FINAL YEAR PROJECT 1 WPB 49804 PROPOSAL PROJECT ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY STUDY OF METHANOLIC IN CURCUMA LONGA SP

FINAL YEAR PROJECT 1
WPB 49804
PROPOSAL PROJECT
ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY STUDY OF METHANOLIC IN CURCUMA LONGA SP. EXTRACT AND CURCUMA ZEDOARIA SP. EXTRACT
AINUL KAUTHAR BINTI AHMAD KHASMI
12211115003
BACHELOR OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE
UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR
JANUARY 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC o “1-3” h z u TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGEREF _Toc514623594 h iLIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc514623595 h iiiLIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc514623596 h ivLIST OF ABBREVATIONS PAGEREF _Toc514623597 h vCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION1.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc514623599 h 11.2Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc514623600 h 31.3Objective PAGEREF _Toc514623601 h 41.3.1General Objective PAGEREF _Toc514623602 h 41.3.2Specific Objective PAGEREF _Toc514623603 h 41.4Hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc514623604 h 41.4.1Research Hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc514623605 h 4CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW2.1ANTIOXIDANT PAGEREF _Toc514623607 h 52.1.1Definition PAGEREF _Toc514623608 h 52.1.2Mechanisms PAGEREF _Toc514623609 h 62.1.3Natural Antioxidants PAGEREF _Toc514623610 h 72.2Antioxidant Capacity PAGEREF _Toc514623611 h 82.3DPPH FREE RADICAL-SCAVENGING ASSAY PAGEREF _Toc514623612 h 92.4FERRIC REDUCING ANTIOXIDANT POWER (FRAP) ASSAY PAGEREF _Toc514623613 h 92.5MALONDIALDEHYDE (MDA) ASSAY PAGEREF _Toc514623614 h 92.6YELLOW TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA) PAGEREF _Toc514623615 h 102.6.1History PAGEREF _Toc514623616 h 102.6.2Health Benefit of Curcuma Longa PAGEREF _Toc514623617 h 102.7WHITE TUMERIC (CURCUMA ZEDOARIA) PAGEREF _Toc514623618 h 122.7.1History PAGEREF _Toc514623619 h 122.7.2Health Benefits of Curcuma Zedoaria PAGEREF _Toc514623620 h 12CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY3.1STUDY DESIGN PAGEREF _Toc514623622 h 143.2MATERIAL AND APPARATUS PAGEREF _Toc514623623 h 143.2.1Materials PAGEREF _Toc514623624 h 143.2.2Chemical reagents PAGEREF _Toc514623625 h 143.2.3Apparatus and equipment PAGEREF _Toc514623626 h 153.3PREPARATION OF EXTRACTS PAGEREF _Toc514623627 h 153.3.1Sample methanolic extraction PAGEREF _Toc514623628 h 153.4DPPH FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ASSAY PAGEREF _Toc514623629 h 173.4.1Preparation of standard solution PAGEREF _Toc514623630 h 173.4.2Preparation of test samples PAGEREF _Toc514623631 h 173.4.3Preparation of DPPH solution PAGEREF _Toc514623632 h 173.4.4Addition of DPPH solution PAGEREF _Toc514623633 h 173.5FERRIC REDUCING ANTIOXIDANT POWER ASSAY PAGEREF _Toc514623634 h 193.5.1Preparation of reagents PAGEREF _Toc514623635 h 193.5.2Preparation of FRAP solution PAGEREF _Toc514623636 h 193.6MALONDIALDEHYDE (MDA) ASSAY PAGEREF _Toc514623637 h 213.7STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PAGEREF _Toc514623638 h 21REFERENCE PAGEREF _Toc514623639 h 22
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 2.1: Curcuma longa sp. PAGEREF _Toc514625333 h 11Figure 2.2: Curcuma zedoaria sp. PAGEREF _Toc514625334 h 13Figure 3.1: Preparation of extraction PAGEREF _Toc514625335 h 16Figure 3.2: DPPH Assay PAGEREF _Toc514625336 h 18Figure 3.3: FRAP Assay PAGEREF _Toc514625337 h 20
LIST OF ABBREVATIONSCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION1.1IntroductionAntioxidants are authorized for their potential in promoting health and lowering the risk for cancer, hypertension and heart disease. The uses of antioxidants from plants extracts have experience growing interest due to some human health professionals and consumer’s concern about the safety of synthetic antioxidants in foods ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Maizura, M.,Aminah, A. and Wan Aida”, “given” : “W.M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences ISSN: 2277-2103 (Online)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “January”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “526-531”, “title” : “Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of kesum (Polygonum minus), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “18” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c937fc1d-84ba-4599-aafa-6927163bea32” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Maizura, M.,Aminah, A. and Wan Aida, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Maizura, M.,Aminah, A. and Wan Aida, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Maizura, M.,Aminah, A. and Wan Aida, 2011)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Maizura, M.,Aminah, A. and Wan Aida, 2011). The antioxidant activities in plants also have been established by many researchers ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1515/hepo-2016-0003”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Su0142owianek”, “given” : “Marta”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Leszczyu0144ska”, “given” : “Joanna”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “29-41”, “title” : “Antioxidant properties of selected culinary spices”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “62” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aa5726f1-4126-496d-b74e-ddf828b091b0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Su0142owianek & Leszczyu0144ska, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Su0142owianek & Leszczyu0144ska, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Su0142owianek & Leszczyu0144ska, 2016)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(S?owianek ; Leszczy?ska, 2016).

