EZRent: A mobile application using Apache Cordova for developing open platform vehicle rental application with OpenStreetMap and Haversine Algorithm
Categories and Subject Descriptions
H.3.5 Online Information Services: Web-based and Mobile based services.
Algorithms, Web Application, Mobile, Design
Geolocation, Haversine Algorithm, OpenStreetMap, Push Notification
1.1 Project Context
EZRent is a web-based application that offers an online rental of any kind of vehicle innovating the current style of “Pakyawan” among Filipinos. Upon which the renter can easily choose and reserve the vehicle that they want to rent and on the other hand, the lender will just give the details of his/her vehicle. The researchers came up on making this application due to the issues and difficulties concerning vehicle rental such as difficulty on booking during peak season, difficulty upon geographical navigation especially when the renter is new with the place and seeking for a vehicle lender and a vehicle renter today is time consuming.
Everyone has different purpose why they travel. With the use of social media, the researchers conducted an interview to some people who occasionally travel to places, and most of them said that they travel for leisure and some is for seminar or any business purposes. They said that travelling is such an enjoyable thing to do. However, transportation is a huge problem for them especially when taking a vacation with their family and they have to travel somewhere far. They have to take a bus for them to be able to reach to their destination and the bus ticket is expensive especially when you have a big number of family member because you have to pay for the ticket for everyone. When they travel by bus and unexpectedly encounter a traffic congestion, they cannot take an alternative route for them to reach their destination as early as they can because buses are designated to a specific route. According to them, they only have limited destinations because they have spent a lot of money by the bus ticket alone.
We the researchers find out those renting vehicles can save money, because when you rent a vehicle you only pay the driver and the vehicle with the fix prize in any destination that you want to travel you just pay for the gasoline but no additional pay for driver and for the vehicle. However, there are only six limited vehicle rental companies within the Philippines particularly in Davao city.
To save money, some travelers prefer to rent a van or a vehicle on any vehicle rental company, post for a status on their social media accounts or seek to their neighborhood. When renting a vehicle, they can take alternative routes so that they can reach their destinations earlier and they can go anywhere without limitation. However, there are only limited vehicle rental company within the Philippines particularly in Davao City. Although there are small vehicle rental companies found in some cities in the country but there are hard to find because of their locations especially for those interested renters who does not know the place so well. In addition, some of the respondents said that vehicle lender specifically those who are offering chauffeur drivers take advantage by adding hidden charges such as meal and gasoline fee. According to 2, most vehicle rental companies in Cebu add extra fees when the driver is below 25 years old.
Purpose and Description
To address the presented problems above, the proponents will develop a web based open platform vehicle rental application.
With this system, people having difficulty on finding anyone or someone to rent for a vehicle, getting rid of hidden charges and unclear informal contract between the lender and the renter will be address.
With EZRent, vehicles whether private or public owned can be upload to the site, provided that the website will give detailed lending information form.
On the other hand, the renter can choose any type of private or public vehicles that fits to their budget. In addition, it is not limited to self-drive only because renters can choose with chauffeur driver services if ever they are not familiar to the streets and routes of the place provided that the site will give the lender and the renter a clear rental contract for formalization purposes.
Also, the renter will no longer have difficulty on looking for a nearby vehicle lender because the proposed system will use OpenStreetMap API for digital mapping and haversine algorithm for solving the nearest distance between two points (the renter’s location and the nearby vehicle lender).
With the help of this application all these three main problems will be resolve.
The general objectives of this proposed project is to create Web-based software that allows the user to register and reserve vehicle online and for the company to effectively manage their rental business, and also to ease user upon renting a vehicle. It will automate also the booking process of current “Pakyawan” system amongst Filipino and be able to store information in a single database. To develop a better way for finding costumers needs it terms of driver’s capacity, vehicles availability and flexibility due to its customizability features that allows quick access to profitability for divers.
To achieve the general objectives, the researchers will specifically develop a system to:
126.96.36.199 Develop online vehicle rental website using bootstrap framework.
188.8.131.52 Display all transmitted information to end user along with showing real time location of vehicle lenders on a map with the use of OpenStreetMap.
