideas can be freely exchanged between citizens without fear. For this reason, the media are widely recognised as an essential element of the democratic process as it is the media that gives public voice to our individual right to freedom of expression. Today, what we know as ‘the media’ has expanded beyond traditional offline print and broadcast media to encapsulate the internet, social media and a variety of mobile platforms. The media, in all these forms provides the means for citizens to discuss and debate with each other, to advocate views and lodge protests. It allows politicians views to be known and questioned, public officials to be exposed to scrutiny. By facilitating debate it is one of the guarantors of free and fair elections. Given the important democratic role of the media many have concluded that a precondition for the media fulfilling this function is independence from political interference and government control; a plurality of different media outlets providing a variety of content to ensure no-one has a monopoly of views; and a diversity of different viewpoints capable of expressing the range of views held within a society.

Media outlets can function as channels through which citizens communicate with each other and in this way act as a facilitator of informed debate between diverse social actors, also encouraging the non-violent resolution of disputes. In the world of offline media this aspect of the media depends on the editorial policy of the media channel and the ability of the journalist to reflect a broad balance of views. In the case of online platforms, the capacity for peer-to-peer communication is considerably enhanced, without reliance upon gatekeepers of any kind. The internet offers unprecedented scope for interactive communication using a variety of devices (though its unmediated nature means that rumour, allegation and falsehood can also spread rapidly without recourse to remedy). The political impact of this peer-to-peer communication was evident in the events in the Middle East in 2011 when citizens were able to bypass the formal media and censorship to organise mass protests that toppled regimes 30, p.43.

The media can also function as a watchdog, promoting government transparency and public scrutiny of those with power by exposing corruption, maladministration and corporate wrongdoing (and can thereby be a tool to enhance economic efficiency). The watchdog role requires high quality investigative journalism, however, which is under significant and increasing cost pressure as margins are squeezed globally. One of the emerging dilemmas of all news content organisations is how to pay for quality journalism given the availability of free content on internet platforms. There is increasing evidence in societies with high levels of access to the internet that young people are increasingly unwilling to pay for content. It is also clear that the market dominance of content aggregating and sharing platforms such as Google, YouTube, and Facebook is happening at the expense of those organisations that create and need to pay for content.?
Another function of the media is to be a national voice, a means by which a society or a country can learn about itself and build a sense of community and shared values, a vehicle for cultural expression and cultural cohesion within nation-states. This aspect of the media can be contentious in divided societies, or countries that contain different ethnic groups where one might be dominant. A sense of community and shared values has to rest upon a base that is inclusive, where all the constituent elements of a society feel that they are represented while at the same time conveying a sense of the core values that unite people.

This is a classic role for a public broadcaster.

Finally, the media are often advocates of certain issues or causes, in other words they are social actors in their own right. This aspect of the media can sit uneasily alongside its role as platform for the expression of views. There is clearly a potential contradiction between a media that facilitates the free exchange of view and opinions in a society and one that takes a partisan view on an issue.

This dilemma was resolved with newspapers by having a clear separation between the editorial pages of the paper (its social actor role) from the news pages (its platform role). However most observers believe this kind of distinction is breaking down in print media. And while public broadcasters may be obliged to be balanced in their coverage the same obligations may not apply to private broadcasters.

Increasingly the partisan role of media is beginning to swamp its role as a platform for the expression of wide range of views. The growth of online platforms is
accelerating this trend. Citizen journalism is a powerful new addition to the media environment, providing new opportunities for people to shape and even create news. But it throws up new challenges. News stories are interwoven with citizen comments, blogging, and tweeting in a rolling twenty-four hour cycle, often unedited and where the wildest rumours and allegations can circulate. Social media are becoming important actors in themselves – encouraging people to focus on certain issues, and striking partisan positions without regards for traditional journalist conventions. Technological, political, and economic changes are changing the ways in which the media can support democracy 43, p.65.

There is also an on-going debate about assessing the impact of specific media initiatives. Much donor activity has supported training whose long-term impact is uncertain. There has been little, if any, systematic evaluation of media programmes and little sense of what works in different environments.

