ii. Transthoracic esophagectomy
The patient is placed supine on the operating room table. An arterial line, a central venous catheter, a Foley catheter, and a dual-lumen endotracheal tube are placed. Preoperative antibiotics are administered. Made an upper midline incision

After opening the peritoneal cavity for metastatic disease (if metastases are found, the operation is not continued), the stomach is mobilised. The right gastric and the right gastroepiploic arteries are preserved, while the short gastric vessels and the left gastric artery are divided.

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Next, the gastroesophageal junction is mobilised, and the esophageal hiatus is enlarged. A pyloromyotomy is performed, and a feeding jejunostomy is placed for postoperative nutritional support.

After closure of the abdominal incision, the patient is repositioned in the left lateral decubitus position and a right posterolateral thoracotomy is performed in the fifth intercostal space.

The azygos vein is divided to allow full mobilisation of the esophagus. The stomach is delivered into the chest through the hiatus and is then divided approximately 5 cm below the gastroesophageal junction.

An anastomosis (hand-sewn or stapled) is performed between the esophagus and the stomach