Antioxidants are known as our first line of defense against free radical damage to maintain optimum health and well-being. According to ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s12539-013-0147-z”, “ISBN” : “1090-2449 (Electronic)\r0014-4894 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “09760512”, “PMID” : “23605635”, “abstract” : “( Cross u2013references reqd. : 10 Houghton P J, Hylands P J, Mensah A Y, Hensel A, Deters A M. In vitro tests and ethnopharmacological investigations: wound healing as an example. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005; 100:100u20137. 13. Thang P T, Patrick S, Teik L S, Yung C S. Anti-oxidant effects of the extracts from the leaves of Chromolaena odorata on human dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes against hydrogen peroxide and hypoxanthineu2013 xanthine oxidase induced damage. Burns. 2011; 27:319u201327. 14. Adetutu A, Morgan W A, Corcoran O. Antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation activity of crude extracts of Bridelia ferruginea leaf, a wound-healing plant of Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011; 133:116u201319. ).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gupta”, “given” : “Vivek Kumar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sharma”, “given” : “Surendra Kumar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “326-334”, “title” : “Plants as natural antioxidants”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4e087080-73f5-419f-ab89-5a38d27d34f7”, “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b12298d5-8e4b-48ec-a96f-98ed562d1698” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gupta & Sharma, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “Gupta & Sharma, (2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gupta & Sharma, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gupta & Sharma, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Gupta ; Sharma, (2014) antioxidants act by scavenging reactive oxygen species (SOD removing O2¯). Either by and preventing formation of OH and/or decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides, or inhibiting their formation or binding transition metal ion. Previous studied have reported that antioxidants can prevent or delay the oxidation of oxidizable products by scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidative stress ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.11648/j.ab.20130104.12”, “ISSN” : “2329-0870”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sulaiman”, “given” : “Mohammed”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Advances in Biochemistry”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “64”, “title” : “An Overview of Natural Plant Antioxidants: Analysis and Evaluation”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=63b36f19-8847-45a9-8c91-065ed3ea1dd5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sulaiman, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sulaiman, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sulaiman, 2013)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sulaiman, 2013). Other finding shows that natural antioxidants that are present in herbs and spices are liable for inhibiting or preventing the deleterious consequences of oxidative stress. For instance, spices and herbs contain free radical scavengers like polyphenols, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “1300-0152”, “ISSN” : “13000152”, “abstract” : “The methanolic crude extracts of some commonly used medicinal plants were screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The overall antioxidant activity of green tea (Camellia sinensis Linn.) was the strongest, followed in descending order by black tea (Camellia sinensis Linn.), Eugenia caryphyllus (Spreng.) Bullock and Harrison, Piper cubeba Linn., Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Piper nigrum Linn. Trigonella foenum graecum Linn. and Elettaria cardamomum (Linn.) Maton showed weak free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH method. All the methanolic extracts exhibited antioxidant activity significantly. The IC50 of the methanolic extracts ranged between 6.7 0.1 and 681.5 8.4 mu g/ml and that of ascorbic acid was 8.9 0.1 mu g/ml. The study reveals that the consumption of these spices would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of their antioxidant activity.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Khalaf”, “given” : “Nooman A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Shakya”, “given” : “Ashok K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Al-Othman”, “given” : “Atif”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “El-Agbar”, “given” : “Zaha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Farah”, “given” : “Husni”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Turkish Journal of Biology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “page” : “51-55”, “title” : “Antioxidant activity of some common plants”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “32” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64cc7592-2069-4b10-b894-63040dce2b7d”, “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=923d608e-7580-4a24-84b8-1b02786455af” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Khalaf, Shakya, Al-Othman, El-Agbar, & Farah, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Khalaf, Shakya, Al-Othman, El-Agbar, & Farah, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Khalaf, Shakya, Al-Othman, El-Agbar, & Farah, 2008)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Khalaf, Shakya, Al-Othman, El-Agbar, ; Farah, 2008).

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Free radicals can be produced through a chemical reaction known as an oxidation which leads to cell damage. Oxidation is known as the loss of electron during reaction by a molecule, atom and ion. Oxygen is highly reactive atom that is capable of becoming part of potentially damaging molecules commonly called free radicals. As the free radicals play a crucial role in pathogenesis of cancer, this oxidative damage along with the progression of
the disease could be arrested by utilizing the strong antioxidant defence mechanism possessed by these excellent natural sources of antioxidants which helps to reduce the risk of free radicals induced diseases without having side effects ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.5530/fra.2016.2.2”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Abhilasha Saxena1,2 , Sanghpriya Gautam3 , Kamal Ram Arya3”, “given” : “Rama Kant Singh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Free Radicals and Antioxidants”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “139-144”, “title” : “Comparative Study of Phytochemicals , Antioxidative Potential & Activity of Enzymatic Antioxidants of Eclipta alba and Plumbago zeylanica by in vitro Assays”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=72e6a273-d105-4cfb-ba77-3ee9734de412” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Abhilasha Saxena1,2 , Sanghpriya Gautam3 , Kamal Ram Arya3, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Abhilasha Saxena1,2 , Sanghpriya Gautam3 , Kamal Ram Arya3, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Abhilasha Saxena1,2 , Sanghpriya Gautam3 , Kamal Ram Arya3, 2016)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Abhilasha Saxena1,2 , Sanghpriya Gautam3 , Kamal Ram Arya3, 2016).

