Improving the Design of Microbial Fuel Cell

Improving the Design of Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) for Power Generation
A Research Proposal
Presented to the Department of Chemical Engineering
Cebu Institute of Technology University
Cebu City, Philippines
In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirement for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering

By
Buendia, Grant Shain A.

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Antivo, Cassandra Danielle C.

Literatus, Kirk Joseph V.

Matas, Adoration Faith A.

Ybañez, Gebien G.

ABSTRACT
Microbial fuel cells are an attractive yet challenging technology, it is still currently open for research and improvement. This paper intends to improve the design of a microbial fuel cell that operates on saccharomyces cerevisiae as a biocatalyst in the anode chamber and mixed culture of suspected chlorella and spirogyra algae will be used as the oxygen donor in the cathode for power production. The design consists of a fuel tank, a cathode chamber, an anode chamber, a pressure gauge, valves, air tubing, sparger, agitators, couplings, LEDs, and electrodes. The following chemical reaction is utilize; the half reaction in the anode is C12H22O11 + 13H2O —> 12CO2 + 48H+ + 48e-  and the cathode half reaction is 48H+ + 48e- + 12O2 —> 24H2O. Different variables concerning on the design of the device are, yeast to substrate ratio (sucrose solution), volumetric rate of CO2 produced in relation to the said ratio, fuel replacement, carbon sequestration, LED light placement in the cathode for algal growth, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) salt concentration and resistance, dissolved Oxygen (DO) in the cathode tank, Fuel physical properties, and feed system design are addressed. The Microbial fuel cell architecture and scientific findings from selected literatures are incorporated into the design. The construction of two prototypes from mostly recycled materials, testing the device, experimentation and data collection will allow a more hands-on approach in the designing of the microbial fuel cell.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pages
Abstract
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study ——————————————– 1-6
1.2 Problem Statement —————————————————- 6-7
1.3 Objectives & Hypothesis ——————————————– 7 – 9
Summary ————————————————————– 9- 10
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ————————————- 11- 15
CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS & METHODS ————————————- 16-19
REFERENCES
APPENDICE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) come up in recent years as a challenging technology. In the past 10-15 years, microbial fuel cell captured attentions of scientific community for the possibility of transforming organic matters into electricity. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is likely a technology that purges wastewater and by using a biocatalyst the chemical energy that it produces is converted into an electrical energy. In a MFC, the electrodes interact with the microorganism with the use of electrons that is either supplied or removed by a circuit (Rabaey et al., 2007). According to Animesh Deval et al.,(2013), MFC holds a key in green technology for the production of bioenergy simultaneously treating wastewater.
MFC holds a key in green technology for the production of bioenergy simultaneously treating wastewater. A strategy has been used to reduce the cost of the construction and working of MFC. Comparing this to other conversion process of bioenergy, MFCs has the better reduction in the amount of the production of sludge, as well as cost effective process, since MFC operates under environmental conditions like temperature and pressure. Electricity generation, biohydrogen production, wastewater treatment and biosensor are the major applications of MFC. Nowadays, electricity is known to be produced from the organic matter waste in a MFC. For the past few years, MFCs as a renewable source of energy was extensively reviewed. These include information on the various terminology and measurements used in these systems (Logan et al., 2006). The thought that electric current can be produced by bacteria was first reported by Potter (1911).

Fig.1 A membrane MFC consisting of an anaerobic chamber (anode; left) and aerobic chamber (cathode; right) connected by a glass bridge containing a Na?onTM membrane.

(S. Cheng, B.E. Logan, & B. Min (2005). Electricity generation using membrane and salt bridge microbial fuel cell. Elsevier Ltd.,)
A microbial fuel cell (MFC) system is often composed of an anaerobic and aerobic chambers. The anaerobic chamber is the anode which is connected to the aerobic chamber by a proton conducting material, and externally by a wire that completes the circuit. The produced electrons are transferred to the anode and then passed through an external electric circuit to the cathode which is the aerobic chamber. In designing a MFC various substrates have been used and possibly used in MFCs still lacking. The substrate is important for any biological process as it works as the nutrient (carbon) and the source of energy of the fuel cell. According to Liu et al., (2009) it is the most important factor affecting the electricity generation. The efficiency and economic attainment of the convertion of organic wastes to bioenergy depends on the quality and components of the waste material. Also the composition of the chemical and the concentration of the material that can be converted into fuel is important. There are different substrates used in a microbial fuel cell, one of these are acetate, glucose, landfill leachates, wastewater and other organic matter.