184.108.40.206 Have a location and tracking system using user’s smartphone GPS for positioning information.
220.127.116.11 Notify the lender through Push Notification API when a renter queues for a reservation.
18.104.22.168 Locate the nearest vehicle lender within their vicinity with the use of Haversine Algorithm.
22.214.171.124 Develop a system that allows viewing of upcoming transaction and reservation for service purpose.
126.96.36.199 Develop a system that allows the costumer to view the drivers rating for the service they provided.
1.2 Scope and Limitation
The developer is going to develop a fully functional Vehicle Rental System in which it stores, process and handle customer information and valuable assets for the vehicles. Upon the development of the system, the proponents will utilize sublime text for writing codes, AngularJS scripting language for creating dynamic functionalities of the system, MySQL for database management, OpenStreetMap API for digital mapping, Haversine Algorithm for calculating the nearest distance between two points, and bootstrap framework for faster GUI design.
This proposed application offers both users to register accounts, they must provide their Driver’s License and any valid government ID for private vehicle lenders by uploading these requirements as a picture to the system. On the other hand, vehicle lender companies must add a business permit together with the needed requirements stated above, to be uploaded as a photo to the system. And for the renters, they must attach their selfie together with any government ID or even student ID. Upon the registration, private vehicle lenders and vehicle renter users need to input their name, address, age and gender. With these requirements, there is an easy identification of all users and could be the basic requirements to the future company owners. In addition, upon taking a picture at least 8MP of device’s camera is recommended for better image quality.
This study is limited only in locating the nearest vehicle lender via the renter’s device GPS within the renter’s address using haversine algorithm with the utilization of OpenStreetMap as a visual representation of the map. Also, the researchers only limit the study within Davao City area as a test location. And, the study is accessible via Web and Android mobiles with no online payment involved as of its first version release. For android application, android version 4.2 Jelly Bean and higher versions are compatible with OpenStreetMap 17.
As of now the application doesn’t have partner manager or any vehicle operators. But the proponents will include this in the recommendation for the next researchers. And also, the system can’t check for LTFRB and LTO approved vehicles because the study needs more financial support via its soon to be partnered companies.
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND SYSTEMS
This chapter shows different systems that are related to Geo-location with the utilization of OpenStreetMap and different online vehicle rental services.
2.1 Uber Technologies Inc.
Uber is a peer-to-peer ridesharing, taxi cab, food delivery, and transportation network company basing in San Francisco, California, with operations in 785 city areas worldwide including Philippines and can be accessed via its website and mobile app 10.
It operates by the time that a rider accesses their website or app and fill the Where to box as well as the vehicle size, price and the wait time. Next, their system will look for a nearby driver that is able to view and approve the request that automatically notifies the rider when the driver is a minute away. Then the driver will pick and takes the rider to the destination and lastly is that they will have the chance to rate each other after the trip.
In this system, riders can ride private vehicles or even taxi having a fixed price set between the rider and the driver in a certain distance. In addition, the rider can have ease and will not waste time in waiting and competing just to grab for a ride going somewhere.
The similarity of this system with the proposed study is that they offer riders and vehicle owners to discuss and agree to a fixed price based on the distance of the trip.
The comparison on the other hand is that, the proposed study can let renters pick for a vehicle that they can do self-drive on their own.
2.2GrabTaxi Holdings Pte Ltd
Grab Taxi or Grab is a Singapore-based company that provides the sole ride-hailing, ride sharing, and supplying services through its app in Singapore and neighboring Southeast Asian countries including Philippines and known as the sole ride share service within the region 13.
The main purpose of this system is to eliminate the agony of the riders upon looking for a taxi and competing for it, wherein the riders can just access their site or app, made a booking, and wait for the taxi to arrive in the rider’s address.
The main similarity of this system with the proposed study is that they both offer the riders the option to choose for the nearest available vehicle within their vicinity.
The main comparison of this existing system to the proposed study is that this system can offer the renters pick for any available vehicles they want and not just taxi alone.
Rentalvehicles.com is a world leading vehicle hire company that serves over 160 nations around the world. With their site and application, renters can book a vehicle by searching what they want. Next, the app will show the renter lots of option upon choosing a vehicle. They can choose up to how many passengers the vehicle can accommodate, the type of vehicle, and the brand of vehicle. Now, upon selecting the desired vehicle, the app will now compare and select over hundreds of vehicle rental companies based on the inputs that the renter gave and let the system do the booking. In addition, it offers freebies such as extra seat or even extra cover. Also, Rentalvehicles.com offers real-time monitoring to the renter’s vehicle booking that comes to their service before, during and after the trip, which means anytime the renter can follow up the status of their booked vehicle 15.