The natural occurring antioxidant is focused more on consumable plants, especially spices and herbs ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Huda-Faujan, N.1,3, Noriham, A.2*, Norrakiah, A. S.3 and Babji”, “given” : “A. S.3”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “African Journal of Biotechnology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “484-489”, “title” : “Antioxidant activity of plants methanolic extracts containing phenolic compounds”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “8” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1f28f038-5a5d-430c-8578-8e172786b070” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Huda-Faujan, N.1,3, Noriham, A.2*, Norrakiah, A. S.3 and Babji, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Huda-Faujan, N.1,3, Noriham, A.2*, Norrakiah, A. S.3 and Babji, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Huda-Faujan, N.1,3, Noriham, A.2*, Norrakiah, A. S.3 and Babji, 2009)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Huda-Faujan, N.1,3, Noriham, A.2*, Norrakiah, A. S.3 and Babji, 2009). Spices and herbs are an excellent source of phenolic compounds (tocopherols flavonoids, stilbenes, tocotrienols, phenolic acid and alcohols,), ascorbic acid and carotenoids which have been published to show good antioxidant activity ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zheng”, “given” : “Wei”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wang”, “given” : “Shiow Y”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “September 2000”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2001” }, “title” : “Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Compounds in Selected Herbs”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=858e8178-57b0-45d2-a740-e47fa32f7535” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Zheng & Wang, 2001)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Zheng & Wang, 2001)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Zheng & Wang, 2001)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Zheng ; Wang, 2001). Generally, Malaysian foods are rich in spices and herbs including turmeric
Yellow Turmeric (Curcuma Longa) has been used as dye and spice. Turmeric is an important tropical spice mainly for its colour, aroma and antioxidant property. The yellow colour in turmeric are mainly due to the presence of 3 major pigments; curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), demethoxy-curcumin and bis demethoxy-curcumin. These curcuminoids are known to have high antioxidant activities ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chattopadhyay”, “given” : “Ishita”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Biswas”, “given” : “Kaushik”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bandyopadhyay”, “given” : “Uday”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Banerjee”, “given” : “Ranajit K”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “title” : “Turmeric and curcumin : Biological actions and medicinal applications”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “87” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a92f319b-41d3-4c88-aac0-d58d5f1ff599” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Chattopadhyay, Biswas, Bandyopadhyay, & Banerjee, 2004)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Chattopadhyay, Biswas, Bandyopadhyay, & Banerjee, 2004)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Chattopadhyay, Biswas, Bandyopadhyay, & Banerjee, 2004)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Chattopadhyay, Biswas, Bandyopadhyay, ; Banerjee, 2004).

White turmeric (Curcuma Zedoaria Rosc.) is a rich source of essential oils and also contains starches, curcumin, arabin, gums etc. Few of the compounds found in the rhizome are curzerenone, curzeone, furanodiene, furanodienone, germacrone, zedorone, etc. Few of the biologically important components found in the rhizome are alpha turmerone, beta turmerone, curzerenone, germacrone. Curcuminoids are also present in the rhizome in the range of 6-16% by weight ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Anonymous”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Tumeric for Health”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “1-8”, “title” : “What Is The Difference Between Yellow Turmeric & White Turmeric : Curcuma longa vs Curcuma zedoaria What is Curcuma longa ?”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=42b70321-13fc-4264-97ef-39fa3a23f925” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Anonymous, 2018b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Anonymous, 2018b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Anonymous, 2018b)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Anonymous, 2018b).
1.2Problem StatementHence, this study is designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity study of methanolic in Curcuma Longa extract and Curcuma Zedoria Rosc by using different types of antioxidant assay to find the best methods to do extraction without diminish it precious properties. Based on previous studies, ethanolic is used as extraction solvent. Thus, the significance of this study to know the effectiveness of antioxidant capacity when using methanol as solvent that is frequently overlooked in favour of using ethanol solvent.

1.3Objective1.3.1General ObjectiveTo evaluate the antioxidant capacity of methanolic in Curcuma longa and Curcuma zedoaria Rosc extract.

1.3.2Specific ObjectiveTo determine the antioxidant capacity of methanolic between Curcuma longa and Curcuma zedoaria Rosc extract.

To compare antioxidant capacity of methanolic in Curcuma longa and Curcuma zedoaria Rosc extract.