3.4. Formation of Public Opinion
Media is the most powerful tool for the formation of Public opinion in contemporary times. It is the Television, the press, the radio and the Internet. (Films, magazines, posters, studies, reports, theater, art, dance, public speeches, hearings)
Talking about the media is like talking about a mission. A source of information and education that will shape the daily choices in people’s life. That will shape the thinking, and the perception of things. But Media is a political power and tool, occupied in a way by the big powers, international corporations, big agencies using for their political and economic objectives that control and can pay. Among the most powerful news agencies in the West are the BBC, CNN, Euro-news.The religious and political leaders of these media agencies are always around to talk, freely and passing news, stands, and positions to their communities, to the public using them to serve their political and economic ends 48, p.32.

The media has a massive responsibility in providing factual coverage that does not perpetuate myths, stereotypes or encourage generalizations or spread misinformation about refugees, asylum seekers and migrants. Unfortunately, accurate, truthful and factual coverage on refugees, asylum seekers and migrants is not the norm, the tendency is to lump together all foreigners into one big category either as traffickers, terrorist, or drug dealers and pour oil on xenophobia and racism and rationalize the policy of closing borders. The topic of refugees is a hot political issue serving political, electoral and economic purposes of leaders.

The relations established with media actors will create a fair balanced coverage when the refugees are in hot water, the media could build support around the issue, influence the public opinion and make them prime targets.

Media relations are important:
•For convincing legislators that their actions are being watched, not only by people in the gallery, but also by countless others reading newspapers, listening to radio and watching TV. and•For lobbying campaigns to build grassroots support and transform the issue from a nonpublic to a public issue.

Ideally newspapers and public affairs programs on radio and television should inform, educate and engage the public. The media’s track record so far in new democracies, however, is uneven. Because of the need to cater to the market or to kowtow to the state, the media often shirk their civic responsibility and contribute to civic illiteracy instead of public enlightenment.

Elections are a key democratic exercise, one where the media can have both positive and negative impacts. As societies become more modernized and the media become ever more pervasive, the influence of traditional patrons, parties and institutions (like churches) on the electoral process is diminished. Instead, candidates and parties make their appeal and propagate their messages through the media. This is one reason why election campaigns in many countries are now much more expensive: The cost of television and newspaper advertising is huge and now accounts for a substantial chunk of campaign costs. Well-funded candidates often have a better chance of being voted into office simply because they can buy air time and newspaper space. In some countries, candidates also bribe journalists and editors who endorse their candidacies in various ways.

Media-oriented campaigns have not necessarily meant more enlightened electorates. As the example of U.S. elections, which are being mimicked by many new democracies, shows, TV-oriented campaigns tend to put more emphasis on sound bites and glamour, rather than substance and depth. Candidates preen before the electorate, whose choices are often determined by how well the contenders project themselves on the screen 37, p.33.

Still, the media in new democracies have contributed to public education on elections. Public-affairs programs on radio and television provide the depth, context and critical analysis that news programs and commercials do not. In addition, in countries like the Philippines and Indonesia, TV and radio networks have produced sophisticated public-service announcements enjoining voters to choose wisely and warning them of the consequences of selling their vote. Debates sponsored by media organizations have been organised, enabling candidates who do not have the money to buy air time to articulate their views to a wide audience. The media have likewise given time and space to independent advocates and NGOs campaigning for clean elections and an end to money politics. Despite these, however, moneyed candidates who have favoured access to the media still have the edge. The media playing field, as far as elections go, remains uneven.

In many new democracies, radio has become the medium of choice, taking the place of newspapers in drawing citizens to the town square for discussion and debate. Compared to television, radio is a less expensive and more accessible medium and is especially popular in poor countries where the media infrastructure is not well developed. FM radio with its localised signal can be an instrument for promoting grassroots democracy 30, p.43.

3.5.1.Data collection
Figure 5: Level of Political Knowledge by Type of Viewer
Type of Viewers:
1.Public TV News
2.Public TV Entertainment
3.Commercial TV News
4.Commercial TV Entertainment
3.5.2.

