DWH 501 AGING AND DISABILITY IN HEALTHCARE ASSIGNMENT

DWH 501 AGING AND DISABILITY IN HEALTHCARE

ASSIGNMENT (100%)

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TASK 1

1.1 DEFINITIONS OF AGING

DEFINITION

DESCRIPTION

Progressive decline in physiological function (Rose et al. 2012)

This definition of aging is telling us that aging is gradual decrease in the life activities and the functions of organs, cells and tissues.

Progressive decline in physiological ability to meet demands that occurs over time (Adams & White, 2004)

This definition of aging states that aging is gradual decrease in the functioning of the organs, tissues and cells that happens and continues to worse with time. The functions of the body decrease and are not able to do things which are required for daily living such as shower, eating, clothing and toileting.

Progressive deterioration of physiological function, an intrinsic age-related process of loss of viability and increase in vulnerability (Margalhaes, 2013)

This definition of aging is stating that aging is increase in gradual decline in the functioning of the organs, cells and tissues. It comes in naturally when people grow older when they are not able to work or live the way they used to successfully. It is also when people start getting hurt easily mentally, physically and emotionally.

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES OF THE AGING DEFINITIONS GIVEN ABOVE

SIMILARITIES

DIFFERENCES

All the three definitions are talking about gradual decline in the functioning of the organs, cells and tissues.

The third definition is saying that aging is when people naturally age and start getting hurt easily mentally, physically and emotionally.

All the three definitions saying aging is progressive that means it keeps increasing with years and so does its effects.

The second definition is saying that aging is also when a person is unable to do the daily demands such as daily activities of a person.

All three definitions of aging are defining aging as weakening and malfunction of the organs, cells and tissues naturally with time (progressively).

The first definition is saying that aging is only when there is a decline in physiological functions.

1.2 DEFINITIONS OF DISABILITY

DEFINITION

DESCRIPTION

A disability is defined as a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group (Disabled World Towards Tomorrow, 2018).

The definition states that disability is being mentally or physically unfit and unable to do things in a normal way like how a normal person or a group does.

The termed of disability can be a disadvantage or handicap of the human body that is recognised by the law (Oliver, 2017).

The definition states that disability is the abnormality (unable to do something) in us (humans) that is accepted by the government.

Video shows that disability is a state of being disabled, deprivation or want of ability, absence of competent physical, intellectual, or moral power (SDictionary, 2015).

The video defines disability as a condition of not being able to do things, not being able to support himself/herself physically and not being able to use own mind in the correct manner.

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES OF THE DISABILITY DEFINITIONS GIVEN ABOVE

SIMILARITIES

DIFFERENCES

All the definitions states about being disabled or unable to do things in a normal way.

Definition one describes disability as not being able to do things in a normal way like a normal person. It is comparing a disable person with a normal person.

Definition one and three states that disability is being mentally and physically unfit.

Definition two says that disability is being handicapped which is approved or accepted by government only. It doesn’t include all types of disabilities.

All the definitions have physical impairment in common in their definition.

Unlike other definitions, definition three talks about moral power which is not being able to decide between right or wrong. It specifies the mental disability.

1.3 THEORY OF AGING AND DISABILITY

Theories of Ageing – Wear and tear theory

Mostly everyone experiences aging as no one can avoid it. There are three many types of ageing theory, some of it are Biological theory, wear and tear theory and evolution theory. German biologist Dr. August Weismaan first suggested about this theory in 1882.

The wear and tear theory of aging is one of several theories which explains that the effects of aging are caused by increasing damage to cells and body systems over time. Normally, our bodies “wear out” due to over use. Once they wear out, they can no longer function the way they used to. It is like doing the same thing over and over for a long-time, results in damage to the cells and body parts. Another example can be like a new car which later on after repeated use becomes weak and gets damaged.

The body, as a mechanical system, slowly gives up and stops functioning with over use over the years. According to Mark Stibich, the wear and tear theory of aging may also be referred to as simple deterioration theory or fundamental limitation theory. (Mark Stibich, 2018)

Some of the advantages of wear and tear theory is that our bodies have ability to repair the damages done to it. Our DNA has DNA repair genes (such as tumor suppressor genes) which repairs the genetic damage. They can repair and replace most broken parts themselves.