The proposed study found similarities with the company’s system operation. To wit, the proposed system will also offer the renter’s vehicle detail up to which vehicle they are looking. Also, the system will offer real-time monitoring regarding the rental status using geo-location.
The comparison of this system to the proposed study is that the proposed study will not have a web crawler algorithm just to compare and look for a vehicle depending on the renter’s preference, but the proposed study will use haversine algorithm to locate the nearest vehicle lender in the renter’s vicinity.
Skyscanner is an online site and application offering lowest plane ticket, pricing and even vehicle hire pricing. Its main purpose is to compare to other travel websites and give the lowest pricing that the user wants. It does one search and gives the user convenience instead of checking one by one the websites given by different travel agents just to compare and contrast the price that is suited for the user 16. Just like when we are doing our grocery, it is time consuming to look around the market just to compare and seek for the suited item that comes in the desired price that we wanted. But with this app, it acts as the middle person for the user to lessen that burden.
In addition, this app offers geo mapping in which users can freely navigate into where they wanted to go. That being said, the comparison of this system to the proposed study is that they both offer geo-mapping for the user’s convenience in navigation.
2.5 RESERVE Vehicle Rentals
RESERVE Vehicle Rentals is an online vehicle hire company based in Metro Manila and Cebu. This company offers vehicle rental for self-drive, with chauffeur driver and corporate reservation. This system is more of a self-sustaining company in which they are the ones having their own vehicles and drivers. Their main goal upon developing this system is that they offer the best vehicle that comes with most affordable price in the renter’s most convenience. Because when the renter is booking for a vehicle, the company offers door to door vehicle pick-up and delivery which means the renter will no longer need to go to the company’s address and just to pick-up or even get the vehicle. In addition, the company offers online payment such as PayPal that gives renters ease in paying their bill. This company also have comprehensive insurance between the renter, the company and also for the vehicle. Which by means of any accidents depending on what the renter and the company agreed for, they can base the next action to the insurance 7.
With the presented system features, the main similarity of this system with the proposed study is that the they both offer comprehensive insurance depending on the renter and the lender’s agreement. In addition, the system and the proposed study will also have an option with the renter to avail door to door delivery and pick-up depending again to the renter and lender’s agreement.
On the other hand, the proposed study will not offer online payment according to our scope and limitations.
2.6 Landmark Based Shortest Path Detection using A* and Haversine Formula
This article seeks to find the shortest route between two points with in the metropolitan of India. They used Client-server setup in which a user can access the app as a client and enter the Source point and the Destination point then sends it as a request to the server as an XML file. The server side then analyze the XML file via parser and then processes the inputs using A* and Haversine formula to get the shortest distance then query the database finding the near roads, landmarks, and junctions and replies an XML file to the client via parser. The output of the process can be viewed via text and via Google map 3.
According to Prof. Chopde and Mr. Nichat, Haversine Algorithm calculates the minimum distance between two points on a spherical body via longitude and latitude in which the researchers find it good to utilize upon locating nearest vehicle lender address towards vehicle renter’s point.
2.7 GPS based Advanced Vehicle Tracking and Vehicle Control System
In this study conducted by Mashood Mukhtar, he created a navigation security system by using GPS to locate the vehicle and installing the vehicle a control system that acts as a receiver and doer of the instructions given by the admin user 5.
The vehicle tracking was done by installing a device to the vehicle and programming it to give real-time update to the server computer. Now with the vehicle control system, the admin user can do what he wants to do. Such as the admin user can remotely switch on or off the engine of the vehicle and can remotely lock or unlock the vehicle’s door. The author developed a webpage in which he can locate the vehicle real-time with the utilization of google maps.
Given the study’s functionalities, the study also aims to locate the vehicle’s trip real-time with the use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and displaying it with the use of OpenStreetMap. Its main purpose is to guide the user the route they are riding and avoid getting lost.
2.8 Fully automated vehicle rental system
This system talks about online based vehicle hire system done by 4. They did a vehicle inspector system that scan the vehicle’s fuel status and even vehicle’s distance travelled and links it to their vehicle rental system. According to them, they develop such innovation just to give the renters a safe and best vehicle that they want to hire for their special trips and get around. In their vehicle rental system, renters can inspect the total vehicle condition before booking for it to avoid future accidents.