1.4Hypothesis1.4.1Research HypothesisThe antioxidant capacity of methanolic in Curcuma longa extract is higher than Curcuma zedoaria Rosc extract.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW2.1ANTIOXIDANT2.1.1Definition
Antioxidant research is a crucial topic in the medical field as well as in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Recent research on traditional herbs on antioxidant activity has received much attention. Antioxidant is defined as substance that can prevent oxidation on a cellular level ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Maiti”, “given” : “Bodhisattwa”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nagori”, “given” : “B P”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Singh”, “given” : “Rambir”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kumar”, “given” : “Pragati”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Upadhyay”, “given” : “Nishant”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “17-25”, “title” : “International Journal of Drug Research and Technology Review Article L . M . College of Science and Technology ( Pharmacy ),”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e145f380-bc7e-4002-bf5d-ff60cec3840a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Maiti, Nagori, Singh, Kumar, & Upadhyay, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Maiti, Nagori, Singh, Kumar, & Upadhyay, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Maiti, Nagori, Singh, Kumar, & Upadhyay, 2011)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Maiti, Nagori, Singh, Kumar, ; Upadhyay, 2011) by scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidative stress ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.11648/j.ab.20130104.12”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sulaiman”, “given” : “Mohammed”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tijani”, “given” : “Hamzat Ibiyeye”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Abubakar”, “given” : “Bashir Mohammed”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Haruna”, “given” : “Saidu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hindatu”, “given” : “Yusuf”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mohammed”, “given” : “Jibrin Ndejiko”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Idris”, “given” : “Abdulrahman”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “64-72”, “title” : “An overview of natural plant antioxidants : analysis and evaluation”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a51d4c7a-9741-4b08-81b1-35f953e2723e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sulaiman et al., 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sulaiman et al., 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sulaiman et al., 2013)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sulaiman et al., 2013). Antioxidants can be described as compounds of various different chemical forms that have been grouped together as they all have the property of counteracting the reactions of highly reactive, harmful free radicals formed as the result of essential oxidation reactions which normally takes place in food. According to literature, these are “any substance that when present in low concentration compared to those of the oxidisable substrates significantly delay or inhibit the oxidation of that substance ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.pnpbp.2004.05.023”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cui”, “given” : “Ke”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Luo”, “given” : “Xiaoling”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Xu”, “given” : “Keyi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Murthy”, “given” : “M R Ven”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “page” : “771-799”, “title” : “Role of oxidative stress in neurodegeneration : recent developments in assay methods for oxidative stress and nutraceutical antioxidants $”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “28” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4c81caaf-c8f6-4989-b954-9b94c65de76f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Cui, Luo, Xu, ; Murthy, 2004)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Cui, Luo, Xu, ; Murthy, 2004)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Cui, Luo, Xu, ; Murthy, 2004)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Cui, Luo, Xu, & Murthy, 2004). Oxidative stress may play a role in aging and chronic illnesses, such as heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and cataracts. For instance, oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) makes these cholesterol packages more damaging to blood vessel walls, while oxidation of DNA may contribute to cancer ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wellness”, “given” : “Berkeley”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “1-2”, “title” : “How Antioxidants Work”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=658a9e28-d485-402c-bf10-dd1da7425f78” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wellness, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wellness, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wellness, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wellness, 2014). Mostly, antioxidants can be found in foods, supplements and cosmetic products.
Antioxidant has three primary types that found in nature including phytochemicals, vitamins and enzymes. Plants consists powerful antioxidants due
to the fact that plants are exposed to UV light all throughout the day. This phenomena happen because plants can generate large number of free radicals, they have a natural built-in protection system that prevents the free radical from causing the cellular damage that would eventually result in the plant withering and dying. This protection comes from naturally-occurring antioxidants ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Anonymous”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “NUTREX HAWAII”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “1-6”, “title” : “Types of Antioxidants”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9c6d97da-49de-43f4-804f-39f846ed030d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Anonymous, 2018a)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Anonymous, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Anonymous, 2018a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Anonymous, 2018a)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Anonymous, 2018).

Enzymes is the protein and mineral that come from part of food that we consume as our daily diets. These enzymes are synthesized in the human body, and include superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalases. All of the enzyme are good examples of antioxidant in human as they catalyze free radical quenching reactions ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ozougwu”, “given” : “Jewas C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biosciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-8”, “title” : “The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants in Oxidative Stress”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ba2be612-7b39-4168-b79c-38e3d68fa838” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ozougwu, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ozougwu, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ozougwu, 2016)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ozougwu, 2016). Antioxidant vitamins is naturally because it is cannot be produced by human bodies. So, it is essential to include dietary sources of them in our daily intake of food, be it through foods or supplements. Vitamin A, C, E, folic acid and beta-carotene are the common antioxidant vitamins ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Anonymous”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “NUTREX HAWAII”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “1-6”, “title” : “Types of Antioxidants”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9c6d97da-49de-43f4-804f-39f846ed030d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Anonymous, 2018a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Anonymous, 2018a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Anonymous, 2018a)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Anonymous, 2018a). Vitamin E known as powerful antioxidant because when they interact with lipid peroxyl radical, the chain reaction perpetuate and radical chain reaction will terminate eventually ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3390/molecules15118098”, “abstract” : “Atherosclerosis remains one of the leading causes of death in Western populations. Subsequent to the discovery that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, vitamins C and E, along with other antioxidants, were studied as potential therapies for the disease. However, while in vitro and in vivo studies showed promising antiatherogenic effects for vitamins C and E, clinical trials in which patients were given high doses of vitamin E or C showed no benefit and even possible harm. This review will attempt to summarize the known mechanistic data regarding the biochemical effects of vitamins C and E and their relevance to atherosclerosis, and offer an explanation for the failure of clinical trials to show that supplementation with these vitamins provides any benefit when given indiscriminately. We provide one example of how pharmacogenomics may be used to identify a sub-population which may indeed benefit from antioxidant supplementation.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Farbstein”, “given” : “Dan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kozak-blickstein”, “given” : “Adena”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Levy”, “given” : “Andrew P”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “Ldl”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “8098-8110”, “title” : “Antioxidant Vitamins and Their Use in Preventing Cardiovascular Disease”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=424cdc2f-b883-49d0-be37-686bee22c3f9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Farbstein, Kozak-blickstein, ; Levy, 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Farbstein, Kozak-blickstein, ; Levy, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Farbstein, Kozak-blickstein, ; Levy, 2010)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Farbstein, Kozak-blickstein, & Levy, 2010). Phytochemicals are the antioxidants that are naturally used by plants to protect themselves against free radicals. Studies show that humans who eat sources of phytochemicals also benefit from the antioxidant properties of the plant. Phytochemical are broken down into carotenoids, flavonoids, ally sulphides and phenols. Most natural whole foods, such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, contain phytochemicals, whereas processed or refined foods contain little to no phytochemicals. 
2.1.2MechanismsMitochondria is a major producer of ROS. So, it is not surprising that most of the studies have linked mitochondrial dysfunction to senescence and ageing ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.4236/abc.2011.13007”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Balaban R.S., Nemoto, S. and Finkel”, “given” : “T.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2005” }, “page” : “483-495”, “title” : “Mitochondria, Mitochondria, Oxidants, and Aging”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “120” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7f6ccaab-6ef7-4e40-a091-ba8ebe7ef49b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Balaban R.S., Nemoto, S. and Finkel, 2005)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Balaban R.S., Nemoto, S. and Finkel, 2005)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Balaban R.S., Nemoto, S. and Finkel, 2005)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Balaban R.S., Nemoto, S. and Finkel, 2005).
The researchers also mention that mitochondria will contribute to superoxide production. Generally, during the conveyance of energy from one electron (a donor) to another (a receptor) called energy transduction, oxygen free radical superoxide is produced by leaking of a small number of electrons to oxygen. Under stress conditions, an excess of superoxides releases “free iron” from iron containing molecules O2.- acts as an oxidant. OH production is facilitated from H2O2 to ensure Fe2+ available for the Fenton reaction.
The generation of rapid oxygen species (ROS) can either generated by several reaction.
2O2+NADPH (oxidase)2O2.-+NADP++HFirstly, superoxide anion radical is produce from chemical reaction of rapid uptake of oxygen and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase which lead to generation of ROS.