Some of the disadvantages of wear and tear theory is that although we can take good diet, our cells have a reduced ability to take up nutrients with age. Secondly there is also no exact proof of how aging is caused. Thirdly while the wear and tear theory at first seems most natural and makes the most sense based on our observations, it becomes clear that there is much else going on in our bodies that cannot be explained by this theory. (Mark Stibich, 2018)

“Socio-political model of disability”

Disability is a long term physical or mental impairment affecting ability to carry out activities of daily living (ADLs) (Disability Discrimination Act, 1995). Socio-political model of disability shows how well a society supports and empowers people with disabilities. We all (normal and people with disability) have the strength and responsibility to make our society inclusive for the unfortunate ones. Some ways in which the society supports and empowers people with disabilities are that they employ people with disabilities because even the disables are ambitious and want to work. Employers should view a worker with thier disabilities as an inclusive and helping hand to the company. They also integrate disability history in school curriculums which creates awareness for the able people and a good opportunity to the disable people if they can learn and get educated and become qualified. The society also promotes social inclusion in schools. Our overall cultural consciousness on how we treat and interact with disability needs to change, and that’s why its beginning in elementary schools. This is taught at a young age; less discrimination and more social inclusion occurs. Having normal kids learn together with the kids with disabilities helps everyone to be united and understand that every child has a gift of god and are special. (Kristin Duquette, 2015)

As a society, we should be responsible for promoting the inclusion of our differences about the people with disabilities. Other ways the society is empowering and supporting the people with disabilities are they employ more actors with disabilities in mainstream media, provides college scholarships to athletes with disabilities, make air travel universally accessible, and most of all the society now days realize that people with disabilities are humans too. Socio Political theory exists to encourage a barrier-free country where there are no differences between able and disable people. Socio Political theory is not focused on changing the lives of disabled persons but rather changes the environmental conditions to help the disability community succeed such as making facilities for disables in the parks, public places, buses and the work stations. It also includes improving the mindset of non-disabled individuals to be more inclusive and accepting of the abilities of disabled individuals and that’s why there are lot of rights placed in favor for the inclusion of disable people such as Disciplinary Discrimination Act, 1995. (Kristin Duquette, 2015)

I like Socio Political Theory because it favors both able and disable people and creates a environment / society that does not have any difference between able and disable people which creates a barrier free society where everyone is seen as same and capable of doing any work.

1.4 ASPECTS OF DIVERSITY AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

Diversities

Implications

Reason

Gender

Males – 79.73 years

Females – 83.27 years

(Ellie McLachlan,2018)

Gay – 20 years less than average Canadian life expectancy of gay which is 55 years

(Fleach, 2013 as cited in Kiwi Blog,2013)

Females live longer because of their hormones (estrogen progesterone) which enables them to reproduce.

HIV / AIDS

Age

Young people die quickly, and old people live long

(Hannah Devlin, 2016)

Due to the consumption of alcohol, smoke, and having unhealthy diet, young people die quickly, and old people live long as mostly they are aware of the threats and follow their diets.

Ethnicity

People of Japan live longer compared to people from other countries

(Koichi, 2010)

Japan has a very good health system when compared to other countries because their health services are cheap, and people easily get treated and live long.

The food eaten by Japanese people are very healthy.

Socio- economic

Better education and money will help people to live longer

Education and financial status of people help them get better ideas on how they can improve their life and live long. Educated people will be able to make the right the decisions to correct their health. Money can help people get expensive treatments and cure their sickness and live long

Deprivation of resources

Lack of resources can result in loss of lives

If there is less resources or unavailability of best resources in hospitals or health facilities, it can result in the loss of life of the people coming for treatment.

Spirituality

Meditation helps people live longer

(Sharon Basaraba, 2017)

Meditation reduces stress, sickness, depression, promotes relaxation and boosts memory and therefore people live longer.

Other research suggests that regular meditation may result in fewer visits to the doctor and shorter hospital stays. Even dangerous abdominal fat may be reduced with regular meditation, according to a 2011 study published in the Journal of Obesity.

TASK 2

2.1 AGED POPULATION THAT NEEDS CARE

According to Statz NZ the aged population that need care in New Zealand is people over the age of 65 years (Statz NZ, n.d.).

