EDU 540 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH PROPOSAL TITLE

EDU 540
INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
RESEARCH PROPOSAL
TITLE:TEACHER’s PERCEPTION ON ALLOWING STUDENT BRING SMART PHONE TO SCHOOL FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING PURPOSES
Name: Muhammad Adib bin ZarirMatric Number: 2015162557
Group: ED2605A
Lecturer’s Name: Madam Samshida
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Introduction
Technology has always rapidly changing based on human desired and need. One of the latest and most common technologies that is been used by human is the smart phone. Almost every people have smart phone even for kids and it is now very common to see teenagers with their smart phone on their hand.

Since smart phone are a common things nowadays, so in order to catching up with this new technologies, a new method can be used for teaching and learning process. It is also to following up with the 21st century teaching and learning which mainly using student centred teaching method through the learning process. School can allowed students to bring their device (smart phone, tablets, etc) to school for teaching and learning purposes.

In Malaysian school, the student is still not allowed to use smart phone or even bring it. In order to catch up with this new lifestyle, school can allow students to bring their device to the school but do the teachers agree?

Problem Statement
Nowadays, technology is a crucial thing in our life. Almost everything in our life depends on modern technology such as smart phone, internet and computer. Therefore in order to catching up with this new lifestyle, we also need to use technology in teaching and learning in our education system. For example, by allow students to bring their device to the class. But do the teachers agree?
First cause our previous education is different form nowadays. Before this, teaching method is basically on teacher centred method. Students are being spoon fed by the teachers to gain knowledge in school. But nowadays we are in the 21st century. We had what we called as ’21st century teaching and learning’ where teaching and learning are based on student centred method where teacher act as facilitator.

Besides of our differences with previous education method, teachers nowadays also had to face a new challenge which is the technologies. Teacher need to keep updated about the new technologies circling in students’ life. For example, smart phone. In order to follow the student centred method, teacher need to enhance student to used smart phone for teaching and learning purposes to prevent students from misuse the smart phone.

But since teachers were raised with different generation with different types of life and teaching style, there will be generation gap between teacher and students. This problem is especially on the old teachers. Some of them will think it is not important to allow students to use technologies in school. Some of them might be not see the benefits or the main factor of using technologies for teaching and learning purposes. Therefore this study will study about teacher’s opinion on allowing students to bring smart phone for teaching and learning purposes.

Research Objectives
To determine the factor in allowing students to bring smart phone to school for teaching and learning purposes
To investigate the challenge in allowing students to bring smart phone to school for teaching and learning purposes
To investigate teacher’s opinion on allowing students to bring smart phone to school for teaching and learning purposes.

Research Question
What is the factor of allowing students to bring smart phone to school?
What is the challenge in allowing students to bring smart phone to school for teaching and learning purposes?
What is teacher’s opinion on allowing students to bring smart phone to school for teaching and learning purposes?

Significance of Study
This study is significance to the following groups:-
Ministry of Education
The Ministry of Education (MOE) should be in know on the perception of the secondary school teachers on allowing students to bring their smart phone to school for teaching and learning purposes. They also can ask schools to change rules on banning students from bringing smart phone to school.

School administrator
The school administrator should take note on the perception of the secondary school teachers on allowing students to bring their smart phone to school for teaching and learning purposes. School administrator also should allow students to bring their smart phone to school for teaching and learning purposes. This is to following up with 21st century teaching and learning.

Limitations of Study
This study will have some limitations. The first limitation of this study is this study only conducted only for secondary school. Besides, the respondents involved only for the teachers. Secondly, this study only conducted among teachers in Shah Alam, Selangor.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0Introduction
In this chapter, the literature review that been taken are surveys reported in journals. Therefore, it is hope that the literature review can be guideline to researcher in doing this study. The literature review will focus on knowledge of smart phone, 21st century teaching and learning and using smart phone for teaching and learning purposes.