Fig.2 Different substrates used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and the maximum current produced.

(G.V. Bogart, L. Diels, D. Pant, & K. Vanbroekhoven (2009). A review of the substrates used in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for sustainable energy production. Belgium. Elsevier Ltd.,)

Fig.2.1 Different substrates used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and the maximum current produced (G.V. Bogart, L. Diels, D. Pant, & K. Vanbroekhoven (2009). A review of the substrates used in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for sustainable energy production. Belgium. center6726190Elsevier Ltd.,)
Fig.2.2 Different substrates used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and the maximum current produced
(G.V. Bogart, L. Diels, D. Pant, & K. Vanbroekhoven (2009). A review of the substrates used in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for sustainable energy production. Belgium. Elsevier Ltd.,)
Glucose is used commonly in MFC as a substrate (Kim et al., 2000). Microbial fuel cells can be of two different categories: MFC’s with mediator and mediator-less MFCs. The performance of MFC is mainly influenced by several factors as follows; (1)the consumption and supply of oxygen in the cathode chamber, (2) substrates oxidation in the anode chamber, (3) electron transportation from anode compartment to anode surface, and (4) permeability of proton exchange membrane. Fuel cells uses ceramic for many years. Ceramics were first used in way back 1937 when ceramic solid-oxide fuel cell was operated (Baur ; Preis et al., 1937). The use of ceramics in proton exchange and chasis was first demonstrated in 2003 (Park ; Zeikus et al., 2003). According to Thorne et al (2011), the use of ceramics as the material for electrode as well as for exchanging of proton. In this procedure, the manufacturing process could be simplified. Winfield et al. (2011) stated that the algae-based photo MFCs with ceramic anodes concluded to be 16 times powerful than the carbon based electrode.

Fig.3 Comparison of ceramic type, MFC configuration and performance
(I. Ieropoulos, I. Gajda, J. Greenman, ; J. Winfield (2016). A review into the use of ceramics in microbial fuel cell. Elsevier Ltd.,)
1.2 Problem Statement
With the aim to improve the overall MFC system using cost-effective materials for prototype construction, practical application and optimization, this study reports the utilization of a cultured algae as a microorganism in the cathode chamber of MFC and the usage of the sucrose solution as a fuel to the yeast, a eukaryotic microorganism, which subsequently produces electrons and an H+ ion. Due to this, a proper analyzation of the ratio of the sucrose solution to yeast and algae is a requirement which leads to a successful operation of MFC. The amount of ratio brings a large effects to the production of electrons in the process. Another aspect to be considered is the volume of the carbon dioxide (CO2) that is released from the sparger per unit time. The carbon dioxide emitted shall extend the life frame of the algae contributing to a more efficient MFC. Microbial fuel cell is designed not only as an alternative source for the generation of electricity, it could also be used as a biosensor.

1.3 Objective ; Hypothesis
1.3.a Objective.

The designing of Microbial Fuel Cell system for better power outputs will be the main focus of this proposal. Other variables concerning on fuel replacement, Carbon sequestration, etc. will be addressed. The general objectives will be the design and conceptualization via prototyping of the said device using affordable materials as much as possible. The design will be partially inspired from selected journals, textbooks, and scientific phenomenon such as fluid mechanics, ohm’s law etc. all are conglomerated in to the design.

The variables of which the proposal considers significant to address are, yeast to substrate ratio( sucrose solution), volumetric rate of CO2 produced in relation to the said ratio, LED light placement in the cathode for algal growth, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) salt concentration and resistance, dissolved Oxygen (DO) in the cathode tank , Fuel physical properties, and feed system design.