Two Terminologies used in Aged Care

Care Plan – is an important document about the client made after assessing the client’s condition, strengths, weaknesses and ability level. It mostly comprises about the type of care and assistance the client needs or goes through. This plan helps a healthcare assistant/nurse to understand the client better. It also consists of the strategies and plans on how to improve the condition of the client and helps a client to achieve or maintain goals. (WHO, 2004)

Intensive Care – is high level of care given to the clients who went through surgeries or have critical medical condition that can be life threatening for them. The clients in intensive care need to be seen/monitored frequently and are under observation always. In the facilities there is a special place called Intensive unit for these types of clients so that special car can be provided. (WHO, 2004)

2.2 STEREOTYPES, BARRIERS, BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES TO OR TOWARDS THE AGED POPULATION

STEREOTYPES

BARRIERS

BELIEFS

ATTITUDES

The following are the stereotypes or thinking that people have about aged population:

Weak – old people are weak for the jobs such as construction labour jobs.

Sickly – most of the times the aged people are sick and not fit for work.

Slow – they are not as fit and fast as the young workers.

Mostly on medicines and not fit for work and risky while operating machines

Difficulty in understanding – the way old people talk is sometimes hard to figure out

On leave from work most of the times – due to being sick or tired.

The following are some of the barriers that people have with aged population:

Discrimination of age and effort.

Lack of interest as already have vast experience.

Lack of confidence as there is no new challenge.

Health concerns – sickly most of the times

Safety concerns – more danger of getting harmed.

Employment- fight for positions

Time consuming as old people takes lot of time to complete the work.

Some of the beliefs that others have about the aged population are as follows:

They think the best place for old people are in rest homes as they are not able to look after them, whereas the love, support and togetherness is sometimes what the aged population needs or wants.

The family or the young ones think/belief that its very costly or expensive to look after the aged relatives due to the expenses of their medicines and treatments.

Some of the attitudes towards the aged population are as follows:

Aged people are not respected by the younger ones, whereas there are some who respect and value them.

Aged people are not valued, and people are not willing to include them in the work and social gathering such as parties of the young ones.

The family members leave their old family members in the rest homes, old people’s home because they can’t look after them.

No time for old family members.

2.3 HISTORICAL RESPONSES TO AGING IN NEW ZEALAND

New Zealand is an aging country as the people here are living longer and the birth rate is less. According to 2014 Aging strategy report, people living 80 years above has increased to 80 percent from 1994 to 2014. The government has done and placed a lot of plans and strategies in order to respond to the aging population positively. In 2001, the Government came up with the positive aging strategy that was placed for the beneficial of the aging population. It included 10 goals that almost improved the needs of the aging population. The first goal was regarding the income of the old people. The key achievements were providing the people over 65 years the New Zealand Standard, looking after the income and living standards of the older people and giving special helps to the ones in need. This included Department of Internal Affairs – Rates Rebate Scheme (The Rates Rebate Scheme gives a rates subsidy for low-income home owners), OSC – Enduring Power of Attorney information campaign (Enduring Powers of Attorney (EPAs) so that the old people have security for themselves and their families if they do not have the ability to make their own decisions any longer. This way people protect themselves from being bankrupt later in life), Commission for Financial Capability – 50 plus focus (This commission looks after people of all age but mostly for the retirement plan of people of over 50 years. It helps people to be prepared once they no longer work and rely on savings such as Kiwi saver which supports them after retirement), Veterans Affairs New Zealand and Ministry of Social Development (MSD) – Veteran’s Pension (this is a fortnightly pension payment to people over 65 years, who took part in the wars and emergencies), and MSD – Disability Allowance (this is the financial help given to the disable people for going to the doctors, medical visits, extra clothing, medicines and visits). The second goal was health which included residential care for the Dementia patients, fall prevention programmes for old aged people such as ACC (Accident Compensation Cooperation), home care support system helping people to live in their own homes and get assisted, training for health professionals on how to deal with old people, health and wellbeing programmes for aged population and better assessment tools for old people in the healthcare facilities such as equipment and machines. The third goal was housing which helps the low-income earner and old people to get affordable and better housing costs. Forth goal was transport system which includes free off-peak public transport and concession coast such gold card and making the public transport easy for use like having the disability section in the bus and front seats for the old people. The fifth goal is Aging in the community which includes the elder abuse and neglect services such as MSD – Elder abuse and neglect prevention services, MSD – Understanding and addressing social isolation and MSD – Supporting carers of older people (New Zealand Carers’ Strategy Action Plan for 2014 to 2018). The sixth goal was Cultural Diversity, a range of culturally related services such as housing for M?ori and Rauawaawa Kaum?tua Charitable Trust (Waikato). The seventh goal was Rural services which included better health services and information to the old people in rural areas such as South Canterbury DHB – Better co-ordination of specialist appointments and MSD – Heartland Services. Eighth goal was Positive Attitudes, people of all ages have positive attitudes to ageing and older people which included considering older people as a consumer group (Launched in 2010, The Business of Ageing project) and threating everyone equally. The ninth goal was employment opportunity to all the people regardless of their age and this was also supported by Employment Relations Act 2000, which stated that workers can request for change in work details, and ACC for older workers. Finally, the tenth goal achieved was Opportunity for personal growth and community participation which included programmes created to connect the older and younger people together such as OSC – Volunteer Community Co-ordinators programme, MSD – SuperGold card. With all the above responses towards aging, the government also came up with the discrimination acts so that there are no discriminations against the aged population. (Office for Senior Citizens, 2014)

