Decentralization adapted in Indonesia since 1999 under Law 22/1999 on regional autonomy then being revised from time to time and the latest revision of this law under the enactment of Law 23/2014

Decentralization adapted in Indonesia since 1999 under Law 22/1999 on regional autonomy then being revised from time to time and the latest revision of this law under the enactment of Law 23/2014. Under the law of local government, it stated that the structure of local government in Indonesia is divided into 34 provinces with 504 regencies or municipalities and within it there are 6994 districts(kacamatan) with total 81253 villages. For the municipal and villages, they differentiate the name for it according to which part of it either city and rural. The municipal in rural areas are called as Kabupaten, meanwhile in cities are called as Kota and villages in cities are called as Kelurahan and in rural area called as Desa. Formal local elections organized by the election commission are called as Regional Head Elections (Pemilukada). The regional head elections held the responsibility as the commity that managed the whole process for local election in Indonesia. For the local level they will have three type of election which is Governor-vice Governor, Regent-vice Regent and Mayor-vice Mayor elections. These elections applying the First-Past-The-Post system whereby the candidates that acquire most vote will win the position even if the percentage of the votes is less than 50%. As for the term for the candidate that win the election is five year, but all the election has no fixed date and due to that there’s always local election in Indonesia throughout the year (Green, 2005).
In the province level, the elections are for choosing Governor and his vice, they will be elected as a pair for five-years term. The pair need to at least earn 30% percent for the vote, if they failed to acquire the required percentage of vote then the second round of elections will be held but the election only involving the top two candidates (TANDJUNG). Therefore, not all province applying the same law because there are provinces with special status that allows them to applied different general electoral law which is Yogyakarta, Papua, west Papua, Aceh and Jakarta. In Yogyakarta, they used the Sultanate system whereby the sultan will be the governor for the province; Papua and west Papua has special autonomy meanwhile Aceh using sharia law and local Political parties and lastly Jakarta is a special region because it is a capital city for Indonesia. These 5 territory will not participating in the normal elections like others province due to the speciality that they can applied different type of law in their territory.

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