2.1Knowledge of Smart Phone
Nowadays smart phone is a must have device for each person. Students nowadays tend to carry their smart phone with them everywhere ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1021/ed200029p”, “ISBN” : “0021-9584\r1938-1328”, “ISSN” : “00219584”, “PMID” : “15715585”, “abstract” : “Cell phones, especially ” smart phones ” , seem to have become ubiquitous. Actually, it is misleading to call many of these devices phones, as they are actually a portable and powerful computer that can be very valuable in the chemistry classroom. Currently, there are three major ways in which smart phones can be used for education. Smart phones include a Web browser, which gives access to the wealth of material on the World Wide Web (WWW); inexpensive applications (commonly called apps) expand this usefulness even further; and two-dimensional barcode labels can be used to create ” smart objects ” . Taken together, these capabilities are creating a world of mobile computing that may have an impact on society, including chemical education, that may be even greater than the changes brought about by the personal computer.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Williams”, “given” : “Antony J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pence”, “given” : “Harry E.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Chemical Education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “683-686”, “title” : “Smart phones, a powerful tool in the chemistry classroom”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “88” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2ea7e501-5d70-463b-bd2c-e9b91f62cf68” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Williams & Pence, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Williams & Pence, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Williams & Pence, 2011)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Williams & Pence, 2011). Larry D. Rosen also agree that our young generation are defined by their love of electronic communication such as smart phone ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0013-1784”, “ISSN” : “00131784”, “abstract” : “The article discusses the use of digital technology, digital media, and the Internet by children and teenagers in the 21st century. The author defines the generation of individuals born after 1990 as the iGeneration. The article discusses the amount of time teenagers spend using digital media devices and resources, the average amount of cell phone text messages sent per month by teenagers, and the use of cell phones as portable computers and media devices. The author discusses the responses of teachers and schools to students’ use of technology and offers several ideas and resources for using digital technology in education.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rosen”, “given” : “Larry D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Leadership”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “10-15”, “title” : “Teaching the iGeneration.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “68” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85e10c42-f36d-4634-915d-5489f78b221f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rosen, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rosen, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rosen, 2011)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rosen, 2011). A. Herrington state from Pattern, Sanchez and Tangney that this type of mobile technologies have several categories of used which administration, referential, interactive, micro-world, data collection, location aware and collaborative ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Herrington”, “given” : “a”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “New technologies, new pedagogies: Mobile learning in higher education”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “28-35”, “title” : “Using a smartphone to create digital teching episodes as resouces in adult education”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4a329ce2-ab1d-4e59-8d6f-12e1947114c8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Herrington, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Herrington, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Herrington, 2009)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Herrington, 2009). This shows the importance of smart phone in student’s life. Smart phone is used for communication and it is been a culture for everyone to communicate each other by using smart phone.
2.221st century teaching and learning
Nowadays, students have taught themselves to network and find solutions and because of this, they expect to have the same experience at school ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mccoog”, “given” : “Ian J”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “21 ST Century Teaching and Learning”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2837127f-37ff-4693-bddd-90c14cac0f79” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mccoog, n.d.)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mccoog, n.d.)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mccoog, n.d.)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mccoog, n.d.). This statement is also supported by L. Rosen which state that this new generation is immersed with technology and we need to apply it at school ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0013-1784”, “ISSN” : “00131784”, “abstract” : “The article discusses the use of digital technology, digital media, and the Internet by children and teenagers in the 21st century. The author defines the generation of individuals born after 1990 as the iGeneration. The article discusses the amount of time teenagers spend using digital media devices and resources, the average amount of cell phone text messages sent per month by teenagers, and the use of cell phones as portable computers and media devices. The author discusses the responses of teachers and schools to students’ use of technology and offers several ideas and resources for using digital technology in education.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rosen”, “given” : “Larry D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Educational Leadership”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “10-15”, “title” : “Teaching the iGeneration.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “68” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85e10c42-f36d-4634-915d-5489f78b221f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rosen, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rosen, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rosen, 2011)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rosen, 2011).

21st century skills have been defined in many ways and one of them is technology literacy ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mccoog”, “given” : “Ian J”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “21 ST Century Teaching and Learning”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2837127f-37ff-4693-bddd-90c14cac0f79” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mccoog, n.d.)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mccoog, n.d.)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mccoog, n.d.)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mccoog, n.d.). This also supported by Henke which also stated that one of the 21st century skills is technology literacy ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Henke”, “given” : “Karen Greenwood”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “1-5”, “title” : “Henke_-_Measuring_up_in_a_flat_world_2007.pdf”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2cf7a21f-6c4a-4003-b067-8dd7e679599f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Henke, 2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Henke, 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Henke, 2007)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Henke, 2007). Therefore, literacy of technology is importance in 21st century and must be adapted in teaching and learning.