The online vehicle rental system is similar with the proposed study in terms of giving the renter all the possible vehicle condition that the they want before booking the vehicle. It means that the renter will be informed about all the details of the vehicle as an insurance to the renter that they book for the best vehicle that they want.
2.9 General Transit Feed Specification: Tools for Disaster Relief and Recovery
In this research it talks about the researchers experience on implementing public transportation route planner for the purpose of traffic decongestion and the researchers also examine the prospective of using the system for disaster preparedness and recovery, Rapidly increasing population means also an increase of commuters, vehicles and etc. because of this traffic decongestions has always been a problem for everybody during transportation, the main roads are now usually too crowded and decongested not just because of the increase of population but also because of the lack of knowledge of the commuters about the routes that is why multimodal transportation is pushed by the government as a response to traffic decongestion because of the modal shift has become the root of the route planners fame one of an example for this is the opentripplanner with the use of opentripplanner it helps on assisting commuters to shift from using private vehicle to public ones6, opentripplannerutitlizesopenstreetmap and general transit feed specification, openstreetmap is used to give mapping data while general transit feed specification, gives the opentrippplaner data about transportation, using software like this will be very helpful to solved problems like traffic decongestions. these opentripplanner, openstreetmap and general transit feed specification has a potential to be used for disaster and recovery operations by calculating for the best route for trucks or tanks should follow when rescuing, distributing relief goods and supply, also by helping in logistics planning for rebuilding infrastructure.
2.10 Vehicle-Rental System with Location Tracking and Geo-Fencing Application for CCM Rent a Vehicle
The study talks about the problem concerning vehicle whereabouts. CCM rent a vehicle company faced problems such as where is the vehicle in a particular time, did the vehicle renter abided the contract in which they are only allowed to take route in a specific location, and lastly is the vehicle stolen. Theses question were solved via this study in which the researchers develop a system to monitor the vehicle and alarms the head center office when the vehicle goes beyond the set geo-fence 8.
The study has similar utilization of a digital map which is OSM. Both of the study aims users to have a visual representation of the whereabouts of their trip.
Table 1: Comparative Features
Table 1 shows the features of the related applications and the proposed application EZRent with their similarities and differences. All the applications have online reservation and with chauffeur package feature. Next to that is digital mapping in which Uber, Grab, Skyscanner, and the proposed system were only applications who can offer it in which they use certain APIs with their system and OSM for this study. Then only Reserve Vehicle Rentals and EZRent offers self-driving feature to the renters. And when it comes to real-time push notification, only Uber, Grab, and EZRent can offer this also in which the other companies use different Notif API but with EZRent the proponents will utilize Push Notification API. And lastly is geo-tracking in which Uber, Grab, Reserve Vehicle Rentals, and the proposed system EZRent can offer this system feature by using GPS. The only unique features that EZRent can offer are finding shortest vehicle lender using Haversine algorithm and being open platform in which it is free to all users who are private vehicle owners and vehicle rental companies to subscribe with this giving a bridge to one another for easier contact with the use of Push Notif.
3. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
This chapter contains discussions regarding the technical aspects of the proposed study. The technical background includes frameworks, system aspects, hardware and software requirements, and development tools that are essential to the development of the system.
To achieve the proposed system, the researchers will have utilized sublime text, php and bootstrap for the web development part of the system, the researchers will also utilize haversine algorithm and OpenStreetMap for locating the nearest vehicle lenders, for the data storage the researcher will utilized MySQL databases.
3.1 Conceptual Framework
Figure 1. Conceptual framework
Upon using are system by the user, it will prompt a new form that shows two buttons. These two buttons are for the Lender of the vehicle and for the Customer who wants to rent a vehicle. When you click the Lender button it will prompt a new form and ask you for filling the form with your full name, address, driver’s license, NBI clearance, Government’s ID, Vehicle OR/CR and his or her picture. After filling all the forms, it will successfully have registered and then the lender will now select the login button, by clicking login button it will prompt the OpenStreetMap module that allow all the user to show who is searching for good service and navigation drawer that has a menu of his/her profile information page, transaction history indicated with his/her old customer and points that the lender gains in every success services.
