Design of Bio-gas Engine A PROJECT REPORT

Design of Bio-gas Engine
A PROJECT REPORT
(GTU Team ID: 7181)
Submitted by
Chotai Bindesh K. 150540119007
Delvadiya Vivek R. 150540119009
Gathedhariya Harshil H. 150540119010
Upasani Prakhar G. 150540119063
Guided by
Mr. Vaghela Jigar J.

In fulfillment for the award of the degree
Of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
In
Mechanical Engineering

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Darshan Institute of Engineering and Technology, Rajkot
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad
October, 2018

CERTIFICATE

Date: 16/10/2018
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Design of Bio-gas Engine” has been carried out by Upasani Prakhar G. under my guidance in fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering (7th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad during the academic year 2018-19.

Guides:

1. Mr. Vaghela Jigar J.

Head of the Department

EXAMINER CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that term work entitled Design of Bio-gas Engine is submitted by Chotai Bindesh K., Delvadiya Vivek R., Gathedhariya Harshil H., Upasani Prakhar G. (GTU TEAM ID: 7181) in fulfillments for the award of the Bachelor in Mechanical Engineering of the Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad is hereby approved.

Examiners’ Sign:
(1) ___________________
(2) ___________________

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This project is done as a semester project, as a part of course titled “Design of Bio-gas Engine”. We are really thankful to our instructor, Mr. Vaghela Jigar J., Darshan Institute of Engineering and Technology, Rajkot, whose constant inspiration, guidance and cooperation from the preliminary to the concluding level enabled me to develop an understanding of the present project work. Their perfectionism has made me strong on my decision and able to do this project.
We are obliged to staff members of Greenearth Biogas Pvt. Ltd. For the valuable information provided by them in their respective fields. We are grateful for their cooperation during the period of our assignment. They abundantly helpful and offered invaluable assistance, support and guidance. An honorable mention goes to our families and friends for their understandings and supports on us in this project.
Our thanks and appreciations also go to our colleagues in developing the project and people who have willingly helped us with their creative abilities.

– Chotai Bindesh K.
– Delvadiya Vivek R.
– Gathedhariya Harshil H.
– Upasani Prakhar G.

Certificate of Originality
We hereby certify that we are the sole authors of this IDP/UDP project report and that neither any part of this IDP/UDP project report nor the whole of the IDP/UDP Project report has been submitted for a degree by other student(s) to any other University or Institution.
We certify that, to the best of our knowledge, the current IDP/UDP Project report does not infringe upon anyone’s copyright nor violate any proprietary rights and that any ideas, techniques, quotations or any other material from the work of other people included in our IDP/UDP Project report, published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard referencing practices. Furthermore, to the extent that we have included copyrighted material that surpasses the boundary of fair dealing within the meaning of the Indian Copyright (Amendment) Act 2012, we certify that we have obtained a written permission from the copyright owner(s) to include such material(s) in the current IDP/UDP Project report and have included copies of such copyright clearances to our appendix.
We have checked the write up of the present IDP/UDP Project report using anti-plagiarism database and it is in the allowable limit. In case of any complaints pertaining to plagiarism, we certify that we shall be solely responsible for the same and we understand that as per norms, University can even revoke BE degree conferred upon the student(s) submitting this IDP/UDP Project report, in case it is found to be plagiarized.

Team:

Enrolment Number Name Signature
150540119007 Chotai Bindesh K.
150540119009 Delvadiya Vivek R.
150540119010 Gathedhariya Harshil H.
150540119063 Upasani Prakhar G.

Place : Rajkot

Date : 16/10/2018

Name of Guide : Mr. Vaghela Jigar J.