2.3Using smart phone for teaching and learning purposes
In order to follow the 21st century teaching and learning which mainly focusing on student centred method, teacher needs to adapt with situation nowadays which students were living with technologies such as smart phone. Students can become quickly disengaged when educators do most of the talking and they are not allowed to actively participate in the classroom ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781607093671”, “ISSN” : “1911-8279”, “abstract” : “University students are disengaged with learning. One reason is because educators continue to overuse the lecture format, which creates a situation where students engage in other tasks, such as sending text messages to their friends, instead of listening to the information being given by the instructor. If institutions and educators want to improve learning environments and increase retention rates, it is argued that they should consider embracing more active methods of learning that inspire and motivate students to learn. Five innovative teaching approaches discussed in this article include: project-based learning, problem-based learning, service learning, place-based education, and active learning. Practical considerations are provided to help educators understand how to use and apply these approaches. It is contended that using these five innovative practices at the university level will help inspire and motivate students to learn, resulting in more exciting classrooms and a better-educated society.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wurdinger”, “given” : “Scott”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rudolph”, “given” : “Jennifer”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Teaching and Learning”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “1-13”, “title” : “Teaching practices that improve student learning : Five experiential approaches”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ef6fa360-3924-45f7-bdb0-6fba4efd98ca” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wurdinger & Rudolph, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wurdinger & Rudolph, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wurdinger & Rudolph, 2009)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wurdinger & Rudolph, 2009). So in order to gain students’ attentions, teachers can use technologies that are normal for them to gain their attention.

Besides, smart phone can be used for application of learning in very fast way. Students need to apply their knowledge as soon as they get the knowledge. If they not apply it in due time, the importance of what was taught may be lost or being misused ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781607093671”, “ISSN” : “1911-8279”, “abstract” : “University students are disengaged with learning. One reason is because educators continue to overuse the lecture format, which creates a situation where students engage in other tasks, such as sending text messages to their friends, instead of listening to the information being given by the instructor. If institutions and educators want to improve learning environments and increase retention rates, it is argued that they should consider embracing more active methods of learning that inspire and motivate students to learn. Five innovative teaching approaches discussed in this article include: project-based learning, problem-based learning, service learning, place-based education, and active learning. Practical considerations are provided to help educators understand how to use and apply these approaches. It is contended that using these five innovative practices at the university level will help inspire and motivate students to learn, resulting in more exciting classrooms and a better-educated society.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wurdinger”, “given” : “Scott”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rudolph”, “given” : “Jennifer”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Teaching and Learning”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “1-13”, “title” : “Teaching practices that improve student learning : Five experiential approaches”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ef6fa360-3924-45f7-bdb0-6fba4efd98ca” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wurdinger & Rudolph, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wurdinger & Rudolph, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wurdinger & Rudolph, 2009)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wurdinger ; Rudolph, 2009).

Besides, John Dewey on his learning theory which based on pragmatism have provided direction on how to make learning active which is ‘pattern of inquiry’. One of the ways suggested by Wurdinger and Rudolph is by creating a web site. For Dewey, the term ‘active’ indicated learning in ways other than reciting and memorizing information ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781607093671”, “ISSN” : “1911-8279”, “abstract” : “University students are disengaged with learning. One reason is because educators continue to overuse the lecture format, which creates a situation where students engage in other tasks, such as sending text messages to their friends, instead of listening to the information being given by the instructor. If institutions and educators want to improve learning environments and increase retention rates, it is argued that they should consider embracing more active methods of learning that inspire and motivate students to learn. Five innovative teaching approaches discussed in this article include: project-based learning, problem-based learning, service learning, place-based education, and active learning. Practical considerations are provided to help educators understand how to use and apply these approaches. It is contended that using these five innovative practices at the university level will help inspire and motivate students to learn, resulting in more exciting classrooms and a better-educated society.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wurdinger”, “given” : “Scott”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rudolph”, “given” : “Jennifer”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Teaching and Learning”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “1-13”, “title” : “Teaching practices that improve student learning : Five experiential approaches”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ef6fa360-3924-45f7-bdb0-6fba4efd98ca” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wurdinger & Rudolph, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wurdinger & Rudolph, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wurdinger & Rudolph, 2009)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wurdinger ; Rudolph, 2009).