Table 2: Predictors of political knowledge by nation
Model I
Preference for public TV Model II
Preference for public TV + news
St. Beta Sig. R2 St. beta Sig. R2
Netherlands .19 ** .15 .19 ** .15
Belgium .18 ** .29 .18 ** .31
Finland .17 ** .21 .16 ** .21
Sweden .12 ** .15 .13 ** .15
Denmark .09 ** .14 .12 ** .14
France .09 ** .15 .09 ** .16
Britain .09 ** .24 .10 ** .24
Germany .07 ** .14 .09 ** .14
Spain .07 ** .24 .07 ** .25
Italy .06 ** .20 .09 ** .16
Greece .02 .24 .03 .25
Ireland .02 .22 .04 .22
Portugal .01 .31 .02 .32
Northern Ireland -.06 .20 -.05 .20
Notes: 1) Standardized beta coefficients predicting scores on the 10-point political knowledge scale with the following variables being controlled simultaneously: Gender, education, age, income, left-right scale, and political interest. See Table 1 for the full model. Model I includes only preference for public TV (1) or commercial TV (0). Model II includes preference for public TV * frequency of exposure to TV news.

Table 3.5.3 Model Predicting Political Knowledge, EU-15
B. Stand. Beta Coding
Structural variables
Gender .828 .17 Male (1) Female (0)
Age .008 .06 Years
Education .603 .20 Standardized 3pt scale
Income .184 .09 Standardized household income
Attitudinal variables
Left-Right Ideology .019 .02 10-point scale Left (1) to Right (10)
Political Interest .545 .15 Frequency of Political Discussion
Media variables
Preference for public TV .402 .09 Public (1) Commercial (0)
Frequency watch TV News .054 .02 From Never (1) to Everyday (5)
Frequency read newspaper .266 .14 From Never (1) to Everyday (5)
Frequency listen radio news .138 .09 From Never (1) to Everyday (5)
Online .128 .01 Online user (1) Not (0)
Constant -2.11 R2 .23 3.5.2. Analysis of results
A macro-conceptual frame of reference is presented here as an approach to the study of mass communication processes, based on the assumption that control of knowledge is basic to development of social power. Mass media are viewed, in this perspective, as interdependent parts of a total social system in which they share problems of controlling, and being controlled by, other subsystems. A major goal of research within this perspective is to point up the crucial nature of knowledge control, rather than knowledge in and of itself, as a base for social power.

Mass media are viewed as subsystems which cut across other subsystems and transmit information among them. The principal question for research’ within this framework is not whether information is controlled, but how the control is exercised, where in the process it occurs, and what its consequences are for the overall social system as well as for the interdependent subsystems. The communication of scientific and technological knowledge serves as a case in point, illustrating the various forms of system control that occur in mass communication.

Propositions relevant to this systems- control approach include:
1)The less complex and differentiated the system, the more likely mass media within that system are to confine themselves to the distributive aspect of system maintenance.

2)The more differentiated and pluralistic the system, the more likely mass media are to perform a feedback-control as well as a distributive function.

3)Control over mass media content about science and technology by the science subsystem is a function of the degree to which channel members identify with the science subsystem 38, p.43.

4)As the infusion of mass media information into a social system increases, segments of the population with higher socioeconomic status tend to acquire this information at a faster rate than the lower status segments, so that the gap in knowledge between these segments tends to increase rather than decrease.

The widespread acceptance of knowledge control in society is illustrated by poll findings indicating that a majority believe some events (such as war atrocities) should not be reported to the public. The question in the minds of individuals at large tends to be not whether information should be controlled, but how and toward what ends.

In many West European countries, commercial television has made a successful entry to the market and gained a considerable share of the audience. In some countries preference for commercial television is higher than for the traditional public channels, in several others commercial stations are about equally popular. Where commercial television is in a clear minority role, this is often due to its late introduction.

The findings about the relation between channel preference and political knowledge as presented here can be seen to support pessimistic expectations about the consequences of the introduction of commercial broadcasting. In most countries, better knowledge is positively and significantly correlated in general with preferences for public broadcasting, and in particular with preference for public TV combined with regular exposure to news.