2.4 STRATEGIES, POLICIES AND FUNDING REQUIREMENTS FOR AGED POPULATION

The two strategies used for aged population in New Zealand are Healthy Aging Strategy and Positive Aging Strategy. Healthy aging strategy points to the planned direction towards changing the health of older people for a better future. This new strategy has replaced the 2012 Health of older people strategy and is very much like the 2016 Health of older people strategy. This vision of this strategy is for the older people to live a good life and age well with respect in their age friendly communities. It comprises of the life course approach that increases the health and being of older people. (Ministry of Health, 2018)

Positive aging strategy emphasises on the value and inclusion of older people in communities. This strategy is used for creating a society where people can age positively. The aim of this strategy is to create more chances for older people to be part of the community in their own ways or whichever way they choose. The strategy is trying to bring back the respect and value of older people as they have the knowledge, skills and experience to put up towards the society. The strategy is beneficial to both younger and older people and the whole country. (New Zealand Positive Aging Strategy, 2001)

Commission for Financial Capability – 50 plus focus (This commission looks after people of all age but mostly for the retirement plan of people of over 50 years. It helps people to be prepared once they no longer work and rely on savings such as Kiwi saver which supports them after retirement), Veterans Affairs New Zealand and Ministry of Social Development (MSD) – Veteran’s Pension (this is a fortnightly pension payment to people over 65 years, who took part in the wars and emergencies), and MSD – Disability Allowance (this is the financial help given to the disable people for going to the doctors, medical visits, extra clothing, medicines and visits). Employment opportunity to all the people regardless of their age and this was also supported by Employment Relations Act 2000, which stated that workers can request for change in work details, and ACC for older workers. (Office for Senior Citizens, 2014)

The funding for all type’s healthcare facilities such as rest homes, residential cares, hospitals and mental care facilities comes from District Health Boards. District Health Boards have a contract with rest home or hospital owners to provide long-term residential care to residents, who are eligible for government funding. (TAS, n.d.)

The government also funds the expenses of the Super Gold card users. Along with all these, the government also funds the veteran pensions and disability allowance for all. Therefore, it can be said that almost all the funding for the special services, the government is the principle funders.

