Freud’s divided the personality structure into three levels: id, ego, and superego.
??????????For ?the id, It refers to the most primitive is “I”. It is at the lowest level of personality structure. It is composed of innate instinct and desire which includes many psychological needs. The id is unconscious and irrational. The id is the energy foundation of all “I” existence. In general, it is nature, instinct, the natural law of thoughts, etc. It follows the happiness principle and it wants to avoid pain. For example, babies are born to cry and eat. And another example is people are born with enjoying life. If we consider this from the original angle, it is no essential difference between human beings and animals. Thus, people tend to understand “I” to “instinct”.
For Ego, it refers to aware consciousness of “self” which is the beginning of unique self=exploration of human beings. It is located in the middle level of personality structure. Its function aims to adjust the contradiction between id and superego. It follows the reality principle. For instance, a baby is born with an “id” and no “ego”, but when he begins to explore the concept of “who am I?” in this process, the surrounding environment is constantly reflected in the brain, so “self” can be called “self under the constraint of the real environment”. Furthermore, when a baby is hungry, he cries and asks for milk. When we have to spend money on food instead of eating what we can eat. Because of “risk off” nature of our self- consciousness, it is because that we realize that if we only eat and do not give money, we are going to get beaten up.
For superego, it refers to “I” from a general moral and ethical perspective. If the id is summed up as “I want”, then the ego is “I can” and the superego is “I should”. It is located at the top of personality structure. It is the moral itself. Its function is to inhibit id impulses; monitor ourselves; pursue perfection. It follows the moral principle. The formation of the superego is the result of external environment, especially under the influence of moral norms and social problems.
When these three personality structures state in a coordinated position, it shows people have the healthy condition,s. If these three structures have conflicts, people will have mental illnesses.