We cannot prove the direction of causality implicit in this persistent association. Although regression analysis models build on assumptions about the direction of the causal relationship in determining a dependent variable, data derived from a cross-sectional survey do not allow for any such assessment. However, the findings allow for interpretations on the basis of plausibility. Three possible interpretations are possible.

The ‘selection effects’ hypothesis is that because of prior social and political attitudes, some people choose to watch public sector TV in general, and public sector television news in particular. In this view, we expect that people tune into the type of programmes that most interests them. In this case the direction of causality runs from cognitive skills to media use, and the more politically knowledgeable choose to watch the more informative public TV news 60, p.33.

Alternatively the ‘media effects’ hypothesis suggests that because of prior media habits, some people who regularly watch public sector TV in general, and public sector TV news in particular, thereby learn more about events in Brussels and Strasbourg, hear about the politics of the European Union, and thus become more politically knowledgeable. If citizens today get most of their knowledge about politics through the media rather than through personal experience, and this is even more the case for more “distant” matters of European politics, at least some impact of the media on the level of political knowledge may be expected. In this view, the direction of causality runs from the news media to knowledge, and exposure to public TV news produces a more informed public.

But rather than an overly-simple one-way flow, it seems most plausible to assume that in the long-term there is an interactive process, or ‘virtuous circle’, between media habits and political knowledge (Norris 2000). That is to say, the more politically aware may well turn on the news and watch current affairs documentaries on public TV, but, in turn, repeated exposure to these programmes increases levels of civic information.

What are the broader implications of these findings? The results at individual level have to be understood within a broader social context. It follows that if the audience for public stations is shrinking, and the commercial sector is expanding, this is probably not good news for public knowledge of current affairs. If people are increasingly watching movies, rather than documentaries, and soaps rather than current affairs, then we can expect the public to gradually tune out from civic engagement. On this basis, European concern about the consequences of commercialization for the public sphere may well be justified. But this does assume that, given limited leisure time, watching TV is a zero sum game: the more people watch one channel, the less they watch another. On the other hand, less pessimistic conclusions can be drawn if the main impact of the growth of commercial channels has been to supplement, rather than replace, public service TV. The explosion of European stations on terrestrial, cable, satellite, digital and broadband services has produced far given greater diversity on television, and more facilities to channel surf with the remote from the couch. In this context people in Sweden and France and Germany may now be watching more films and more news, more MTV and more CNN, more commercial and more public TV, more entertainment and more informational programmes, in which case there may well be less cause for concern about the democratic implications of this study.

There are different scenarios of how electronic media will develop. According to Robin Foster, four possible scenarios for 2016 may be envisaged for the United Kingdom 54, p.32:
• Scenario 1: Transformation. In this world, a very fast pace of new technology adoption, supported by new fibre-based broadband access networks, drives a major and radical change in the broadcasting and electronic media sector. There is a dramatic decline in the use of scheduled broadcast TV! Instead, many consumers make extensive use of content delivered on-demand over the open Internet, from home and abroad. There is a significant increase in usergenerated content. Distribution platforms are no longer part of vertically integrated media organisations – rather they act as common carriers, linking millions of individual consumers to many thousands of content suppliers. At the consumer interface, the emphasis is on use of search tools, rather than on content aggregation.

•Scenario 2: Consolidation. This scenario suggests a market in which technology change advances apace, but in which extensive consolidation has taken place, resulting in only a small number of (largely vertically integrated) main players. Consumers prefer to remain with trusted content packagers and aggregators, who can help them through the complex world. In turn, those aggregators are able to secure a powerful position in the market through control of content rights and of essential gateway facilities.

•Scenario 3: Extreme fragmentation. In this scenario, some consumers experience the transformation of Scenario 1, but many are left behind, resulting in a significant digital divide and highly fragmented consumption. The result is an impoverished broadcast sector, a highly fragmented online sector, and a major digital and cultural deficit among those who are unable to participate fully in the new broadband world.

Scenario 4: Stagnation. In this scenario we get much slower than expected growth in demand for new broadband and digital services, and large-scale investment in new technologies is not forthcoming. It suggests a world in which the world lags significantly behind its main international competitors, and also one in which there is less investment and innovation in new services and content creation 59, p.90.