2.5 SERVICE PROVIDERS AVAILABLE FOR AGED POPULATION

As people grow older, they start needing support so that they can stay healthy and comfortably live their lives. These assistance and support services are funded by the Ministry of Health and the District Health board. Some of the services provided are support services for older people and Care plus. Support services for older people helps their client to still be part of the community by going to their favourite places with the help of the assistance. It also helps a client to be in their own homes if they want with assistance from the support workers and maintain their independence and quality of life through support services. The type of helps the clients receive through support workers are personal care such as showering, toileting, clothing, getting in and out of bed and receiving medicines. They also get household support which is meal preparation and cleaning. It also included carers support which is looking after someone in the family for few hours or a day and assists with the equipment for moving. To access this service the client should be a resident of New Zealand who is eligible for publicly funded health or disability services (Ministry of Health, 2018). The person willing to get this service funded by the district health board must be assessed by the Needs Assessment Service Coordination (NASC) or he/she can be referred by someone else. Care Plus is another type of service provider for the aged population. Care plus is choosing to get the best care for yourself at a very low cost and is usually for the clients who are suffering from chronic health conditions, serious medical or mental health needs, or terminal illness (Ministry of Health, 2018). Some of the benefits of care plus service is that the client will be aware of what’s happening to him/her and her conditions, there is will continuous monitoring of your condition and will be effectively managed. A full assessment of the condition the client is suffering from will be done and informed and proper care plan will be made by the General Practitioner which will be followed, and continuous improvements will be done to improve client condition. It’s not only about low-cost care but also about getting a more intensive care. (Ministry of Health, 2018)

TASK 3

3.1 TWO IMPAIRMENT, SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS AND THE CONSEQUENCES

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental (growing or continuing) mental disorder that affects how a person communicates and behaves. Although autism can be diagnosed at any age, it is said to be a “developmental disorder” because symptoms typically seem in the first two years of life (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), people with ASD have trouble with correspondence and connection with other individuals, confined interests and redundant practices and side effects that hurt the individual’s capacity to work appropriately in school, work, and different everyday issues. Autism is known as a “spectrum” disorder because there is wide variety in the sort and seriousness individuals encounter. ASD happens in all ethnic, racial, and financial gatherings. In spite of the fact, that ASD can be a long-lasting issue, medications and administrations can enhance a man’s side effects and capacity to work. (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018)

Signs and Symptoms

Individuals with ASD experience issues with social correspondence and communication, confined interests, and reoccurrence of same behavior. Some of the signs and symptoms of Autism Spectrum disorder are trying to avoid eye contact and looking here and there, ignoring the site and voice of people, sometimes sharing pleasure in items or exercises by indicating or demonstrating things to others. Other signs are that people react to somebody calling their name or to other verbal endeavors to pick up consideration and experiences issues with the forward and backward of discussion. Regularly speaking about a most loved subject without seeing that others are not intrigued or without allowing others to react is also one of the signs. Other signs and symptoms include having a surprising manner of speaking that may sound sing-melody or level and robot-like and having trouble understanding someone else’s perspective or being not able to anticipate or comprehend other individuals’ activities. (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018)

Dementia

Dementia is not any disease. It is a term used for defining decrease in thinking (mental) ability which affects an individual in his daily life such as memory loss. One of the common types of dementia is called Alzheimer’s. Some of the causes of dementia are brain cells damaged (which affects the thinking, feelings and behavior), depression, too much alcohol, side effects medicines and lack of vitamins in the body. Dementia patients find it difficult to remember the recent doing/memories such as where they placed the wallet/purse, paying of bills, preparation of meal, appointments and traveling somewhere. Dementia is mostly progressive, which means there would be a gradual increase in the effects and the condition gets worse. The symptoms are mostly different for different people and may start to show up slowly. Some of the impairments with dementia can be memory loss, conversation and language, lack of ability to concentrate or pay attention, unable to make decisions and illusions. If there is any change in a person behavior, thinking skills, or he/she is going through memory loss, the matter should not be ignored and should be referred to the doctor immediately. The health professional will detect the dementia cause and early treatment can improve the condition. The early treatment can help the person to go for clinical trial and plan for his/her future. There are lot of health professionals and facilities that help in the treatment and New Zealand like many other countries have healthcare facilities to look after clients in this condition. Joining organization’s and getting help from professionals to overcome or improve the focus problem, weaknesses and causes are highly recommended. The family members and care facilities should encourage and motivate the client so that there is confidence in the client for better treatment. Physical exercise, proper diet, not smoking, and controlling cardiovascular factors (having proper control of blood pressure, cholesterol and sugar level and maintaining a healthy weight) can help prevent dementia. (Alzheimer’s Association, 2018)

3.2 CONSEQUENCES / EFFECTS OF DISORDER AND ITS RESPONSES

Stressor

Consequences

Response

Person / Individual

Will not be able to focus on something for long

Always ignored by people

Difficulty with social interaction

Problems while conversing with others

Get help from professionals to overcome or improve the focus problem (encouragement)