2O2.-+2H+SOD H2O2+ O2Then, the superoxide anion radical rapidly converted to H2O2 by superoxide dismutase (SOD). This two oxygen dependent mechanisms causes destruction of the microorganism or other foreign matter.
Cl- + H2O2+ H+ (MPO) HOCl+ H2OSecondly, myeloperoxidase–halide–H2O2 system also contribute to generation of ROS. Hypochlorous which known as a potent oxidant and antimicrobial agent. This conversion are based on chemical reaction between chloride ion and H2O2 with the presence of enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO).

2.1.3Natural AntioxidantsNatural antioxidants are synthesised by plants (e.g. Vitamins and other naturally-occurring chemicals in our food) and are present in the foods we eat, as opposed to those synthetic antioxidants that are either added to food to extend its shelf-life. Decrease in intake of nutritional and antioxidants food may increase in chance of oxidative stress which may leads to cells damage therefore intake of such natural antioxidants may give protective effect against free radical induced diseases. The concentrations of phenolic compounds that have strong H-donating activity were increase because spices and herbs have been used in foods for their flavour and in medicinal mixtures for their physiological effects ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sen”, “given” : “Saikat”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chakraborty”, “given” : “Raja”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “number-of-pages” : “10”, “title” : “The Role of Antioxidants in Human Health”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4dafea47-fd97-4467-a3e3-9a74e4a738a5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sen ; Chakraborty, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sen ; Chakraborty, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sen ; Chakraborty, 2011)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sen & Chakraborty, 2011).

2.2Antioxidant CapacitySingle Electron Transfer (SET) and Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) are been classified as antioxidant capacity. Majority of HAT assays are kinetics based and it is involve a competitive reaction scheme in which antioxidant and substrate compete for free radicals thermally generated through the decomposition of azo compounds while single electron transfer assay measure capacity of an antioxidant in the reduction of an oxidant, which changes colour when reduced. Example of SET assay are PM, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and FRAP. All the methods are based in the redox antioxidant reaction. FRAP and CUPRAC are used to assess the reduced concentration of ferric and cupric ions respectively ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “2349-8234”, “abstract” : “Herb Kalanchoe pinnata is grown as weeds in the tropical countries like India. It has a wide range of active constituents which has potent medicinal properties. The main objective was to overview the total antioxidant capacity of the herb Kalanchoe pinnata. Antioxidant activities were evaluated in terms of total phenolics content, total antioxidant activity, and reducing power. Different studies were carried out by comparing Kalanchoe pinnata extract with antioxidant references such as gallic acid; ascorbic acid. All these antioxidant activities increased with increasing concentrations in a dose dependent manner. It was found to be significant and valuable.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sharadanand Phatak”, “given” : “Rohan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Subhash Hendre”, “given” : “Anup”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rohan Sharadanand Phatak”, “given” : “Correspondence”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry JPP”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “25”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “32-35”, “title” : “Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2fc39d47-ebc7-410d-96f3-a45117394b59” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sharadanand Phatak, Subhash Hendre, ; Rohan Sharadanand Phatak, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sharadanand Phatak, Subhash Hendre, ; Rohan Sharadanand Phatak, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sharadanand Phatak, Subhash Hendre, ; Rohan Sharadanand Phatak, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sharadanand Phatak, Subhash Hendre, & Rohan Sharadanand Phatak, 2014).
2.3DPPH FREE RADICAL-SCAVENGING ASSAYScavenging of DPPH free radical is the basis of a common antioxidant assay. According to Chang et al. (2001), the radical scavenging activity of different extracts was determined by using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Low intensity of DPPH colour and low absorbance of the reaction mixture depends linearly on the antioxidant concentration ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kumar”, “given” : “Deepak”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sanghi”, “given” : “Ashwani”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chandra”, “given” : “Raju”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Arora”, “given” : “Shefali”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “668-673”, “title” : “Membrane Stabilizing and antioxidant activities of extracts from leaves of Elaeocarpus sphaericus”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “10” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cd953d6b-4297-4394-99e4-2a9390da8325” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kumar, Sanghi, Chandra, ; Arora, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kumar, Sanghi, Chandra, ; Arora, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kumar, Sanghi, Chandra, ; Arora, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kumar, Sanghi, Chandra, & Arora, 2017). The finding by Nimse and Pal (2015) suggested that the methanolic solution of DPPH shows a strong absorption band at 517 nm. The decrease in the absorption of the DPPH solution after addition of an antioxidant was measured at 517nm.
2.4FERRIC REDUCING ANTIOXIDANT POWER (FRAP) ASSAYThe FRAP assay was performed as described by Benzie and Strain (1999). Ferric (Fe3+) to ferrous (Fe2+) ion reduction at low pH causes a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex from a colorless ferric-probe complex. The reduction of a ferric tripyridyltriazine complex into its ferrous form produces an intense blue colour at low pH that can be monitored by measuring the absorbance at 593 nm. The concentration range of antioxidant mixtures are linearly with absorbance changes.
2.5MALONDIALDEHYDE (MDA) ASSAYMalondialdehyde (MDA) is one of the most prevalence indicator for oxidative stress that used to measure level of lipid peroxidation caused by free radicals CITATION Sab09 l 17417 (Saba Adnan Abd Al-Wahab, 2009). MDA measured the lipid peroxidation product, MDA measurements remains the most widely used method to determine reactive oxygen species ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004”, “ISBN” : “9788578110796”, “ISSN” : “1098-6596”, “PMID” : “25246403”, “abstract” : “Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) have long been known to be a component of the killing response of immune cells to microbial invasion. Recent evidence has shown that ROS play a key role as a messenger in normal cell signal transduction and cell cycling. These reactive molecules are formed by a number of different mechanisms and can be detected by various techniques. Here we briefly describe the biology behind some of these molecules and the means for their detection.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Held”, “given” : “Paul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “BioTek Instruments”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “1-14”, “title” : “An Introduction to Reactive Oxygen Species Measurement of ROS in Cells”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e08bf376-a198-40f1-88a7-c9a66a9673b2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Held, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Held, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Held, 2012)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Held, 2012). MDA is one of the most prevalent byproducts of lipid peroxidation and is not in stable long term compared to DPPH assay. Thus, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) commonly used to screening and monitoring lipid oxidation from human tissue, animal tissue , drugs, food and natural products.