Conclusions
A lot of literature exists on the role and functions of the media, focusing primarily on the notions of forms of media and how particular media practices invariably set particular agendas. This chapter will lay the groundwork for much of the study and analysis that takes place in later chapters. So, the basis for this section will be to evolve a theoretical framework that examines the effects of media ownership and the impact of advertising. It will argue that they, rather than a free market of consumers, contribute to determine the diversity of media products.

Liberal Pluralist Theory supports a press that is free and unencumbered by government or legislative oversight, the press is supposed to be the watchdog of the government and inform the polity of government policies while supporting the entrenchment of democracy.
Marxist and Neo-Marxist approaches however present a strong criticism of the independence of the mass media in capitalist liberal democracies. This tradition has been a catalyst in the evolution of research into the political economy of the media.
Political economy examines the media, the nature of the media activity, to identify the nature of corporate reach, the ‘commodification’ of media products and the changing nature of state and government intervention. Political economy sees the
The mass media are often referred to as the fourth branch of government because of the power they wield and the oversight function they exercise. The media’s key role in democratic governance has been recognized since the late 17th century, and remains a fundamental principle of modern-day democratic theory and practice.

As traditionally understood, the mass media include the print media, film, broadcasting, recorded music, etc. Here, we are dealing primarily with “the press” (including print media and broadcasting), or “news media”, regardless of the platform on which they are disseminated, as they are crucial to freedom of expression, exercise of human rights and the operation of democracy, and so attract particular attention in terms of policy, regulation and standard-setting.

The news media, as indeed all mass media, are the organised technologies and organisations/institutions that make mass communication possible. They can be seen as “media organisations” (McQuail, 2005), operating in a field of social forces (social and political pressures, economic pressures, etc.), and performing a sequence of activities to obtain, select and process content, then assemble it into a media product and disseminate it, or have it disseminated, to the audience.

Another well-known recent example of this search for a new, technology-neutral definition of the “media”, is the EU’s Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD). The definition of “audiovisual media service” is explained at length in recitals 16 to 25 of the preamble and is set out in Article 1 (a). It is composed of six cumulative criteria:
1)It must be a service thus requiring an economic activity (hence excluding private websites, services consisting of the provision or distribution of user generated audiovisual content for the purposes of sharing and exchange within communities of interest);
2)mass media character (i.e. intended for reception by, and which could have a clear impact on, a significant proportion of the general public);
3)The function of the services is to inform, entertain and educate the general public. It presupposes an “impact of these services on the way people form their opinions”, as emphasised by recital 43;
4)The principal purpose should be the provision of programmes (as opposed to cases where audiovisual content is merely incidental), as emphasised by recital 18;
5)A service with audiovisual character (does not cover audio transmission or radio services or electronic versions of newspapers or magazines);
6)A service provided by electronic communications networks (e.g. excluding cinema, DVD).

The newspaper industry has gone through several stages of development. The current 21st century newspaper model which is targeted at a mass audience is quite recent. It developed between the mid – late nineteenth century. Before this, the model was based on targeting specialized audiences. According to Picard (2002), the first
This new model focused on acquiring more consumers and papers were sold at very low price. This new development led to the increased reliance on advertising. However due to massive copy sales’, advertising was still not considered a major source of revenue. Change however, was inevitable; advertising became a very
Political economy examines the media, the nature of the media activity, to identify the nature of corporate reach, the ‘commodification’ of media products and the changing nature of state and government intervention. Political economy sees the
The mass media are often referred to as the fourth branch of government because of the power they wield and the oversight function they exercise. The media’s key role in democratic governance has been recognized since the late 17th century, and remains a fundamental principle of modern-day democratic theory and practice.

As traditionally understood, the mass media include the print media, film, broadcasting, recorded music, etc. Here, we are dealing primarily with “the press” (including print media and broadcasting), or “news media”, regardless of the platform on which they are disseminated, as they are crucial to freedom of expression, exercise of human rights and the operation of democracy, and so attract particular attention in terms of policy, regulation and standard-setting.