Join organizations or professionals that will include you in the activities (motivation)

Try to work on the weaknesses

improve in the confidence level

Family

emotional stress – sadness for the patient as a family member

unhealthy relationships – there might be differences amongst members

ignorance – less time together for the patient and family members

financial impacts – money used for treatment

embarrassment for the family

try to be confident and motivate yourself and the affected person

do not lose hope and be encouraging and have a strong bond maintained

spend or devote more time towards the family and affected person

get help from professionals and try to use support which costs less but are more effective such as self-support and family support

try not to be offensive but rather be encouraging which improves everything as a whole

Caregiver

Stress

Workload

Need to give extra care and awareness

Health problems due to lack of rest

Prepare in advance and use time wisely

Discuss and distribute work load equally

List or work out duties and reminders of what needs to be done. Be proactive.

Have enough rest

3.3 CODE OF RIGHTS

While receiving any health or disability service in New Zealand, people with it also receive the rights for protection. These rights are called Code of Rights. There are altogether 10 Code of Rights. The two Code of Rights that I will use for Dementia and Autism clients are Right one and Right six. Code of Right one is the right to be treated with respect as a with respect as a client/patient/patient. To apply this right, I will always ask the client about the task/care I would be doing and keep in mind the cultural beliefs of the client such as the client being a Maori, I would have to respect her cultural views and beliefs. This way I would be respecting her and following the Code of Right one. The second Code of Right that I will be apply to the client is Code of Right six which is the right to be fully informed. To apply this, I would inform the client and ask for the permission about anything done to her and also inform the client and the authorized contact person of the client about the details and condition of the client. By doing this I will be following the code of rights and keep the client fully aware and fully informed about what’s happening with him/her. (Health & Disability Commissioner, 2018)

3.4 MODELS OF ASSESSMENT PLANNING AND COORDINATION PRACTICE

Strength based model is a process of working together between the person affected and those supporting him/her that comes to the outcome of what the persons strengths are. It deals with the quality of relationship created between the people supporting and the person supported and the elements that the person affected contributes to the process. Some of the strengths of the model is that everyone works together for a better outcome which is improving the condition of the affected person (trying to work together to improve dementia condition), the strengths are used to improve on the weaknesses (writing as strengths can help the client to remember few things if he/she forgets), a lot of efforts are put in as a whole and it also helps the clients to tackle the problems and tries to help meet the needs in life. It also helps the client to achieve their desired outcomes and goals by using thier skills and their knowledge mixed with the supporters’ skills and knowledge. Some of the weaknesses of the model is that sometimes the person affected does not contribute which makes the process difficult to carry out, sometimes it is very time consuming due to the assessments of strengths and skills, the process is not effective if everyone (family, supporters, proper service and the client) doesn’t corporate and the last one can be the misuse of the funds which is very common. (Social Care Institute for Excellence, 2015)

Needs Assessment and Service Coordination (NASC) is an organization that works under the government to look after disabled people and their family and the caregivers. It identifies strengths and support needs of the clients, finds the disability services which is ready, and determines if an individual is eligible for the Ministry-funded support services. It distributes the Ministry funds to the service providers. They make sure an individual gets the right service and fits in well with the funds allocated. NASC only helps people who fall in the Ministry’s defining of disability, which is a person with the disability (physical, intellectual and/or sensory impairment or disability or Autism) for a minimum of 6 months, or to the person who is dependent on the support needs. A person with autism may also be eligible to a needs assessment and is mostly for people below 65 years. Mental health related disabilities are funded by District Health Boards. Some of the strengths of NASC is that the fund burden for treatment is removed from the family of the affected person, proper treatment and support service is arranged and proper care is taken. Some of the weaknesses is that there can be misuse of the funds allocated to fulfil other demands, there is only one office available in Auckland which makes it hard for people to get access to this service and the last one is that there are selection criteria for the eligibility and not everyone with disability can the chance to be assisted. (Ministry of Health, 2018)

TASK 4

4.1 INTERNATIONAL POLICIES ON AGING AND DISABILITY

The two policies out of many more on aging and disability from USA are “The American Disability Act 1990 (ADA)” and “Social Security Act (SAA)” The American Disability Act stands against discrimination against a person with disabilities in whatever way possible such as jobs, school, transportation, and all public and private places that people go to. This law gives the right to all the people with disabilities just like everyone else. (ADA National Network, 2017)