The following parameters that the proposal aim to address and explore are listed below:
To determine the desired ratio of yeast and substrate solution to be incorporated in the anode tank for controlled carbon dioxide production, and electron transport.

To compare the power rate of a mediator less MFC and a mediated MFC.

To measure the volumetric rate of carbon dioxide production in the anode tank for fuel tank-anode tank feed system and carbon dioxide sequestration in the cathode tank.

To determine LED placement in the cathode tank to simulate sunlight (necessary for algal growth), allow photosynthesis to take place in the cathode and measure its correlation.

To measure the molar concentration of salt ( sodium chloride) mixed with agar for desired proton exchange membrane performance.

To measure the dissolved oxygen in the cathode tank.

To determine the Physical and Chemical Properties of the Fuel.

To construct a fuel feed system in the anode, and a CO2 sequestration system in the cathode.

1.3.b Hypothesis
There are many researchers that draw their interest in MFC, most of them shared different perspective in conceptualizing a Microbial Fuel Cell. Manufacturing MFC challenges the designing of electrodes as both a cost –effective technology and an energy-effective technology. With the use of anode and cathode, electrodes were used in electron transport. But before that, anode and cathode reactions cannot be generated without a bio-catalyst, the yeast, and an oxygen enrichment organism , the algae  Other researchers makes use of kitchen waste/ food waste, Waste water, mediators( methylene Blue), ceramic electrodes etc. in constructing MFCs or in enhancing the potential of the said devise. The catalytic activity of baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a bio-catalyst. Sucrose solution as is used as a substrate for the yeast to consume and produces electrons and a proton. Hence the greater amount of sucrose is catalyzed there will be large amounts of electrons produced. Large amount of electron flux from the anode correlates to the amount of power it produces.

Furthermore, the physical design of the Microbial fuel cell. Includes LED placement, such position of the LED ( light emitting Diode) should able to simulate the light intensity for green algae, which is 50 µmol-1m2 sec-1(Ramaraj et al., 2016,) and Generally, MFC is composed of two compartments: an anaerobic anode and aerated cathode compartments which is separated by a proton exchange membrane or salt bridge. the DO( dissolved oxygen) should providing the oxygen for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). and is the limiting factor in power production longevity. The sucrose solution should be viscose enough for controlling its flow rate to the anode. The CO2 produced in the anode should be enough to cause a pressure difference in the fuel (sucrose) tank. The estimated maximum voltage production should reach 150 mV or more. The molar concentration of the salt in the PEM should be enough to allow protons ( H+) to transfer from the anode to the cathode.
The low power output of the mediator-less yeast MFCs has been attributed to low catabolic rates; however, the high currents seen in the mediated yeast MFC, and similar growth rates suggest that the catabolic rates in the yeast and mesophilic bacteria are similar and the very low power outputs are probably due to the difficulty in accessing intracellular electrons.   
1.4 Summary
Electricity has been one of the most groundbreaking discoveries of man. It can be found in many types of sources, one of which is from fossil fuels which the fuel converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. Man has been too dependent on fossil fuels, which led to different types of crisis in the production of energy and contributed a great impact in the environment. Although there are different ways to produce electricity other than the usage of fossil fuels and the term used was renewable energy. One of those sources is the Microbial Fuel Cells.

A Microbial Fuel Cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy using bacteria as a catalyst.  Recent studies showed that the MFC is a trend in the field of renewable energy; however the energy output of the MFC was quite small, hence the study is conducted in creating or designing a MFC that will have a satisfactory energy output enough to power small-scale devices for a period of time.

 The MFC in the study is a yeast-based catalyst which the yeast serve as a model organism and is also convenient in the collection of data. The algae in the cathode acts as an oxygen donor to move the electrons and to promote the reaction in the cathode while the carbon dioxide emitted is fed to the cathode where the algae is placed to provide carbon nutrients.

Another possible objective that can be met during the study will be that the MFC can be used as a biosensor in the fermentation processes because the set-up of a MFC is basically fermentation. Fermentation takes years of experience to determine if the process is either complete or not, this could lead to catastrophic loss in a batch fermentation process. The voltage and current output can be measured during the process, and the data acquired can be the basis if either the fermentation process is complete and ready.
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Microbial Fuel Cell as a source of bioenergy (Edenhofer,O,. et al, 2011).