The news media, as indeed all mass media, are the organised technologies and organisations/institutions that make mass communication possible. They can be seen as “media organisations” (McQuail, 2005), operating in a field of social forces (social and political pressures, economic pressures, etc.), and performing a sequence of activities to obtain, select and process content, then assemble it into a media product and disseminate it, or have it disseminated, to the audience.

Throughout its history, mankind had to go through several information revolutions. The first revolution was the formation and development of the language, the second revolution was the spread of reading and writing in the Middle East, the third information revolution occurred in the middle of the 15th century, when Europe joined the “Gutenberg invention”.

The fourth information revolution, the revolution of our time, began with the experiments of Samuel Morse, Guglielmo Marconi and Thomas Edison in the nineteenth century and is currently gaining strength. Cinematography, sound recording, radio, telephone, computers, copying and duplicating equipment are its components, and television is the most powerful product of this revolution. The fifth one is invention of internet. The practical advantages of radio communication were realized in the 1910s, and in 1912 the first broadcast was held from the Metropolitan Opera. However, during the First World War, the participating states monopolized the use of radio communications, which slowed down the development of commercial radio broadcasting. During the Second World War, radio became the main channel for obtaining information for the overwhelming majority of the population of the belligerent countries. Television became widespread only after the Second World War. The emergence of American television was in sharp competition with the British, whose technical development was funded by the British government. The first successful transmission of a TV signal from New York to Washington took place in 1927. In 1928, General Electric produced the first TV drama. It was created on the basis of the old play of Harleigh Menners “Queen’s Messenger”.

An indirect impetus to the creation of the Internet was the launching by the Soviet Union of the first artificial Earth satellite in 1957. Then the technological arms race between the two superpowers – the USSR and the USA – was launched. In early 1958, at the direction of D. Eisenhower, within the framework of the US Department of Defense, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created, whose task was to develop a technology that would prevent the destruction of the American communications system in the event of a nuclear strike by the Soviet Union.
In the 1980s there was a rapid growth in the number of networks around the world and the number of connections to them. Internet technology is already supported by a wide range of researchers, and the network is starting to use people of various categories for everyday computer communications distributed by the readers themselves. Until the mid-1990s, the Internet was accessible only to the scientific and educational community and government structures, mostly in the United States. However, since 1991 the Internet has become available to everyone thanks to the invention of the WWW (World Wide Web) technology and the emergence of the first graphics browsers – Mosaic and Netscape.

The creator of WWW technology is the British Tim Berners-Lee (Tim Berners-Lee), an employee of the European Physical Laboratory CERN. Unlike many other inventions that propelled the world forward, this invention was made by one person. And it was Tim Berners-Lee who fought the most to keep the web open, free, not belonging to anyone. A powerful communication system, which was used exclusively by the elite, he turned into the media. The Internet is a technology for organizing information transfer channels, based on a digital method of transferring data between computers. The very communication in the global network is carried out using Internet services. Gutenberg’s invention was really the end of a long evolution in human communication. Several things are important to note about Luther as students examine the documents. Luther initially had no intentions of starting a revolution that would reshape all of Europe. Secondly, he adds also that by divine right he has both swords, i.e., the authority also of bestowing kingdoms (enthroning and deposing kings, regulating secular dominions etc.). Many of the early printers, especially the Venetian Aldus Manutius, are viewed by historians as heroes.
Isaac Newton is considered by many to be the greatest scientist of all time and is often given the title “Father of the Scientific Revolution.” His ideas concerning the principles of all motion are the basis for modern physics and our understanding of much of the universe. His description of the rational, empirical method of hypothesis and generalization laid the foundation of modern scientific discourse.
The map traces the extremely rapid dissemination of the Columbus letter through its first published editions. It is impossible to date all the editions precisely, but we can discern the basic pattern of the diffusion of this new knowledge to the major urban centers of Western Europe. No less than eleven editions were published in 1493. They were issued across Western Europe, in Spain, Italy, France, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Six more editions were published in 1494-97. Television is currently engaged in an array of changes that affect how it is financed, produced, distributed, experienced, and linked with the rest of culture. For the past two decades, the domestic set itself has been transforming, in fits and starts, from an analog, low-definition receiver of broadcast signals to a digital, high-definition, customizable multimedia portal, incorporating hundreds of channels, an augmented audiovisual range, and a greater capacity for interactivity. The Internet is the largest computer network in the world, connecting more than a billion computer users. The Internet is most often used for three main purposes: 1. Communication; 2. Buying and selling (e-commerce); 3. Searching for information.One of the most important things you need to know about the Internet is that it is a self-publishing medium, which means that no one is in charge of the content found on it. Anyone can publish anything on the Internet, whether the information is true or not. All computing systems, and therefore all web applications, and also all forms of media can be considered as social because they store and transmit human knowledge that originates in social relations in society. They are objectifications of society and human social relations. Whenever a human uses a computing system or a medium (also if she or he is alone in a room), then she or he cognises based on objectified knowledge that is the out- come of social relations. The discussion shows that it is not a simple question to decide if and how social the WWW actually is. Therefore a social theory approach of clarifying the notion of ‘social media’ can be advanced by identifying three social information processes that constitute three forms of sociality: cognition; communication; cooperation
According to this view, individuals have certain cognitive features that they use to interact with others so that shared spaces of interaction are created. In some cases, these spaces are used not just for communication but also for the coproduction of novel qualities of overall social systems and for community building.