The Social Security Act started the old age pension and old age assistance payments to the aged people with low income. The law was for elderly unemployed and disadvantaged citizens. The act was trying to improve the lives of the aged population in time where money was very important and to get through work because of thier age. (History, 2018)

The two policies out of many other policies on aging and disability in UK are “Equality Act 2010” and “Care Standards Act 2000”. The Equality Act 2010 is made to stop discrimination and bring in equality for all. The act is for all aged people and people with disability. It is trying to bring the whole nation together with equal value to all. (Government Equalities Office, 2010)

The Care Standards Act 2000 established a National Care Standards Commission and made provision for the independent hospitals, independent clinics, care homes, residential family centers, independent medical agencies, domiciliary care agencies, fostering agencies, nurses’ agencies and voluntary adoption agencies. (Care Standards Act 2000, 2018)

4.2 COMPARING THE INTERNATIONAL POLICIES WITH NEW ZEALAND POLICIES

The two policies that I chose from New Zealand are “Healthy Aging Strategy 2001” and “Commission for Financial Capability – 50 plus focus”. Healthy aging strategy points to the planned direction towards changing the health of older people for a better future. This new strategy has replaced the 2012 Health of older people strategy and is very much like the 2016 Health of older people strategy. This vision of this strategy is for the older people to live a good life and age well with respect in their age friendly communities. It comprises of the life course approach that increases the health and being of older people. (Ministry of Health, 2018)

Commission for Financial Capability – 50 plus focus (This commission looks after people of all age but mostly for the retirement plan of people of over 50 years. It helps people to be prepared once they no longer work and rely on savings such as Kiwi saver which supports them after retirement), Veterans Affairs New Zealand and Ministry of Social Development (MSD) – Veteran’s Pension (this is a fortnightly pension payment to people over 65 years, who took part in the wars and emergencies), and MSD – Disability Allowance (this is the financial help given to the disable people for going to the doctors, medical visits, extra clothing, medicines and visits).

Some of the similarities between the international policies and New Zealand policies are that they all trying to protect and safe guard their aged and disability population, all are trying to better the health services provided and trying to make the society illusive to all such as a respected and valued society towards the aged and disable people. All are trying to remove the discrimination against aged and disable population and bring in equality amongst the people. Some of the differences amongst the policies are that the assessment criteria’s/eligibility criteria are little bit different and the funding system as for New Zealand there are sub contracted organisations working under the government whereas for other countries it is directly funded by government. The time it takes for the effective implementation of the policies would be different from other countries due to difference in the living style, life spans/life expectancy for different country and the population level.

4.3 SERVICE DELIVERY OF INTERNATIONAL POLICIES

The service delivery of the USA policies is employment for all, public accommodations and private services open to all regardless of age or disability, telecommunication services for people with disabilities, public transportation accessible for all (special services with equipment and cost) and the retirement pension for people over 65 years.

The service delivery of the UK policies are removal of discrimination aged and disable population and also the carers, everyone has a right to work and go to any place they want, employments rights for all and better health services for all with better facilities.

4.4 COMPARING INTERNATIONAL SERVICE DELIVERIES OF POLICIES WITH NEW ZEALAND

Some of the New Zealand service delivery of policies are Community support cards, transport services to all (with special features for aged and disable), veterans’ pension, Kiwi saver, disability allowances, employment opportunities for all, Accident compensation corporation, super gold card and funding for the healthcare facilities.

Some of the similarities between New Zealand and other International service delivery of policies are all service delivery policies are working towards a discrimination free society, all the countries are working towards better services and better health facilities for the people of all kind. All the policies are trying to protect their aged population and are trying to bring in the value and respect in their lives. Almost all the funds are provided by the government of different countries. All the countries are trying their best to make their countries inclusive to the aged population and people with disabilities.

Some of the differences are each countries funding and services are different from each other, New Zealand facilities are subsidised and the people benefit a lot from there and people in New Zealand has the community cards for discount purposes so that they don’t have to struggle for the services. The efforts from each country may be different depending on their needs such New Zealand’s effort is more because it is aging fast whereas for other countries it can be different.

REFERENCE

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