For teacher’s perception, from previous research conducted by Parsons and Adhikari, where teacher responds positively on the concept of allowing secondary school students bringing their own device to school ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Abstract: This paper reports on the first two years of a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiative in a New Zealand secondary school, using data derived from a series of surveys of teachers, parents and students, who are the main stakeholders in the transformation to a BYOD school. In this paper we analyse data gathered from these surveys, which consists primarily of qualitative data from free text questions, but also includes some quantitative data from structured questions, giving insights into the challenges faced by teachers, students and parents in moving to a BYOD classroom, and the potential benefits for teaching and learning, and preparing students for a digital world. We frame our analysis from a sociocultural perspective that takes account of structures, agency and cultural practices and the interactions between these domains. Thematic analysis was performed by considering these domains from the responses of the three stakeholder groups. We found that there were some tensions in these domain relationships, with contexts and practices having to be renegotiated as the BYOD classroom and the structures within which it operates have evolved. On the surface, it appears that many of the changes to cultural practice are substitution or augmentation of previous activities, for example using one-to-one devices for researching and presenting material. However, when we look deeper, it is evident that apparently straightforward adoption of digital media is having a more profound impact on structure and agency within the classroom. While the structural impact of digital infrastructures does raise some concerns from all stakeholders, it is clear that it is the curricular structure that is the most contentious area of debate, given its impact on both agency and cultural practice. While the majority of respondents reported positive changes in classroom management and learning, there were nevertheless some concerns about the radical nature of the change to BYOD, though very rarely from teachers. If there is an area where agency may be most problematic, it i”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Parsons”, “given” : “David”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Adhikari”, “given” : “Janak”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “66-80”, “title” : “Bring Your Own Device to Secondary School : The Perceptions of Teachers , Students and Parents”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “14” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5acd30af-c19e-4c67-a67c-fce804cc5dc2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Parsons & Adhikari, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Parsons & Adhikari, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Parsons & Adhikari, 2016)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Parsons & Adhikari, 2016). The research was conducted in New Zealand.

Table
Author/Year/Title Research Questions Research Findings Research Method Gap
Anthony Herrington (2009)
Using a smart phone to create digital teaching episodes as
resources in adult education How do adult educators use a smart phone in creating a teaching episode within an authentic learning environment?
What are the affordances of a smart phone for creating a teaching episode?
What pedagogical strategies were required to assist the students’ use of the smart phones as a data collection tools for their teaching episodes? All students managed to successfully submit their finished product to a social networking site
Students expressed the view that taking video or photos with smart phone could be done spontaneously without the planning that would be needed if one relied on a digital camera or video
Students indicated a number of pedagogical affordances such as using smart phones to evaluate students’ skills. Qualitative Method
(Interview session) This research only covers on adult education
This study was conducted in Australia
David Parsons and Janak Adhikari (2016)
Bring Your Own Device to Secondary School: The Perceptions of Teachers, Students and Parents How have stakeholders respond to structural change as a result of the BYOD initiative?
How has the agency of stakeholders evolved as a result of the BYOD initiative
How have the cultural practices of stakeholders evolved as a result of the BYOD initiative?
How have structures, agency and cultural practices interacted during the period of the BYOD initiative? Overall, teacher responded the most positively to the BYOD innovation
Students expressed that they felt they were more productive in class, were able to communicate with teachers and peers, enjoyed learning more and had improved their learning outcomes. Quantitative Method
(surveys) This study only focusing on BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) initiative in general
This study not focusing specifically in education but in other field also
This study was conducted in New Zealand
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN
Introduction
The purpose of this is to collect information from teachers towards their perception on allowing students to bring smart phone to school for teaching and learning purposes. Basically this chapter comprises of discussion on selection of research design, participants, instrumentation and questionnaires, procedure of data collection and analysis of data.

Research Design
This study will look into teacher’s perception on allowing students to bring their smart phone to school for teaching and learning purposes. The research design employed in this study is the mixed method. The quantitative aspect of the study is the questionnaire as the main data collection while the interviews serve as the main source for qualitative data.

Research Sample
The population in this research comes in the form of teachers from secondary schools in Shah Alam, Selangor. From the population, a purposive sampling was carried out. The main sample will be taken from the selected school in Shah Alam. 30 sets of questionnaires will be distributes to the selected teachers. They will be given the questionnaire during school hour and they will be asks to answer the questionnaire immediately.

The venue of this research will be in secondary school in the area of Shah Alam, Selangor.

Method of Data Collection
This study will use two method of data collection which is quantitative and qualitative method. For quantitative method, the data will be collect by using questionnaire while for qualitative method, the data will be collect by interviews. The data will be collect during practicum. Firstly, I will be get permission from the school. After get permission from school, I will get permission from the respondents. Before I distribute the questionnaire or starting the interview session, I will briefly explain the instruction clearly. Then I will distribute the questionnaire and start the interview session. Lastly the questionnaire will be collect from the respondents.