Signature of Guide :
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Table of Contents
Project Completion Certificate (Generated from PMMS portal)
Certificate i
Examiner Certificate ii
Acknowledgments iii
Certificate of Originality iv-v
Plagiarism Checking Certificate
Table of Contents vi
List of Figures vii
List of Tables viii
Abstract ix
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1-4
1.1 Indian Scenario of Biogas 1-2
1.2 Why biogas 3
1.3 Sources of biogas 4
Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW& PROBLEM FORMULATION 5-12
2.1 Literature Review 5-10
2.2 Problem Formulation 11
2.3 Problem Solution 12
Chapter 3 Details of Engine 13-18
3.1 Engine Specifications 13-17
3.2 Line diagram of working 18
Chapter 4 Operating layout 19-20
4.1 General layout 19
4.2 Working of the engine 20
Chapter 5 Project outcomes 21
REFERENCES 22
Appendix-A Canvas Photos (All 4 Canvas) 23-26
Appendix-B Copy of four Periodic Progress Reports (PPRs)

List of Figures
Figure No. Description of Figure Page No.
Fig 3.1 Gas cylinder 13
Fig 3.2 Pressure reducer 14
Fig 3.3 Cylinder flow valve 15
Fig 3.4 Pressure gauge 16
Fig 3.5 High pressure pipe 17

List of Tables
Table No. Table Description Page No.
Table 1.1 Literature review 3
Table 1.2 Literature review 4
Table 2.1 Literature review 9
Table 2.2 Literature Review 12
Table 3.1 Literature Review 26
Table 3.2 Literature Review 46

Abstract
• The biogas is formed from the anaerobic digestion of solid or liquid waste, which is an alternative energy source.
• It is composition of the mixture of gases in which methane and carbon dioxide are in higher proportions.
• Also the efficiency of the engine can be increased by using the more compression ratio of the mixture to be added in the cylinder during the chamber.
• The best thing of our project is to serve the society with the pollution free and clean environment with the advancement in the technology and also to provide the alternative of the petroleum.

1. Introduction
1.1 Indian Scenario of Biogas:-
• An estimate indicates that India has a potential of generating 6.38 X 1010 m3 of biogas from 980 million tones of cattle dung produced annually from 300 million cattle population.
• The heat value of this gas amounts to 1.3 X 1012 MJ. In addition, 350 million tones of manure would also produce along with biogas.
• Apart from the 4.9 million domestic biogas plants installed in India against the potential of 12 million, there is a huge potential of installation of medium and large scale biogas plants installation in India in small scale industries, animal rearing farms, poultry farms, distilleries, tanneries, hotels, restaurants, military barracks etc.
• Clean environment friendly fuel that can be obtained by anaerobic digestion of animal residues and domestic and farm wastes, abundantly available in the countryside.
• Biogas is an important renewable energy resource for rural areas in India.
• Biogas generally comprise of 55-65 % methane, 35-45 % carbon dioxide, 0.5-1.0 % hydrogen sulfide and traces of water vapor.
• Average calorific value of biogas is 20 MJ/m3 (4713 kcal/m3).
• Biogas like Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) cannot be liquefied under normal temperature and pressure.
• Critical temperature required for liquefaction of methane is -82.1oC at 4.71MPa pressure, therefore use of biogas is limited nearby the biogas plant.

1.2 Why biogas

• Biogas contains methane & carbon dioxide which on burning expels only carbon dioxide with other contents.
• Organic wastes releases high amount of methane which is harmful to ozone layer, only that’s why wastes are avoidable.
• By collecting methane in the storage tank with the help of biogas plant we can use the methane to convert the energy which leads to release CO2 gas which is less harmful to ozone layer than CH4.
• Also biogas replaces the other conventional fuels to balance economy ; eliminates organic wastes to maintain green environment.

1.3 Sources of biogas

• Animal manure
• Organic municipal waste
• Agricultural weeds ; waste
• Agro industrial residues
• Sewage sludge
• Dedicated energy crops