Mass-media influences a society on all the channels that it has, and the consumer is the one that rejects or decodes the information. To become operational mass media can consume a longer or shorter time. The effect of mass media on the individual, when the promoted values and opinions converge makes the individual adhering to the message, an evident thing especially regarding the youngsters and especially in the entertainment domain or can make the individual assimilate the behavior values and models transmitted by mass-media and to use them as personal values. Democracy depends on people being able to shape the society they live in, and in order to do this they need to express themselves. The right to freedom of expression is widely seen as underpinning human rights and democratic freedoms in that it guarantees the exchange of views and opinions necessary to inform public debate as well as supporting freedom of association, the right to form political parties, the questioning and challenging of public officials, and so on. It has long been valued as a foundation right in all democratic societies. Freedom of expression, however, requires public platforms. It can only be an effective pillar of democracy and human rights if it can be exercised publically – if information and ideas can be freely exchanged between citizens without fear. The media can also function as a watchdog, promoting government transparency and public scrutiny of those with power by exposing corruption, maladministration and corporate wrongdoing (and can thereby be a tool to enhance economic efficiency). Another function of the media is to be a national voice, a means by which a society or a country can learn about itself and build a sense of community and shared values, a vehicle for cultural expression and cultural cohesion within nation-states. This aspect of the media can be contentious in divided societies, or countries that contain different ethnic groups where one might be dominant. A sense of community and shared values has to rest upon a base that is inclusive, where all the constituent elements of a society feel that they are represented while at the same time conveying a sense of the core values that unite people.

Finally, the media are often advocates of certain issues or causes, in other words they are social actors in their own right. Media is the most powerful tool for the formation of Public opinion in contemporary times. It is the Television, the press, the radio and the Internet.
Thoughts and suggestions
To sum up, we can present some conclusions:
– “new media” have won their audience in a relatively short period and continue to increase it even now;
– the development of “new media” expands the opportunities for society to access information, the speed of its dissemination increases;
– in connection with the latest revolutions (Egypt, Libya, Syria), the role of computer technologies in the sphere of state political management is growing;
– Thanks to the use of “new media”, the task of mobilizing the population is simplified with a view to accomplishing specific actions (organization of mass public speeches, strikes, etc.);
– With the development of “new media”, the responsibility of politicians and public servants for the decisions they make and committed acts increases, as this can entail a heated discussion on the Internet and, subsequently, be transferred to the streets in the form of public unrest;
– on the other hand, “new media” is the embodiment of one of the principles of democracy – pluralism;
– Currently, the “new media” is more popular with the younger generation than the older one, the older generation prefers traditional media.

Thus, on the basis of aforesaid we can say the hypothesis of our study is confirmed by us. As result the media have more positive impact on society and its development than the negative consequences.

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