2.6YELLOW TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA)
2.6.1HistoryCurcuma longa is known as turmeric’s botanical name. The plant produces a flower and a rhizome, or stem that is found underground and it height is barely reaches 3 feet. The rhizome has appearance similar to ginger which means the root-like stem that produces the yellow turmeric spice. Yet, it can now be found throughout the tropics because the largest producer of turmeric since ancient times is India. They also used turmeric for nutritional foodstuff, cosmetic and medicine. It is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking.

2.6.2Health Benefit of Curcuma LongaOver 100 years, turmeric have been used for medical treatments of illness such as dermatologic diseases, infection, stress and depression in India and China. Effect of turmeric on health are generally centered upon an orange-yellow colored, lipophilic polyphenol substance called “curcumin,” which is acquired from the rhizomes of the herb. Curcumin is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effect. It also helps in prevention and treatment of various illness ranging notably from cancer to autoimmune, neurological, cardiovascular diseases and diabetic.

Anti-oxidants fight free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage caused by free radicals ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gunnars”, “given” : “Kris”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “HEALTHLINE”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1-14”, “title” : “10 Proven Health Benefits of Turmeric and Curcumin”, “type” : “article-magazine” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5cfdcdfd-7f95-4e50-85f9-faec7da01374” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gunnars, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gunnars, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gunnars, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gunnars, 2017). Curcumin neutralizes free radicals by stimulating the body to produce its own anti-oxidant enzymes. Inflammation is crucial as it helps the body fight foreign invaders and repair damage. Peer-reviewed research has found that turmeric can positively impact over 581 diseases and curcumin alone has been found to affect over 560 diseases ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Teas”, “given” : “White”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Teas”, “given” : “Red”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Care”, “given” : “Hair”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “1-5”, “title” : “3/2/2018 Turmeric Root Powder u2013 Mountain Rose Herbs”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0734e2ec-5a6e-42a0-8eff-0a07b3c90c6e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Teas, Teas, ; Care, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Teas, Teas, ; Care, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Teas, Teas, ; Care, 2018)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Teas, Teas, & Care, 2018). In a study published in the July edition of the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, researchers and scientists have discovered that curcumin reduced brain tumors in 9 out of the 11 studies by 81% without evidence of toxicity ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Teas”, “given” : “White”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Teas”, “given” : “Red”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Care”, “given” : “Hair”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “1-5”, “title” : “3/2/2018 Turmeric Root Powder u2013 Mountain Rose Herbs”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0734e2ec-5a6e-42a0-8eff-0a07b3c90c6e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Teas et al., 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Teas et al., 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Teas et al., 2018)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Teas et al., 2018).

Curcumin helps promote weight loss and reduce the incidence of obesity-related diseases. The inflammation associated with obesity is due in part to the presence of immune cells called macrophages in fat tissues throughout the body. Production of cytokines from these cells can cause inflammation in organs such as the heart, and islets of the pancreas, while also increasing insulin resistance in muscle and liver. Scientists believe that turmeric suppresses the number and activity of these cells and help reduce some of the adverse consequences of obesity ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “NerdWallet.com”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Fox News”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-5”, “title” : “Turmeric: 5 things you didnu2019t know about the sup”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=72807204-f0e4-41e9-b69f-648dac884ba8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(NerdWallet.com, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(NerdWallet.com, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(NerdWallet.com, 2015)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(NerdWallet.com, 2015).

