During Charles’ reign there was much opposition from different factors

During Charles’ reign there was much opposition from different factors. Charles’ religious views were certainly controversial to the current period and his appointment of Polignac eventually leads to his downfall. Both factors are vital in causing opposition to Charles X.

Charles X did not make a solid start. He was an Ultra and a Catholic, and the effect of this decision was that he was mistrusted by the ‘pays legal’ right from the start. This further strengthened people’s ideas that he was trying to return to the ‘ancien regime’. He was crowned at Rheims Cathedral and appointed a cleric as the Minister for Education which in turn, meant that the Church had more authority on the education of children. You could also argue that his controversial decision to compensate emigres which affected the ‘pays legal’ and the law on sacrilege caused much opposition to Charles X. As these decisions were quite radical, anyone who disliked the Church at this time would’ve felt alienated by Charles’ actions and want to rebel. It is therefore clear that a key cause of opposition was his religious policy however, his appointment of Polignac was ultimately the cause of his downfall.

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Charles called an election in 1827 to try and boost support for the Villele ministry. However, this backfired and ended with Villele having to resign, clearly showing that the will of the people (including the pays legal) was to not have an Ultra as Chief Minister. Charles initially responded sensibly by appointing the moderate centre-right Martignac however, no side was satisfied. This complication lead to the second factor which was the appointment of Polignac to essentially replace Martignac. This, in turn, created a short term political crisis for Charles. Ultimately, this drove the pays legal to eventually declare “no confidence” in the Chamber and brings Charles to enact the ‘Four Ordinances of St Cloud’.

Overall, therefore, I believe that the appointment of Polignac was Charles’ greatest issue in causing opposition. As Martignac was rejected, Charles clearly chose someone he would agree with, influenced by his religious policy. Ultimately, this decision causes opposition as it forces Charles to implement the controversial Ordinance and dissolve the Chamber which finally end in his abdication.

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