Introduction An aneurysm occurs when an artery’s wall weakens and causes an abnormally large bulge

Introduction
An aneurysm occurs when an artery’s wall weakens and causes an abnormally large bulge. This bulge can rupture and cause internal bleeding. Although an aneurysm can occur in any part of your body, they’re most common in the; brain, aorta, legs, spleen.
The aorta, the largest artery in the body, is a blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart. It originates just after the aortic valve connected to the left side of the heart and extends through the entire chest and abdomen. The portion of the aorta that lies deep inside the abdomen, right in front of the spine, is called the abdominal aorta. Normal diameter of the aorta is around 2 cm.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA or triple A) is an abnormal dilation of the abdominal aorta such that the diameter is greater than 3 cm. The majority of AAAs are the result of atherosclerosis, a chronic degenerative disease of the artery wall, in which fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls of arteries and form soft or hard deposits called plaques. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable symptoms. The larger an aneurysm grows, the more likely it will burst or rupture, causing Intense and persistent abdominal or back pain that may radiate to the buttocks and legs, sweating and clamminess,dizziness,nausea and vomiting, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, low blood pressure and death can occur within a number of minutes. . In the United States, 15,000 deaths per year are attributed to abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Keisler B, Carter C. Abdominal aortic aneurysm. Am Fam Physician. 2015 Apr 15. 91 (8):538-43. Medline
Major risk factors for an AAA include family history, smoking and longstanding high blood pressure.
To confirm the presence of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, a physician may order imaging tests including ultrasound, abdominal and pelvic computed tomography, MRI, angiography. Ultrasound is a highly accurate, non-invasive and painless test that uses high-frequency sound waves to measure the size of an aneurysm. A physician may also use a special technique called Doppler ultrasound to examine blood flow through the aorta.
Major risk factors for an AAA include being male, older age family history, smoking, obesity, longstanding high blood pressure and a history of atherosclerosis.
The prevalence of AAAs increases with age. Males are much more commonly affected than females, with a ratio of 4:1. They are the tenth most common cause of death in the Western world. Approximately 10% of individuals older than 65 have an AAA.
There is an increase chances of abdominal aortic dilation during older age.
. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, AAAs are the cause of over 12,000 deaths annually and ranks as the 15th leading cause of death among all individuals aged 55–85.2
In 1988, the prevalence of AAAs was found six times lower in women then man of age between Prevalence and risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysms in older adults with and without isolated systolic hypertension. . 1999
-Smoking as risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1996.
. Aneurysms of the abdominal aorta in older adults. 1995
Aneurysms of the abdominal aorta. Incidence in blacks and whites in North Carolina1985
. Lee AJ, Fowkes FG, Carson MN, Leng GC, Allan PL. Smoking, atherosclerosis and risk of abdominal aortic Lederle FA, Johnson GR, Wilson SE, Chute EP, Littooy FN, Bandy KD, Drupski WC. Prevalence and associations of abdominal aortic aneurysm detected through screening. Aneurysm Detection and Management (ADAM) Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:441–449. aneurysm. Eur Heart J. 1997;18: 671–676
Allardice JT, Allwright GJ, Wafula JMC, Wyatt AP. High prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in men with peripheral vascular disease: screening by ultrasonography. Br J Surg. 1988;75:240–242.
. Prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms in men with diabetes. Med J Aust. 1997; 166:630–6 Pathophysiology and epidemiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011;8:92–102. 33.
Basnyat PS, Biffin AHB, Moseley LG, et al. Mortality from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in Wales. Br J Surg 1999; 86:765–70.
. Bengtsson H, Sonesson B, Bergqvist D. Incidence and prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms, estimated by necropsy studies and population screening by ultrasound. Ann N YAcad Sci 1996;800:1–24.
Lee A, Fowkes F, Carson M, et al. Smoking, atherosclerosis and risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Wilmink ABM, Pleumeekers HJCM, Hoes AW, et al. The infrarenal aortic diameter in relation to age: only part of the population in older age groups shows an increase. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 1998;16:431–7.. Eur J Surg 1997;18:671–6.
Millar AJ, Gilbert RD, Brown RA, Immelman EJ, Burkimsher DA, Cywes S. Abdominal aortic aneurysms in children. J Pediatr Surg 1996;31:1624-8
. van Reedt D, Bax NM, Huber J. Aortic aneurysm in a 5-year-old boy with tuberous sclerosis. J Pediatr Surg 1991;26:1420-2.
Tamisier D, Goutiere F, Sidi D, Vaksmann G, Bruneval P, Vouhe P, et al. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in a child with tuberous sclerosis. Ann Vasc Surg 1997;11:637-9
Surg Engl 1997;79:90–95. 30. Frame PS, Gryback DG, Patterson C. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in men ages 60 to 80 years. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:411–416.
Stonebridge PA, Draper T, Kelman J, Howlett J, Allan PL, Prescott R, Ruckley CV. Growth rate of infrarenal aortic aneurysms. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 1996;11:70–73
. Lederle FA, Johnson GR, Wilson SE. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in women. J Vasc Surg 2001;34(1):122–126. PubMed: 11436084 16. Katz DJ, Stanley JC, Zelenock GB. Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm prevalence, treatment, and outcome. J Vasc Surg 1997;25(3):561–568. PubMed: 9081139 17. Bengtsson H, Sonesson B, Bergqvist D. Incidence and prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms, estimated by necropsy studies and population screening by ultrasound. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1996;800:1–24. PubMed: 8958978 18. Ailawadi G, Eliason JL, Roelofs KJ, Sinha I, Hannawa KK, Kaldjian EP, Lu G, Henke PK, Stanley JC, Weiss SJ, Thompson RW, Upchurch GR Jr. Gender differences in experimental aortic aneurysm formation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004;24(11):2116–2122. PubMed: 15331435 19. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm: recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 2005

Objective:
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in male and females at any age group.
Material and methods:
Study area and sample size:
Machine:
Traditional ultrasound: High frequency probe is used for the evaluation of AAAs.
Doppler ultrasound: duplex ultrasound helps to distinguish several important characteristics of the blood vessels, including speed and direction of blood flow and diameter of the vessels themselves. Duplex ultrasound can also detect the presence and extent of any obstruction in the blood vessels, such as cholesterol deposits or blood clots. The duplex ultrasound is a diagnostic test administered to assess blood circulation
Patient preparation:
A patient is asked to fast 8 to 12 hours prior to an abdominal ultrasound because getting clear images of the abdominal aorta may not be possible when there are food/liquids in the stomach, and urine in the bladder. You may take your usual medications on the day of the test, unless your doctor instructs you otherwise. No gum chewing or smoking for eight to 12 hours prior to the test as well.
Method:
The ultrasound procedure begins with the patient’s lying supine position on an examination table. A water-based gel is applied to the abdomen. The gel allows consistent contact between the body and the transducer by eliminating any air pockets that could get in the way. The transducer is held firmly against the skin, and slowly moved back and forth across the abdomen; the images then appear on the computer screen. An abdominal ultrasound usually takes 20 minutes.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now
x

Hi!
I'm Mila

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out