From the previous studies, the researchers have been studying that curcumin as a beneficial herb in cancer treatment. It can affect cancer growth, development and spread at the molecular level. In the laboratory, the anti-oxidants in turmeric kill cultures of cancer cells from the skin, bloodstream, and ovaries. Studies have shown that it can reduce angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels in tumors), metastasis (spread of cancer), as well as contributing to the death of cancerous cells. However, there is some evidence that it may help prevent cancer from occurring in the first place, especially cancers of the digestive system ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ST.Louis”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Wolters Kluwer Health”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “3-4”, “title” : “What is Turmeric?”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a1b9086e-5f62-4308-a6fe-b49d7e240563” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ST.Louis, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ST.Louis, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ST.Louis, 2009)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ST.Louis, 2009). Turmeric and curcumin has been proven to be powerful suppressors of cancer growth and spread CITATION Mou l 17417 (Mountain Rose Herbs, n.d.).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2.1: Curcuma longa sp.2.7WHITE TUMERIC (CURCUMA ZEDOARIA)2.7.1HistoryWhite turmeric is the root of the Curcuma zedoaria plant. The Curcuma zedoaria plant is native to India and Indonesia, but has also been cultivated in Europe and in the US. White turmeric has lighter flesh and its flavour is very similar to that of ginger, but with a more bitter after taste. Although white turmeric nowadays is rarely used anymore as a spice and often replaced by ginger, it is still used in Asian cuisine. In Indonesia, white turmeric powder is often added to curry dishes. In Thailand, fresh, sliced white turmeric is used as an ingredient in salads. And in Indian cuisine fresh white turmeric is also used as an ingredient to popular dishes.

2.7.2Health Benefits of Curcuma ZedoariaWhite Turmeric is one of the herbs which good for our bodies. White turmeric has a wide range of chemical constituents that include tianin, starch, curcumin, essential oil, sugar, saponins, resins, flavonoids, until the toxic protein that has the capability to prevent cancer cell growth.

Most of the previous studies support the use of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer-related diseases especially breast, cervical, and colon cancers. As the rhizomes are also widely consumed as salad in food without any known undesirable side effect, it can be assumed that the plant is safe for consumption at the normal dose as food. Curcuma zedoaria is therefore a promising dietary agent that holds great promise for use in chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic strategies ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Xiu-fei Gao, Qing-lin Li, Hai-long Li, Hong-yan Zhang, Jian-ying Su, Bei Wang, Pei Liu”, “given” : “and Ai-qin Zhang”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “4-9”, “title” : “Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=50a5696d-a7ff-4ec1-804a-c83cb0cfc65a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Xiu-fei Gao, Qing-lin Li, Hai-long Li, Hong-yan Zhang, Jian-ying Su, Bei Wang, Pei Liu, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Xiu-fei Gao, Qing-lin Li, Hai-long Li, Hong-yan Zhang, Jian-ying Su, Bei Wang, Pei Liu, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Xiu-fei Gao, Qing-lin Li, Hai-long Li, Hong-yan Zhang, Jian-ying Su, Bei Wang, Pei Liu, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Xiu-fei Gao, Qing-lin Li, Hai-long Li, Hong-yan Zhang, Jian-ying Su, Bei Wang, Pei Liu, 2014).
Curcuma zedoaria has antioxidant properties and is believed to internal use helps solve sexual problems faced by men and women. Furthermore, zedoaria root is also believed to strengthen the muscles of the uterus and, therefore, facilitates delivery. Since it has aphrodisiac properties, C.zedoaria is used to treat erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. This apart, C.zedoaria is also an anti-periodic that used to stop the recurrence of disease and to cure digestive problems indigestion, colds, ulcers and problems with the gastrointestinal system. It is also effective in preventing indigestion, provided consumed about 30 minutes before a meal ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mas Sugeng”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Health ; Beauty Information”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-6”, “title” : “Zedoary ( Curcuma Zedoaria ) Overview , Health Benefits , Side effects Zedoary ( Curcuma Zedoaria ) Overview , health benefits , side effects”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=61951419-034e-4f11-9730-0947ee03cdf6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mas Sugeng, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mas Sugeng, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mas Sugeng, 2016)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mas Sugeng, 2016).

Moreover, Curcuma zedoaria is beneficial for people enduring problems digestive, as zedoary helps improve digestion, improve health and liver function and regulate body temperature. C.zedoaria also used in the form of a gastrointestinal tonic, while treatment of flatulent colic. C.zedoaria is useful for treating vomiting, colic, dyspepsia, cough and infections of the urinary tract. The juice of fresh root is said to be useful in treating urinary tract infections and other disorders related to urination ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mas Sugeng”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Health ; Beauty Information”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-6”, “title” : “Zedoary ( Curcuma Zedoaria ) Overview , Health Benefits , Side effects Zedoary ( Curcuma Zedoaria ) Overview , health benefits , side effects”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=61951419-034e-4f11-9730-0947ee03cdf6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mas Sugeng, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mas Sugeng, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mas Sugeng, 2016)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mas Sugeng, 2016).

C.zedoaria is also effective in preventing stress ulceration, taking the powdered form of the herb facilitates the regularization of menstruation. It is also effective to treat abdominal stress, rheumatic pain and abdominal pain because of amenorrhea (lack of menstruation). C.zedoaria often a component of anti-regular form tablets.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2.2: Curcuma zedoaria sp.CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY3.1STUDY DESIGNThis research will be conducted to evaluate the antioxidant capacity study of methanolic in Curcuma longa and Curcuma zedoaria Rosc extract through DPPH free radical scavenging assay, FRAP assay and MDA assay. The absorbance readings of the sample will be measured by the spectrophotometer at the end of the experiment.