This system allows the lender to add more vehicles by inputting model of vehicle, images and capacity of it. This application is a free-flowing system that allows all registration of both customer and lender are not evaluated to the developer of the app, that is why the app asking for taking an images of the lender’s personal detail so that customer will be the one to verify the lender. If the lender can’t provide images, then it cannot register in this system. Since the application allows everyone to register without a verification of the developer there’s possible that there might be a prank or false lender’s information. To avoid this problem, the customer needs to review first the information of the lender and if the customer sees that there’s a problem with that lender, customer can write comments or suggestion and also that can help other customer.
When the customer is a first timer it requires to register the form first. Then when the customer is done registered, it will prompt another form and show two buttons these two buttons are login button and registration button, when the user click registration button, the application will ask for the information of users like name, password, address, email address and contact info and picture of NBI Clearance of the customer.After the successful registration, the system will automatically reload and go to home page and the customer can now log in. When the customer is successfully login the record module of the customer will now show his/her current location in OpenStreetMap and a navigation drawer with a menu of make a service, profile info of the user and a list of available registered lenders. Once the customer wants to make a reservation the application will ask the customer his/her full name, contact number and destination. If the user clicks the button says make a service it will save the location to the lender’s module indicated of user’s information and the user will now wait for the lender to notify him/her.
EZRent display all available lender for the customer so that it helps the customer manually chose a lender and make a service with them.
All the data that was input by the user will be saved to the systems database, if the user wants to rent for the nearest vehicle lender through the app, the user will be ask for their current location via device’s GPS and the system and will calculate the distance between the location of the customer and the vehicle lender by using haversine algorithm and a map will be shown to the vehicle renter for them to navigate by the use of OpenStreetMap. The renters can reserve vehicles they want to rent by just clicking the image of the vehicle they want to, this system will send a notification to its owner if there are interested to rent the vehicle, since there are some lenders that will offer chauffeur services exclusively for those who want to take a tour.
For the real-time messaging between the drivers and customer, the researcher will be using the Push Notificationa programmable API to send and receive SMS anywhere in the world. Which indicates all the communication between the driver and customer and also helps the researcher for tracking any faults in real-time messaging.
This system will display all the vehicles that is for rent with its information such as its plate number and up to how many seats the vehicle can offer together with the lender’s name and address.
The system will also have a rating from the past renters based on the past performance of the vehicle or even for the driver for helping them to decide and choose for the best vehicle and driver for them.
The system also displays a list of online lenders so that the renters can notify them instantly thru push notification.
Figure 2. IPO of the proposed system
Figure 2 shows the input, process, and output of the system in which a registration form needs to be filled out to both lender and renter. Next is that the lender needs to upload a photo of his/ her vehicle, License ID, and also fill up a lending form. In the renter’s side on the other hand, he/she will locate his/her location and navigate the map that plots all the nearest lender within the vicinity and book for it. After that the lender will be notified thru Push Notification and will have the option to approve or disapprove the request. And whatever the decision with the lender, the renter will also be notified thru Push Notification regarding the feedback of the lender. And for easier communication, the app will show the renter for the lender’s contact number if the lender will approve the request. And lastly, both the users will have to rate each other regarding the overall outcome of the trip.
3.1.1 Haversine Algorithm
The Haversine formula is an equation important in navigation, giving great-circle distances between two points on a sphere from their longitudes and latitudes 3.
Figure 2. PHP: Haversine Formula
This is a PHP function that implements the Haversine Formula, an equation that essentially measures the distance between two points on a sphere (in this case, that sphere is the planet that we live on).
The haversine formula is used to calculate the distance between two points on the Earth’s surface specified in longitude and latitude. d is the distance between two points with longitude and latitude (?,?) and r is the radius of the Earth3.
With this algorithm, the proponents agreed to utilize this because compared to other finding two vertex formula, this is the most exact. This haversine formula will be utilized on solving the distance between the location of the customer and the vehicle lender, with the use of this haversine algorithm it will be easier to locate the nearest vehicle lender for the customer.
Figure 3. Haversine algorithm application in OpenStreetMap
In the image above OpenStreetmap utilizes the haversine algorithm to calculate the distance between the first location and the destination, after that it shows the path to the destination of the nearest vehicle lender.
3.1.2 OpenStreetMap API
OpenStreetMap is the free wiki world map, an open volunteer-driven initiative to collaboratively create a map of the world and release the map data under a free and open license 12.
This OpenStreetMap API will be utilized by the researchers to provide a digital view of the map between the location of the user from the nearest lender with the use of this API.
