Infancy (0-2 years)
Physical: Physical development of an infancy in their first two years of life, infants go through a period of rapid growth and development. New born babies can also demonstrate a number of reflexes: for example, swallowing and sucking reflex, they would swallow and suck anything in their mouth, rooting reflex is where the baby will turn their head toward the side you have stroked their cheek etc.
Social: Social development is when the child starts to speak in their baby language, for example mama, dada. They also start touching and grabbing stuff or putting toys in their mouth. Play games like Peek-a-boo.
Emotional: Emotional development is when the child throws tantrums because they don’t know how to react. For example chucking toys across the room.
Cognitive: this is when they start to say proper words lie “mom” and “dad”.
Childhood (3-10 years)
Physical: Physical development Gross and Fine Motor Development. The term “gross motor” development refers to physical skills that use large body movements, normally involving the entire body. In the sense used here, gross means “large” rather than “disgusting.” Gross motor also involves larger muscle groups used for accurate, precise movement e.g. walking, running, skipping, jumping, throwing, climbing and many others.
Social: This is when the child starts to make development of friendships, Common to have gender based friendships, Social play – cooperative play begins and Listening to others. For example holding hands and hugging a friend.
Emotional: This is when the child starts to learn how to share and cooperate – experiences emotions such as love, hate, fear and jealousy. They will also experience a range of new feelings and will have to learn how to handle them.
Cognitive: This is when the child’s Communication and Language development improve greatly and can now use full sentences, e.g. “can we get some sweets ” and can count and start to sequence and order events. This is the stage where they also learn to read and write.
Adolescence (9-18 years):
Physical: This is when both sexes are capable for reproduction, both sexes’ changes in body shape and growth of body hair. This is also the stage when Girls – menstrual cycle, growth of breasts, hips widen and Boys – penis growth, sperm production, voice breaks.
Social: This is when development of sexual and intimate relationships, Friendships with both sexes, wider social circle etc. for example, falling in love.
Emotional: This is when conflicts with parents and other adults, Self-concept becomes more formed, own identity formed, Desire for independence and Mood swings. E.g. lashing out at parents, wanting to party till late.
Cognitive: This is when an ability to think about concepts and ideas – Abstract thinking, Can think in a more logical way to solve problems, Ability to remember large amounts of information and also Begins to question the world and develop own views.
Early Adulthood (19-45 years):
Physical: This is the stage when they Reach maturity. Also towards the end of this life stage, their physical capabilities begin to decline. Fertility starts to drop for both men and women, and the signs of aging appear. E.g. muscle strength weakens, reaction time slows downs, sensory abilities, and cardiac functioning.
Social: This is when less hectic social life with parenthood responsibilities, Social life and friendships often focused on working life and colleagues. E.g. when all children’s have moved out and can spend time with friends.
Emotional: Sometimes this can lead to people choosing to cohabit, marry or go through a civil ceremony. This can also lead to Steady relationships create a sense of security and allows them to give and receive love. E.g. losing a partner, marrying a partner, getting a promotion.
Cognitive: This is when qualifications for career achieved also some people often reach their productive peak at work, they often get promoted to jobs where specialist training or education is needed.
Middle Adulthood (46-65 years):
Physical: This is when physical capabilities begin to decline – skin loses elasticity, wrinkles appear more obvious, muscle tone slackens, senses become less precise – Hearing, sight, taste etc.
• Hormonal changes for both men and women
– Women produce less oestrogen and men less testosterone. These hormonal changes mean that women will go through the menopause and in men, sperm production decreases.
Social: This is when social life becomes less intense for many which then social life involves less physical activity. If children and have grown up and left home, the parents have less responsibility and more money to spend on themselves – so they can go out more to socialise with friends more often.
Emotional: This is mid-life crisis for many, Love of grandchildren and pleasure from spending time with them and they also have more time to spend with each other because children have grown up so the couple can focus on themselves and spend money on themselves to.
Cognitive: This is when the memory is still good but short term memory not so quick. They can still learn new things. Memory wouldn’t be quick as it used to be. E.g. wouldn’t remember a friend’s birthday.
Later Adulthood (65+ years)
Physical: This is when the loss of skin elasticity, Joints stiffen, Muscle wastage, Bones more brittle, and A regular exercise pattern and good diet can help people to improve their muscle tone, maintain joint flexibility and strength their bones etc.
Social: Trying of new activities and meeting new people as time is available also more time to socialize with friends.
Emotional: This is the stage where loss of partner because of death, emotionally attacked to family.
Cognitive: This stage declines in attention and most memory, which is part of information processing, and the increase in wisdom.
LO2: Understand theories of human growth and development.
2.1. Describe theories of human growth and development:
There are many different theories of human growth and development from different perspectives. It is exploring how individuals change as they grow from birth through child and adolescence into adulthood. Psychologists separate development into different specific areas of physical, cognitive and social or emotional development. Psychology also tries to explain every aspect of development for example, how children learn to respond to emotions, how they learn to make friends and most importantly how they learn to think.