In the growing face of the fossil fuel depletion problem, there is global interest in developing sustainable and environmentally friendly forms of energy. One of the energy alternative that may be viable in addressing this problem is bioenergy (O. Edenhofer, R. Madruga et al., 2011). Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is the bioenergy used as an alternative for energy production. MFC is an electrochemical device that directly convert organic matter into electricity for a long period of time with high efficiency (J. Chouler et al., 2016). Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) are energy technology in which biodegradable organic matter are converted into electricity with the use of bacteria, and efficient conversion of organic substrates present in wastewater directly into electricity (E.M. Milner et al., (2016).
2.2 Microbial Fuel Cell Mechanics
MFC works by the pairing of the anaerobic oxidation of organic matter by bacteria at the anode with the reduction of oxygen which is most commonly at the cathode, with electrons flowing through the external circuit and protons moving through solution or across a membrane separator generating electrical power (Logan,B.E., Regan, J.M., et al., 2006-2009). According to Liu,H., ; Logan ,B.E.,(2006), MFC does not require energy input aeration as long as the cathode is passively aerated, an example is the use of a single-chamber device. MFC’s have the ability to generate energy remotely by using a range of feed stocks, and can be used in areas of poor energy infrastructure. The feed used is an organic waste in particular offers attractive prospects from its cost effectiveness and abundance (I. Ieropoulos, and et al., 2013). MFC is one of the latterly proposed alternative energy source which generates energy using high value metal catalyst. In the early 1990s, fuel cell became more appealing devices (R.M Allen, D.H. Park et al., 1993). MFC is consists of anode and cathode chambers, which is physically separated by a proton exchange membrane (PEM) (M. Ghasemi, W.R. Wan, W.R. Ismail et al., 2012). In the cathode chamber along with the parallel reduction of oxygen and water, protons and electrons reacted. G. The oxygen in the anode chamber will hinder the production of electricity; thus, a pragmatic system must be designed to keep the bacteria separated from oxygen (anaerobic chamber for anodic reaction). Microorganisms play an important role in anode chamber and generated electrons. The generated electrons were utilized to reduce electron acceptor in cathode once they passed through external circuit. To complete the circuit produced protons must gouge into proton exchange membrane from anode to the cathode which this process leads to electrical power and organic waste removal contemporarily. The anaerobic anode compartment is one of the main parts of MFCs. the essential conditions degrade the biomass that are provided in the given chamber. The anode compartment is filled with the substrate, mediator (optional), microorganism and the anode electrode as the electron acceptor (M. Rahimnejad et al.,2014). The modification of the anode electrode could be useful in promoting the performance of MFCs. With this concern several researchers have started to revise anode using different nanoengineering techniques that are able to make easier the electron transfer (K. Scott, G. A. Rimbu et al., 2007).

The protons produced in the anode chamber relocate into the cathode through the proton exchange membrane which scrutinize the electrical circuit. The electrons travel to the cathode chamber and transmit onto oxygen. The produced oxygen and positive ions in the anode participate in the following reaction to form water which spreads by the way the ion porous membrane on the cathode along with the assistance of the catalysts, the following equation shows the chemical reaction (C. Bettin et al., 2006)
                                               Anode electrode:    H2 ? 2H+ + 2e-     
                                                                              Cathode electrode:   O2 + 4H+ + 4e-? 2H2O      
General Reaction of cell: 2H2 + O2 ? 2H2O