Figure 4. Openstreetmap
3.1.3 Push Notification API
This API helps the proponents to address the gap in terms of communication between vehicle lenders and vehicle renters. This API can send a notification even though the app is inactive which helps the EZRent subscribers bridge the gap and keep the user interactions up to date.
The researchers will use Global Positioning System or GPS for geo-location. The proposed system will offer renter and lender to locate their address if in case they don’t know it. This is also the means of getting the two vertices needed by the haversine algorithm (the renter’s and the lender’s location) 14.
3.2 Input, Process, Output and Infrastructure Design
Figure 4 Infrastructure design.
The image above shows the infrastructure design of the system, the user will access the ezrent application to locate the location of the nearest vehicle lender then the satellite will send signal to the server, then the application will show it using openstreetmap, all the data that the application gathered will be saved on the application database.
3.3 Development Tools
3.3.1 Sublime Text
Instead of using Notepad text editor the researchers will utilize Sublime text for efficiency of writing the codes. With the use of sublime text it will be easier and faster to write the codes.
3.3.2 HTML, CSS, Bootstrap
The researchers will be using html (hypertext markup language) a website language for creating the content and layout of the web application while the CSS will be used to create a unique layout of the application while bootstrap will be utilized to improve the appearance of buttons, forms and other widgets of the application.
3.3.3 Adobe Photoshop CS6
This tool will be the application in which the proponents create icons, logos and editing background pictures to be used in the system
The researchers will utilize this web development tool as a version control for the researchers to manage, see the updates and modification on the codes of the application it will also be used as an online repository of the codes for the backup of data.
The researchers will utilize chrome browser for viewing the appearance of the application on the web, it will be also used to set up a web server for the setting up a push notification of the application.
MySQL database will be utilized by the researchers for the storage of data that will be stored on tables since it is open source that makes it accessible for the researchers to use.
The researchers will utilized Laravel a php framework to make the development faster because in Laravel it has a three divided section model-vie-and controller with the use of this three modules it is much easier to error trap and access the functions of the application, the codes are also organize.
1 Ben Gardiner, Waseem Ahmad, Travis Cooper (2011). “Collision Avoidance Techniques for unmanned Aerial
Vehicles”, Auburn University, National Science Foundation.
2 Cebu Trip (2015). “Tips On Renting A Self-Drive Vehicle Rental in Cebu”. Retrieved from http://cebutrip.com/blog/
3 Prof. Nitin R. Chopde, Mr. Mangesh K. Nichat April (2013). “Landmark Based Shortest Path Detection by Using A* and Haversine Formula”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering Vol. 1.
4 Kenneth S. EhrmanJeffrey M. JagidNathan H. Loosmore Michael Ehrman (2013). “Fully automated vehicle rental system.”
5 Mukhtar, M. (2015). “GPS based advanced vehicle tracking and vehicle control system.” International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications, 7(3), 1-12.
6 Narboneta, C. ;Teknomo, K. “General Transit Feed Specification: Tools for Disaster Relief and Recovery”. Ithaca: Cornell University Library.
7 Reserve Vehicle Rental Company (2018). “About us : Vehicle Rental”
8 Tan, J., Canapi, S., Waga, J., Anzola, S (2018). “Vehicle-Rental System with Location Tracking and Geo-Fencing Application for CCM Rent-A-Vehicle.”
9 July (2015). “Tips On Renting A Self-Drive Vehicle Rental in Cebu.”
10 Uber Corp (2017). “Uber: Cities.”
11 Mr. Mangesh K. 2013. “Haversine Formula.” Retrieved from http://wordpress.mrreid.org/2011/12/20/haversine-formula/.
12 Aleks Buczkowski. (2015). “Why would you use OpenStreetMap if there is Google Maps?” Retrieved, from https://www.programmableweb.com/api/openstreetmap.
13 Grab. (2018). “Grab Taxi Philippines.” Retrieved from https://www.grab.com/ph/taxi/
14 GPS.gov (2018). “GPS: The Global Positioning System”. Retrieved from https://www.gps.gov/
15 Rentalvehicles.com (2018). “How we works?” Retrieved from https://www.rentalvehicles.com/us/about/
16 Skyscanner (2018). “About us: Vehicle Hire” Retrieved from https://www.skyscanner.com.ph/media/aboutskyscanner
17 OpenStreetMap.org (2017). “Category: Android.” Retrieved from https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Category:Android