Features and Fundamentals of websites

Features and Fundamentals of websites.

What is a Domain name?
It is the part of a network address which identifies it as belonging to a particular domain. Some examples of domains includes .com, .net (Network organisations), .esp, .Ac.uk, .org (Organisations). The most used domain name is .com as this is used worldwide. The world’s most recognized domain extension, .COM’s popularity has not changed in its 30+ year history. Other domain names worth talking about is .esp which is used in Spain and .Ac.uk which is used for universities in the UK.

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Why do we use domain names?
Domain names are used to identify one or more IP addresses. They are used in URLs to identify particular Web pages so that you get sent straight to that website. Because the Internet is based on IP addresses, not domain names, every Web server requires a Domain Name System (DNS) server to translate domain names into IP addresses.

What is a site map?
Site maps are structures of a websites content that shows you how to navigate your way around the website. This is useful as it will save customers time as they won’t have any wasted time trying to find what they want which will mean that they are satisfied with the business leading to them more likely returning to the business again. A site map can be a hierarchical list of pages organized by topic or an XML document that provides instructions to search engine crawl bots.

Hierarchical site maps
With hierarchal site maps you have to go through different links to get where you want to get to. For example on the BBC website, where you have to go through a number of different categories to get where you want. If one of the links is not working then the person using the website will struggle to get where they want to get to.

Mesh site maps
-55245091440000A mesh site map has a more rounded structure with one main part in the middle and different links coming of that one in the centre. This is different to a hierarchical site map as it has less structure to it and it also doesn’t have multiple layers. If one of the sectors in the mesh site map breaks down then the whole system will go down. With mesh site maps it is much quicker to get where you want to compared to hierarchal as you can get there through one link.
Hyperlinks are links in which you can click in order to take you to another resources or webpages (Internal or external). For example if you click a certain link than it may take you to the home page of a website. A hyperlink is a dark blue colour and once you click on it, the hyperlink will turn to a purple colour and will be underlined.

Navigation bar
Navigation bars are found towards the top of a webpage before the contents of the page begins but below the header or logo. It is graphical bar that links users to other main portions of the page. They are displayed on nearly every webpage you go on which means that whilst viewing that page you can use the navigation bar to visit other parts of the website. The purpose of a navigation bar is to direct people through websites which will therefore mean it will provide easy access to people to navigate through different webpages.

Page design
On a web page the banner is usually at the top of the page as it means that people who are viewing the webpage know who made it. The navigation bar can be found at the top of the website underneath the banner and title or down the left hand side of the page where it is easily accessible for the audience. Underneath all that you will find the page content. This is the part of the web page that contains all the important information and it is located under the other content, towards the centre of the page.

Designing for different browsers and devices
Different devices such as TVs, tablets, Phones and other devices will require specific designs that are much more compatible for them. This may be because the designs will need to be smaller so that they can fit all of the relevant information in. Different browsers will also require different designs to fit it so it can work properly and make sure their audience can all use it. Browser rending is used to convert HTML code into a visual webpage which can include pictures, videos and the main text.

Responsive design for mobile/tablet technology
Responsive design refers to how well the web pages render on other devices and different screen sizes. The business will need to make sure they design their web page to be able to work successfully on different devices and screen sizes so that customers can use it and can get to where they want to be quickly. If the business is having problems with how responsive their design is then they may start getting unhappy customers. The amount of clients that now want to transfer their web page design onto other devices is growing as the amount of people using it is also rapidly growing. It is now essential businesses have this.

Browser Rending
Browser rending is used to convert HTML code into a visual webpage which can include pictures, videos and the main text. Without this the webpage would not be able to look the way the business wants it to look and therefore their audience may be put off.
World Wide Web Consortium – open and closed standards in web development
They are an international organisations whose aims are to improve the World Wide Web to make sure it can reach its full potential. For them to do this they bring together several hundred member organisations from a variety of related IT industries to work on solving any issues on the web. Open standards is where the web page is made publically available for example on the internet as it will mean everyone can search it and find it. Anyone can copy or distribute it freely or at a low cost. An example of open standards are HTTP that are used by many different vendors. Closed standards are the opposite of open which means that the file format, protocol or protocol is not made public.

Storage of Data
Data storage is the way in which you store information so that you don’t lose it or give it to someone who could exploit having it. Therefore we tend to store it by using technology as we are less likely to lose it and we can store much more of it. In a business customers will expect the web developers to store their data securely and safely because if they release it without their permission they can get in serious trouble. Usually, web developers will put the customer’s information into a database as it will mean they can store all of their customer’s data together.

Methods of user Interaction
Methods of user interaction include counting the amount of times a user clicks on the website. If the web page is on a touch screen phone or laptop you could count the amount of touches they do. Similarly you could count the amount of times the user scrolls up and down the web page or count the amount of minutes they have been on the website. Voice interaction is another example of user interaction as it requires them to speak into the devices microphone.
Security Risks
There are numerous security risks that come with creating and having a website, the most obvious one being getting hacked. One of the most serious attacks from hackers is the Distributed Denial of Service Attack (DDOS) which is where the hacker takes control of thousands of computers and floods the server with requests. This then causes the website to stop working. One way in which you can prevent this from occurring is by using appropriate passwords that use capital letters, numbers and punctuation as it will make it harder for the hacker to use it.

In addition to this, if the hacker gets on to your website and is able to change certain things it could potentially ruin the reputation of the business. For example if they leak the businesses customer data or write offensive words on the web page. This can also lead to an interception of data which can be very dangerous for the business. The way in which you can reduce the likeliness of this happening is by using a leased line as it is a private line that goes from point to point.
Another common type of hacking is SQL injections. An SQL injection is when a code is placed within an SQL statement by using web page input. This code can then cause database to shutdown which then means that the business has no place to store their data and some of the data they had before can get lost. The way in which you can protect yourself from SQL injections is by using SQL parameters which are values that are added to an SQL query at execution time, in a controlled manner.

Other prevention strategies include encryption and validation. We see encryption in everyday life as most things are now encoded. Therefore encryption is very important to as it will make it much harder for hackers to get in as to be able to decode it you have to have the decryption key. The validation method involves you proving who you are so that the website knows that it’s not a robot trying to hack the system. An example of this is when you go onto a website and it asks you to show that you’re not a robot by clicking on certain squares on a picture. If you do not successfully pass that then your access to the website will be denied.