Fig.2 Schematic design of PEM fuel cell
The fixed current is generated by this process with the wire attached in the anode and cathode (C. Bettin et al., 2006). The concentration and species of the oxidant, the availability of the proton, performance of the catalyst and the structure of the electrode and its catalytic ability in the reaction affect the yield of the cathode (M. Zhou, T. Jin et al., 2012).
Gajda et al. (2014) proposed a microbial fuel cell that is self-sustainable in producing electricity by incorporating a photosynthetic microorganism in the cathode tank as a promoter of oxygen reduction reaction. In the proposed design of this study, yeast-based microbial fuel cell releases carbon dioxide as a byproduct, and still according to Gajda et al. (2014). The high cost of CO2 as a feedstock for algal growth is a major obstacle, which is why there is interest in CO2 regeneration techniques. Carbon dioxide generated in the anode will be partially used in the cathode as a feedstock for the algae. To intensify MFC performance, many researchers have added alternative oxidants into the cathode compartment like potassium permanganate (S.E. Hassan and et al., 2014). Najafpour and et al., exhibit that low concentrated potassium permanganate as the oxidizing agent had a very good ability to increase the current, power and voltage in MFC.

2.3 Electrode Properties.

Santoro et al. (2017) stated that. The most important characteristics are: i) electrical conductivity; ii) resistance to corrosion; iii) high mechanical strength; iv) developed surface area; v) biocompatibility; vi) environmentally friendly and vii) low cost as identified in previous reviews. As of now,the study looks at Copper wire as a material for electron capture in the anode. Santoro et al.( 2017)  listed carbon based electrodes such as Carbon cloth, brush, rod, mesh, veil, paper, felt granular activated carbon, granular graphite, carbonized cardboard, etc. the literature also listed metal based electrodes such as Steel mesh, scrubber, silver sheet, nickel sheet, copper sheet, gold sheet, and Titanium plate.
2.4 Effects of anode in MFC
2.4 MFC sample application and external circuitry.
Santoro et al (2017) mentioned that EcoBot-I employed electrolytic capacitors for temporarily storing the energy from the MFCs aboard, and once full, the energy was released to actuate the locomotion motors and move towards the light (phototactic behavior). In 2005, EcoBot-II was reported. Inclusion of electronic components would be necessary to be able to reach peak voltages higher than expected.  Xu et al.( 2014) suggest a High-efficiency DC-DC Boost converter for a miniaturized microbial fuel cell.
2.5 Mediators
According to Babanova et al. (2011) Cytotoxicity and electrochemical behavior of examined mediators Of all the studied compounds, one of the many mediators ,methylene blue (MB) satisfy the requirements for non-cytotoxicity and electrochemical reversibility. The study will be using methylene blue as a mediator in the anode tank. Babanova et al. (2011) investigates on the influence of artificial mediators on yeast-based performance. Rahimnjeda et al ( 2010) specified Methylene blue as electron promoters in microbial fuel cell using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a biocatalyst and Glucose as fuel.
2.6 MFC status quo.
According to J. Chouler et al., the poor performance of MFC due to its high internal resistance and ohmic losess is the boundary of the MFC while processing. Considering the thermodynamic limit of an MFC is 1.14V open circuit, this makes it less effective than other power generating devices. Because of this, the strategy “miniaturization and multiplication” is proposed, making the individual MFC smaller and increasing its constituents. So basically, it is a stack of MFC with a large surface area to volume ratio and short electrode distances. Even though this strategy is proposed, this is not yet adopted by many and in still its infancy period.

CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Materials
(1) 1.75L Coke bottle
(2) 1.5L Coke bottle
Graphite powder
(1) 100g yeast
At least 4 meter copper wire
(2) Moilex PVC 90* elbow with 1.27cm inside diameter
At least 30.48cm PVC pipe with 1.27cm inside diameter
At least 4 meter aquarium hose
(1) Pressure Gauge
(1) 1kg Sugar
(2) sets of Pioneer All Purpose Epoxy
(5) pcs Teflon tape
(2) sets of One Way Valve
Algae
LED strips
(2) Agitator
3.2 Methods
Algae Cultivation
A liter  of microalgae was obtained from an aquarium hobbyist in Brgy, Akro Naga city, Cebu. the 1L microalgae suspension was poured into six separate bottles for ease of monitoring. the algal growth. 0.2g of 20-20-20 fertilizer was then added to the smaller containers and a LED strip approximately 1 m long was used as a source of photons for the microalgae to initialize photosynthesis.
Design and Operation of MFC
The design is consist of three tanks using coke plastic bottles but only two tanks are considered as chambers. The first tank (tank 1) with a total height of 38cm and a volume capacity of 1,750cm^3 contains a viscous sugar as a substrate. The second tank (tank 2) with a height of 30.48cm and a volume capacity of 1,500cm^3 contains the substrate flowing from tank 1 and a yeast and a copper wire coated with graphite powder as an anode. The third tank (tank 3) with a height of 30.48cm and a volume capacity of 1,500cm^3 contains a green algae and a copper wire coated with graphite powder as a cathode. Tank 2 and tank 3 is separated by a horizontal PVC  pipe with a length of 5.08cm and an inside diameter of of 1.27cm with a membrane (agar + NaCl) inside. LED (light emitting Diode) is place in the third tank for algal growth. The distance between the first tank and the second tank has a total of 27.94cm. In tank 1, an agitator with a blade span of 2.54cm is installed in order to mix evenly the substrate flowing to tank 2. In tank 2, an agitator is also installed in order to mix the substrate from tank 1 with the yeast in tank 2.
       The anode is a copper wire coated with graphite powder has a length of 30.4801 cm and it is being submerged in baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The cathode is a copper wire coated with graphite powder with a length of 30.4801 cm and it is submerged in green algae. The tubes connecting tank 1 to tank 2 and tank 2 to tank 3 is a PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipe with an inside diameter of ½ inches (1.27 cm).

Since the fermentation of yeast produced carbon dioxide, an aquarium hose with a length of 400 cm is use to connect tank 2 to tank 1 with a one way control valve in the middle for the carbon dioxide emission control. An aquarium hose with a length of 300 cm is use to connect tank 2 to tank 3 for algae necessity and an additional pressure gauge is installed to measure the gauge pressure from the anode. The carbon dioxide accumulation in tank 1 creates pressure and form an air like piston and  pushing the viscous sugar to flow to the second tank as a substrate for the yeast. Sparger is installed at tank 3 to diffuse CO2 emission flowing in the cathode.

Data Gathering
Since Microbial Fuel Cells generally only generate only low voltage outputs, the goal of improving the increasing the power output of a certain fuel cell turns to the factor of improving the  design of the cell or determine a desired ratio for the bio-catalyst and substrate solution in the anode in which carbon dioxide production and electron transport will increase, the ratio of the photosynthetic organism in the cathode will be taken into account as well. The carbon dioxide emission will be recycled to the cathode as a source of of carbon for the photosynthetic organism in order to satisfy a complete reaction. The photosynthetic organism yields oxygen in which oxygen provides for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) (Gajda et al .,2014,) and is also the limiting factor in power production longevity, the oxygen produced must also be measured.

A mediator is a chemical that transfer electrons from the microorganism in the cell to the anode. Some MFC’s used a mediator in the early 20th century. Mediator-less MFC’s was introduced in the 1970’s, in which the bacteria have electrochemical active redox proteins on their outer membranes that transfers electrons directly to the anode. A comparison must be made in order to determine which method will be satisfactory the the objective in hand which is increasing the power output in a  MFC, experimentation must be conducted in order to obtain a comparable outcome
Another factor that should be accounted is to measure the volumetric rate of carbon dioxide production in the anode tank feed system and in the carbon dioxide sequestration in the cathode tank. It is to determine the ratio in which to compare results for further replications with the number one objective in hand, which is to increase the power output of a MFC. This is done by using a water displacement method, the carbon dioxide generated by the ratio of the bio-catalyst and the substrate solution contained in a test tube is captured in a graduated cylinder in a water trough and by using a timer, the amount of volume that was reached in a span of one minute will be accounted.
During experimentation, the solution in the anode which is the bio-catalyst and the substrate solution do not require sunlight, while the photosynthetic organism requires sunlight to photosynthesize. Hence, LED (strips) placement is introduced to act as an incubator for photosynthesis to occur. The intensity of the LED should  just be in the correct adjustment for photosynthesis to take place since too much light intensity if the LED will kill the photosynthetic organism.
Experiments will be conducted in the Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry laboratory. Other physical and chemical data of each components of the study will also be conducted in the same area laboratory. One specific experiment which to be conducted is to measure the molar concentration of salt mixed with agar for desired proton exchange exchange membrane performance. After sufficient data is obtained, certain ratio of the components used will be applied, whether the experiments proved to yield a satisfactory result.