At the beginning of the experiment, the powder of the sample will be weighed using an electronic weighing balance. After that, the sample will be extracted by using methanolic extraction in order to make them into paste form. At the same time, all the reagents need in this experiment were prepared for those three different assays. For DPPH test, DPPH solutions were added to the sample and mixed together using a vortex mixer. Then, all the samples were centrifuged to get supernatant. Finally, they were transferred into cuvett and the absorbance readings will be measured by the spectrophotometer. The same steps will repeated for FRAP test and MDA test by using FRAP reagents and MDA reagents respectively.

3.2MATERIAL AND APPARATUS3.2.1MaterialsBoth type of tumeric were bought from the local supermarket in Jitra, Kedah.

3.2.2Chemical reagentsDPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), 80% methanol, Ascorbic acid, distilled water, 0.2M of phosphate buffer, potassium ferricyanide, trichloroacetic acid, ferric chloride.

3.2.3Apparatus and equipmentCentrifuge, vortex mixer, spectrophotometer, test tubes, beakers, eppendorf tubes, eppendorf tube racks, cuvettes, centrifuge tubes, electronic weighing balance, micropipettes, micropipette tips, pipettes, filter papers.

3.3PREPARATION OF EXTRACTS3.3.1Sample methanolic extractionBoth powder samples were weighed first using electronic weighing balance, about 300g of samples powder were mixed with 30ml of 80% methanol. They were left for about three days to proceed with methanolic extraction using rotavapor. They were extracted until became paste form.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3.1: Preparation of extraction
3.4DPPH FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ASSAY3.4.1Preparation of standard solutionRequired quantity of ascorbic acid was dissolved in methanol to give the concentration of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 µg/ml.

3.4.2Preparation of test samplesStock solutions of samples were prepared by dissolving 10 mg of dried methanolic extract in 10 ml of methanol to give concentration of 1mg/ml.

3.4.3Preparation of DPPH solution4.3mg of DPPH was dissolved in 3.3ml of methanol. It was protected from light by covering the test tubes with aluminium foil.

3.4.4Addition of DPPH solution150 µl DPPH solution will be added to 3 ml methanol and absorbance will be taken immediately at 517 nm for control reading. Different volume levels of test sample (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 µl) will be screened and made 100 µl of each dose level by dilution with methanol. Diluted with methanol with up to 3 ml. 150 µl DPPH solution will be added to each test tube. Absorbance will be taken at 517 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, UV-1700, Japan) after 15 minutes using methanol as a blank. Each experiment was carried out in triplicate and results are expressed as mean % antioxidant capacity ± SD.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3.2: DPPH Assay3.5FERRIC REDUCING ANTIOXIDANT POWER ASSAY
3.5.1Preparation of reagentsFRAP reagent will be prepared from 300 mM acetate buffer (1.6g of sodium acetate and 8ml of acetic acid make up to 500ml) with pH 3.6. Then, 10mM TPTZ solution in 40 mM HCL and 20mM iron (III) chloride solution in proportion of 10:1:1 (v/v) respectively. The FRAP reagent is freshly prepared and then warmed at 37°C.

3.5.2Preparation of FRAP solution50 ?l samples extract will be added to 1.5ml of the FRAP reagent and mixed well. At temperature 37°C, the reaction mixture will be incubated in a water bath for 30 minutes. The absorbance will be measured at 593 nm using spectrophotometers (Molecular devices, VERSAmax tunable, California, USA) after 4 mins. The percentage reduction activity was calculated using the following equation:
% Reduction ability =Absorbance control-Absorbance sampleAbsorbance control ×100All results will be run in triplicates assays and results will be expressed as mmol Fe2+/100g extract sample using ferric chloride standard curve ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “09754873”, “abstract” : “Rhizomes and leaves of five underutilized Curcuma species viz. C.aeruginosa, C.brog, C.malabarica, C.rakthakanta and C.sylvatica were evaluated for total phenolic content, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The total phenols in methanolic extracts of rhizomes ranged from 210 to 700 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g and in leaves from 840 to 1480 mg/100g. Flavonoid content in leaves ranged from 270 to 380 mg epicatechin equivalents/100 g dw. The leaves of all species had higher content of phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power as compared to rhizomes. There was good correlation between the phenol content and antioxidant activity in rhizomes, but not in leaves. The results of the study highlighted the potential of these unutilized Curcuma species (rhizomes and leaves) as a rich source of antioxidants for food and health.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Angel”, “given” : “G. R.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vimala”, “given” : “B.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nambisan”, “given” : “Bala”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “69-73”, “title” : “Phenolic content and antioxidant activity in five underutilized starchy Curcuma species”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=23692e66-d750-4a73-ad42-c66372c4f40a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Angel, Vimala, ; Nambisan, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Angel, Vimala, ; Nambisan, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Angel, Vimala, ; Nambisan, 2012)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Angel, Vimala, & Nambisan, 2012).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3.3: FRAP Assay3.6MALONDIALDEHYDE (MDA) ASSAYFollow MDA kit.

3.7STATISTICAL ANALYSISData was analysed using SPSS. The data values were expressed as standard deviation ± mean. The mean values were obtained using ANOVA test where p value less than 0.05 is significant.

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