The two theories I am going to talk about are: Piaget and Vygotsky
On the 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980 Piaget’s theory was developed. Piaget’s theory suggests that “children pass through a number of different life stages and that they are fixed and named sensorimotor, preoperational thinking”, According to Piaget children go through different stages of development. Maria Ferreiro Peteiro (2017 p.30)
“Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory is the work of Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky” (1896-1934) this shows us that not many people knew about Vygotsky’s’ theory until it was published to the west. Vygotsky’s was largely unknown to the west until published in 1962. Vygotsky also developed a term called “Zone of Proximal Development” his thought of this was for children who can’t complete the tasks by themselves. Maria Ferreiro Peteiro (2017 P.30)
LO3: Understand significant life events within each stage of human development.
3.1. Explain significant life events that can occur within each stage of human development:
3.2. Analyse the impact that the significant life events have on individuals:
Infancy (0-2 years):
Toilet Training- Toilet training happens at the child’s own pace with the help of parents. At this age group it is important that the child is given regular and calm guidance and inspiration. This age the child also learns to gain independence and responsibility as such its major life events. However, a child who does not achieve these skills quickly might find it to be shameful or even doubt their own abilities.
Feeding- At this age the child starts to learn to trust that his or her basic needs will be met, feeding is also a part of the development process, this also lead the child to be independence and learn how to feed themselves.
Nursery- At this stage this is the first time the child is left for some time without their parents and to learn new skills and new relationships. This can be hard for the child and the parents because it’s the first time the child is being away from his or her parents. Being away from parents would make the child form new relationships with other children and his or her teachers and also learn a whole lot of new skills.
Childhood (3-10 years):
School- This age is where most children learn new skills and new tasks and also develop new relationships with other children and other adults. At this stage they will also learn how to work together with other children and practice to work in a team and develop important skills together. Meeting new children could also be very stressful for some children as they have difficulty is finding friends because other children’s might not want to be their friends which them a child’s self-esteem and self-concept can be affected if they compare themselves with others.
Birth of Siblings- At this stage this can have a major impact not only of the child but the whole family. This is likely to change the lifestyle of the family. This would make the child happy as they will either have the role of an older brother or a sister which gives them a responsibility to care for and look after. However, they would also fee jealous as the younger sibling g will, be getting more importance in the sense it’s not able to look after him or herself
Moving Home- Moving home can occur in any life stage. This could also be a basis of a fresh start and having time to build a new home and a whole new family. This is also a new star and an opportunity to get a new job and also gain promotions. However, this could also be a stressful star for other people as they don’t like change and want to stay where they are or even get a new job because it’s like starting all over again but just in a new place which some people don’t like.
Adolescence (9-18 years)::
Puberty- At this stage is where children are no longer children and develop into a women or a man they body parts (Girls/Boys) start to get bigger and also develop facial hair (Boys). This is also when they have started to think they are big enough to not listen to their parents which is wrong as they still have to but because they are going through puberty they will often get angry as their hormones are changing.
Relationships- This is also a stage where the teenagers start to fall in love with the opposite sex and get in to a relationship and feel loved and happy as it’s something new for them and is exciting for them. However, so some teenager’s relationships make them loose trust in people and just turn their life upside down where they don’t think they are loved by anyone or where someone makes them feel ugly about themselves.
Leaving Home- This is also a very life changing event for the individuals as they go off to universities but some will stay with their families until later in life. This is also where the individual learns to be fully independent and also find a part time job to earn for themselves while studying at the same time. They also learn how to manage day-to-day tasks such as cooking, cleaning, washing and house hold finances, where as some individuals find in hard to this because they might end up in debt and will have a lot of stress about work and other life events such as family, friends etc.
Early Adulthood (19-45 years), Middle Adulthood (46-65 years):
Parenthood- This is a stage where it’s also a life changing for many people especially if they are having their first child with the partner they love so much a lot of excitement would occur but however for some people is totally there opposite as they have lots of difficulties during their pregnancy. Some mothers will also experience post-natal depression in the first year after the birth of their child. This is also a stage where they slowly lose touch with their friends as they get very busy with children and other family events and also they will lose their free time as they will be busy with kids and work.
Employment- This stage is also when you have responsibilities as employees and have to follow policies and procedures of the workplace that you work in. As an employee you will also learn new skills and get higher achievements, this is also an opportunity to meet differently people who also have the same goal as you where you will get along with them. During this stage you could also manage stress as you have been through is a lot of times before and the ability to cope while under pressure as it’s what you’ve also been through in the past.
Marriage- At this stage is when two partners decide to take their relationship to the next level and also experience each other’s life events together no matter what ups and downs they face but will always be by each other’s side. This will also then share finances and also help reduce anxiety as they will have someone to share their feelings with. However on the other side it can also be difficult for some people to adjust to new roles and learn how to accommodate someone else, especially if a couple has not previously cohabited before.
Redundancy- This is when a business, company or a workplace needs to reduce the people at their place as it may be a job role no longer needed for that job. This will then affect the individual and make them feel angry. Shocked, stressed and a loss of confidence. This can also create problems between relationships as they won’t have money to provide for the family as they used to before.
Later Adulthood (65+ years):
Loss of partner- This is when your lose someone really close to you and can get into depression because you’ve lost someone who your shared everything with.
Retirement- This is when you finally retire and get your pension and can finally relax from working and spend quality time on yourself going out with friends.