In the collection of data, there are four major components to obtain an accurate data and to plot the data in Excel. A voltage detection module will be used to collect data regarding the voltage output in the MFC, a simultaneous data collection will be conducted using a current sensor module ACS712 which collects the current output in the MFC. After the collection of data in the two sensors, it proceeds to a Arduino Uno, a microcontroller which processes the data. The processed data will be stored in a SD card  which is a data logger, after which will be plotted in graph by Excel. In the graph there are three components, power, current, and power. The three components will each be compared per unit time.
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https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2011.10.014right4500BUENDIA, GRANT SHAIN A.
Absa, Brgy. Don Andres Soriano, Toledo City
Cebu City, Philippines, 6000
0947-363-8915
[email protected]
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Tertiary Level : Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering
Cebu Institute of Technology – University
N. Bacalso Ave., Cebu City
2014 – up to date
Secondary Level : De La Salle Andres Soriano Memorial College
Elementary Level : De La Salle Andres Soriano Memorial College
PERSONAL BACKGROUND
Age : 19
Gender : Male
Date of Birth : March 24, 1998
Place of Birth : Cebu City
Height :
Religion :
Guardian/ Mother’s name :
ANTIVO, CASSANDRA DANIELLE C.

Abuno, Brgy. Pajac, Maribago Rd, Lapu-Lapu City
Cebu City, Philippines, 6000
0946-508-6795
[email protected] BACKGROUND
Tertiary Level : Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering
Cebu Institute of Technology – University
N. Bacalso Ave., Cebu City
Secondary Level : Saint Vinent’s College
Brgy. Miputak, Dipolog City
Zamboanga del Norte
Elementary Level : Saint Vincent’s College
Brgy. Miputak, Dipolog City
Zamboanga del Norte
PERSONAL BACKGROUND
Age : 19
Gender : Female
Date of Birth : October 26, 1998
Place of Birth : Mandaluyong City
Height :
Religion : Roman Catholic
Guardian/ Mother’s name : Carryl N. Cantila
LITERATUS, KIRK JOSEPH V.
N.A Parama St. Southern Poblacion San Francisco, Camotes
Cebu City, Philippines, 6000
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Tertiary Level : Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering
Cebu Institute of Technology – University
N. Bacalso Ave., Cebu City
Secondary Level : Campillo Progressive School, Inc.

Elementary Level : Campillo Progressive School, Inc.

PERSONAL BACKGROUND
Age : 19
Gender : Male
Date of Birth : March 20, 1999
Place of Birth : Cebu City
Height :
Religion : Roman Catholic
Guardian/ Mother’s name :
MATAS, ADORATION FAITH A.

Tangke, Talisay City
Cebu City, Philippines, 6000
0935- 318- 3219
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Tertiary Level : Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering
Cebu Institute of Technology – University
N. Bacalso Ave., Cebu City
Secondary Level :    Cristo Rey Regional High School
.             .   Talisay Malayan Academy
Elementary Level : Saint Bernard Central School
PERSONAL BACKGROUND
Age : 19
Gender : Female
Date of Birth : March 15, 1998
Place of Birth : Hinunangan, Southern Leyte
Height :
Religion : Roman Catholic
Guardian/ Mother’s name :
YBAÑEZ, GEBIEN G.

Unit 607, San Marino Residences, J. de Vera St., North Reclamation Area,
Cebu City, Philippines 6000
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Tertiary Level : Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering
Cebu Institute of Technology – University
N. Bacalso Ave., Cebu City
Secondary Level :    Guinicolalay Elementary School
Elementary Level : Guinicolalay Elementary School
PERSONAL BACKGROUND
Age : 19
Gender : Male
Date of Birth : January 27, 1998
Place of Birth : Publacion Dinas, Zamboanga del Sur
Height :
Religion : Roman Catholic
Guardian/ Mother’s name :
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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