Cunningham1

Cunningham1 (1986) identified five strategies used by firms for entry into new foreign markets:
i) Technical innovation strategy – perceived and demonstrable superior products
ii) Product adaptation strategy – modifications to existing products
iii) Availability and security strategy – overcome transport risks by countering perceived risks
iv) Low price strategy – penetration price and,
v) Total adaptation and conformity strategy – foreign producer gives a straight copy.
In marketing products from less developed countries to developed countries point iii) poses major problems. Buyers in the interested foreign country are usually very careful as they perceive transport, currency, quality and quantity problems. This is true, say, in the export of cotton and other commodities.
Because, in most agricultural commodities, production and marketing are interlinked, the infrastructure, information and other resources required for building market entry can be enormous. Sometimes this is way beyond the scope of private organisations, so Government may get involved. It may get involved not just to support a specific commodity, but also to help the “public good”. Whilst the building of a new road may assist the speedy and expeditious transport of vegetables, for example, and thus aid in their marketing, the road can be put to other uses, in the drive for public good utilities