Questionnaire
Questionnaire will be distributes to teachers. The questionnaire was designed to look into teacher’s perception on allowing students to bring smart phone to school for teaching and learning purposes. The questionnaire has been divided into three sections
Section A: Demographic Data
In this section, items related to age, gender and years of teaching of the subject (teachers) will be obtained
Section B: Teacher’s perception on allowing students to bring smart phone to school
In this section, respondent will be asked to state their perception on allowing students to bring smart phone to school. The questions are:-
School should allow students to bring their device (smart phone) to school
Smart phone can be used as tools for teaching and learning
Teacher gain more students interest if the teaching method is using technologies such as smart phone
Section C: Challenge in allowing students to bring smart phone to school
This section consists of items on all possible challenges that the teachers might be encounters when students are allowed to bring smart phone to school. Some of the items are:-
Costly for some students
Students tend to misuse it
Some teacher cannot catching up with the application in the smart phone
Section D: Factors in allowing students to bring smart phone to school
This section consists of items on all possible factors that teachers might think the reason students are allowed to bring their smart phone to school. Some of the items listed are:-
For 21st century teaching and learning
To gain students interest in teaching and learning
For students to learn to use smart phone for education purposes
Section B, C and D both used Liked Scale. The scale description is as below
1 = Strongly Disagree
2 = Disagree
3 = More to agree
4 = Agree
5 = Strongly Agree
Interviews
Interviews will be carried out on one to two teachers from the secondary schools. The characteristics of the teacher that will be interview will be similar to those who had answered the questionnaire. The purpose of the interviews is to probe in-depth with regards to the perception on allowing students to bring smart phone to school and the reason for their answer. The interview is important as it means to answer questions that one could not get through the use of questionnaire.

Data Analysis
For the questionnaire, the data will be analyze by using SPSS while for interview will be using constant comparative method.

Reference
ADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Henke, K. G. (2007). Henke_-_Measuring_up_in_a_flat_world_2007.pdf, 1–5.

Herrington, a. (2009). Using a smartphone to create digital teching episodes as resouces in adult education. New Technologies, New Pedagogies: Mobile Learning in Higher Education, 28–35.

Mccoog, I. J. (n.d.). 21 ST Century Teaching and Learning.

Parsons, D., ; Adhikari, J. (2016). Bring Your Own Device to Secondary School?: The Perceptions of Teachers , Students and Parents, 14(1), 66–80.

Rosen, L. D. (2011). Teaching the iGeneration. Educational Leadership, 68(5), 10–15. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.libdata.lib.ua.edu/ehost/[email protected];vid=31;hid=10;bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==#db=aph;AN=58108032
Williams, A. J., ; Pence, H. E. (2011). Smart phones, a powerful tool in the chemistry classroom. Journal of Chemical Education, 88(6), 683–686. https://doi.org/10.1021/ed200029p
Wurdinger, S., ; Rudolph, J. (2009). Teaching practices that improve student learning?: Five experiential approaches. Journal of Teaching and Learning, 6(1), 1–13. Retrieved from http://ojs.uwindsor.ca/ojs/leddy/index.php/JTL/article/viewFile/505/725
APPENDIX

TEACHER’s PERCEPTION ON ALLOWING STUDENT BRING SMART PHONE TO SCHOOL FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING PURPOSES
Section A: Demographic Data
Gender:-
( ) Male
( ) Female
Age:-
( ) Below 30
( ) 31 – 40
( ) 41 – 50
( ) Above 50
Years of teaching:-
( ) less than 10 years
( ) 11 – 15 years
( ) 16 – 20 years
( ) more than 20 years

Section B: Teacher’s Perception on allowing students to bring smart phone to school
Instruction: Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each of the statements listed below. Please tick (/) the number that best corresponds to the strength of your belief
1: Strongly Disagree
2: Disagree
3: More to agree
4: Agree
5: Strongly agree
No Statements 1 2 3 4 5
School should allow students to bring their device (smart phone) to school Smart phone can be used as tools for teaching and learning Teacher can gain more students interest if the teaching method is using technologies such as smart phone
Section C: Challenge in allowing students to bring smart phone to school
Instruction: Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each of the statements listed below. Please tick (/) the number that best corresponds to the strength of your belief
1: Strongly Disagree
2: Disagree
3: More to agree
4: Agree
5: Strongly agree
No Statements 1 2 3 4 5
Costly Students will tend to misuse it Some teacher cannot cope with the current trend of the smart phone Other challenge: ____________________________________________________

Section D: Factors in allowing students to bring smart phone to school
Instruction: Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each of the statements listed below. Please tick (/) the number that best corresponds to the strength of your belief
1: Strongly Disagree
2: Disagree
3: More to agree
4: Agree
5: Strongly agree
No Statements 1 2 3 4 5
For 21st century teaching and learning To gain students interest in teaching and learning For students to learn to use smart phone for education purposes Other factor: ___________________________________________________________________
Interview Questions
Do you agree to allow students to bring their smart phone to school for teaching and learning purposes? Give your reason(s).

What do you think about the challenge on allowing students to bring their smart phone to school for teaching and learning purposes?
What do you think the implications happen if smart phone is allowed to bring to school by students?
Do you think by using smart phone for teaching and learning, the student’s interest and performance in academic can be increase? Give your reason(s).