2 LITERATURE REVIEW; PROBLEM FORMULATION
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
PAPER TITLE NAME OF AUTHORS PUBLICATION
; YEAR OF PUBLICATION SUMMARY OF PAPER
Analysis of a Commercial Biogas Generation System
Using a Gas Engine Induction Generator Set Li Wang and Ping-Yi Lin IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. (MARCH 2009) This paper presents both field-measured results and
Dynamic stability analysis of a commercial 100-kW biogas generation system (BGS). The studied BGS consists of a gas engine (GE) and an induction generator (IG) whose mechanical shaft is directly coupled to the crank of the GE.
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PAPER TITLE NAME OF AUTHORS PUBLICATION
; YEAR OF PUBLICATION SUMMARY OF PAPER
A Study on Power Generation System Using Biogas
Generated from the Waste of Pig Farm Tran Minh Tien, Pham Xuan Mai, Nguyen Dinh Hung, Huynh Thanh Cong HoChiMinh City
University of Technology. (2010) How the biogas is produced and how to optimize the production in short time.
The design and study on the mixture control system of the biogas gasoline dual fuel engine Su chu wang
Ye shu jian IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. (MARCH 2009-11) This paper presents establishes the air fuel ratio control model using ECU and biogas.
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PAPER TITLE NAME OF AUTHORS PUBLICATION
; YEAR OF PUBLICATION SUMMARY OF PAPER
Comparative study of Electric generated Drive engine performance by various types of fuel Yandri and seno D. Panjaitan Tanjungpura university(2013) This paper discusses on mix fuel which includes gasoline, LPG, Biogas. Which gives most effective power generation and increasing the efficiency of the fuel.
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PAPER TITLE NAME OF AUTHORS PUBLICATION
; YEAR OF PUBLICATION SUMMARY OF PAPER
Numerical Investigation on the Effects of LPG-biogas blends on Engine Combustion and Emission Jiasbeng GUO, Chaokui QIN, Wanneng DAI, Jixu TANG 2nd Conference on Environmental Science and Information Application Technology (2014) A quasi-dimensional spark Ignition (SI) engine
cycle model is used to predict the combustion and exhaust emissions of a gas engine driven generator for the eases of
Using biogas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-biogas blends.
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PAPER TITLE NAME OF AUTHORS PUBLICATION
; YEAR OF PUBLICATION SUMMARY OF PAPER
Electronically operated fuel supply system to control air fuel ratio of biogas engine Mr. Prashant S. Daingade
and Prof. S. D. Yadav IEEE
(2014) To reduce the incomplete combustion in spark ignition engines, electronic controlled fuel supply system has been developed. Electronic biogas supply system was developed for better fuel economy and reduced emissions.
Biogas Purification: Producing Natural Gas Quality Fuel from Biomass for Automotive Applications S. D. Yadav
Bimlesh Kumar
S. S. Thipse
. IEEE(2014) The different alternative energy sources are Available for various applications as the energy needs. But it is found that Bio-Gas can be accepted as energy sources, especially to villages of India, where the conventional energy facilities are scarcely available.
?
PAPER TITLE NAME OF AUTHORS PUBLICATION
; YEAR OF PUBLICATION SUMMARY OF PAPER
Fuzzy Control based Biogas IC Engine Generator System in a Residential Building Krishna Kumar M.1, Sreejith Kailas T.2, Ilango K.3, Manjula G. Nair4 2017 IEEE International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy )
Biogas is a fuel which has promising characteristic
of replacing conventional fossil fuels. Because of this more and more ways of effectively utilizing biogas should be implemented.

2.2 Problem Formulation

• Depletion of forests for firewood and causation of Ecological imbalance and climatic changes.
• Burning of dung cakes: source of environmental pollution; decreases inorganic nutrients; night soil transportation a hazard to health.
• Untreated manure, organic wastes, and residues lost as valuable fertilizer.
• Untreated refuse and organic wastes a direct threat to health.
• Initial high cost resulting from installation, maintenance, storage, and distribution costs of end-products.
• Social constraints and psychological prejudice to use of human waste materials.
• Biogas is hard to obtain in normal conditions and it contains various residual gases which are harmful to human health.
• Less awareness in the locality for the conservation of the dung manure.

2.3 Solution of the Problem

• Positive impact on deforestation; relieves a portion of the labor force from having to collect wood and transport coal; Helps conserve local energy resources.
• Inexpensive solution to problem of rural fuel shortage; improvements in the living and health standards of rural and village communities; provides employment opportunities in spin-off small-scale industries.
• Residual sludge is applied as top-dressing; good soil conditioner; inorganic residue useful for land reclamation.
• Effective destruction of intestinal pathogens and parasites; end-products non-polluting, cheap; odors non-offensive.
• Income-generator and apt example of self-reliance and self-sufficiency.
• More biogas plants should be established and provisions should be made of the residual gas removal near the plant.
• Awareness camps should be organized at high level for the conservation of the dung manure.

Details of Engine
3.1 Components used
• Gas Cylinder
• Pressure reducer
• Cylinder flow valve
• Air gas mixture
• Pressure gauge
• Gas pipe
1. Gas cylinder
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• Cylinders are manufactured from special steel alloy and are seamless in construction.
• Cylinders are designed and built in such a way so as to withstand high pressure of 200 bars.
• They are tested before use in accordance to requirement.

2. Pressure reducer
• It is pressure control valve.
• It reduces the pressure from 200 bars at inlet to an application pressure (2-9 bars).

3. Cylinder flow valve

• Cylinder Valve is used to control the flow of gas into the gas pipes.
• This is a regulator between gas Cylinder and gas Combustion System.

4. Air gas mixture
• This ensures Air-fuel mixing in the correct proportions.
• Thus this device is installed for introducing gaseous fuel to the induction air of the engine.
5. Pressure Gauge

• Gas Pressure Gauge is equipment that gives information about Pressure in the cylinder and hence amount of gas available in the cylinder.

6. High Pressure pipe

• Gas High Pressure Pipe is used to supply gas from gas Cylinder to gas Reducers.

3.2 Line diagram of working

Operating layout
4.1 General layout

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4.2 Working of the engine
• The schematic diagram of the biogas engine is shown in the previous slide.
• A water-cooled, single-cylinder, spark ignition engine should be modified to operate with biogas.
• Necessary electronic circuit and safety devices should be designed, prepared and used.
• The engine will be equipped with an electronically controlled fuel supply system.
• Biogas will be stored in a gas cylinder having a pressure regulator which reduces pressure in the range 1–10 bar.
• A pressure gauge will be fitted near the manifold to measure the fuel supply pressure.
• Biogas is supplied into the intake manifold at appropriate quantity.
• For manifold supply of biogas, a solenoid operated valve, operated with 12V DC power supply will be arranged.
• An electronic circuit will be developed to trigger the solenoid operated valve.
• The valve will be fixed to the inlet manifold as close as possible to the inlet port.
• An oxygen sensor will be used to measure the oxygen quantity in engine emissions.
• The engine will be coupled to the rope brake dynamometer for the purpose of loading.
• With biogas, the engine will be operated with wide open throttle.
• The mixture equivalence ratio will also be varied to change the power output.

Project Output
• Biogas is a renewable source of energy and it is a eco-friendly source of energy.
• Biogas generation reduces soil and water pollution.
• In this project, automobile based biogas engine will be designed and necessary modifications will be made.
• The aim of project is to reduce the pollution and provide the alternative of fossil fuel used on regular bases.
• It reduces the quantity carbon dioxide left out to the atmosphere decreasing the pollution.
• Air fuel ratio also changes with the due of the regular I.C. engines.

REFERENCES
• “Analysis of a commercial biogas generation system using a gas-engine ”
• “Biogas –an Excellent Option for Rural Energy Requirement, Climate Change Mitigation & Promotion of Organic Agriculture in India by IIT DELHI.
• Moulik TK. Biogas energy in India. Ahmedabad: Academic Book Centre.
• S.S. Kapdi, V.K. Vijay, S.K. Rajesh and Rajendra Prasad, (2005),”Biogas scrubbing, compression and storage: perspective and prospectus in Indian context”, Renewable Energy.
• V. Srikanth and A Dutt, A., “Performance analysis of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor.

DEC (Design Engineering Canvases)

1) AEIOU Sheet

2) Product Development Canvas

3) Ideation Canvas

4) Empathy mapping canvas

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