Rural Development Schemes and Aspects of Rural Development
Among the major challenges of the policy makers, rural development is considered as one of the most fundamental and important. A major part of the Indian economy is correlated with the rural sectors. So development of this sector has always received importance from the Government. The schemes and policies of India’s rural sector always follow problem specific solutions. These are:-
i)Excessive dependency on natural and all natural components ii) Small uneconomic land and livestock holding iii) Low capital and labour ratio iv) Low factor productivity v) High level of poverty vi) Predominance of illiterate and unskilled labour vii) Insufficient infrastructure.

Initially, the schemes were founded as community development programmes but now an integrated approach is being followed.(ref.) In rural Balasore, varied physiographical setup, soil structure and other land resources have led to the implementation of different schemes for overall development.
The rural development schemes implemented in Balasore, both national and state level, emphasize on the diversification of economic activities, minimizing the dependency on agriculture, or provide possible subsidy to the rural farmers, increasing the employment in allied activities, subsidy to introduce the rural industries, and execute business as well as service components to explore rural economy. From the very beginning, the schemes have targeted the remote areas of the district. But afterwards, the people engaged in primary activity got importance. Patel (2014) in his article ‘ Rural development schemes-an assessment’ has stated “programs specifically designed for the development of the small and marginal farmers as well as landless and agricultural laborers were taken up in the early 1970s” (Kurukshetra, A Journal of Rural Development Vol.62, No4, February 2014).

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However both the national level and state level rural development schemes are –
National Rural Development Schemes: The schemes implemented in Balasore district are National Agricultural Insurance Scheme ii) National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme iii) Pradhan mantri Gram Sarak Yojana iii) Rajib Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojana, iv) Swarnajayanti gram swarozgar Yojana, v) Indira Awas Yojana. Vi) Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan vi) Antadaya Anna yojana etc.
State level rural development schemes: i) Gopabandhu gramin Yojana ii) Biju kurshak Yojana, iii) Biju Pucca Ghara iv) Mo kudia Yojana v) Biju Gram Jyoti Yojana (ref….)
12.1Rural Infrastructure:
12.1.1 Gopabandhu Gramin Yojana: This is an alternate special development programme implemented by the Government of Odhisa. Those districts that have not received or have not been covered under the Backward Regions Grant Fund (BGRF), a scheme launched by Government of India, are taken up under this scheme. The scheme was implemented from the year 2006-07 and has been continued up to 12th plan period (2012-17) successfully. The scheme has been implemented in 11 districts of Orissa including Balasore (Nayek, 2006).

Fund allocation: As mentioned in the guidelines that per annum fund allocation under this scheme is Rs10/- crore for 2006-07 to 2011-12 or six years for each district (Nayek, 2006).
Objective: the basic objective of the scheme is to provide the required additional funds for the purpose of infrastructural development that generally includes electricity, road and water supply. The facilities services and project works of this scheme include-a) construction of concrete roads within the village b) construction of black top/concrete roads to connect a village with a nearest PMGSY or ODR road c) street lights within the village d) provision of drinking water supply and creation of irrigation sources. All these infrastructural components are maintained by the concerned Gram panchayat. Different development programmes related or working simultaneously are, the Biju Krushak Vikash Yojana, the Swajaladhara, RGGVY, PMGSY etc. DRDA or District Rural development Authority has been finalized on the basis of the requirement as found by primary survey. Among The Block wise allocation Nilagiri block (Nayek, 2006).

Forest and environment
Irrigation and flood control
Central sponsored
1. Flood Management Programme (RiverBank protection work of River Subarnarekha ;
Budhabalanga). 2) Flood Management Project, 3) Installation of Lift Irrigation Projects under RKVY
State sponsored
Minor Irrigation Projects funded from NABARD (RIDF) 2) Minor Irrigation (Lift) BKVY 3) Bank Protection Work (Flood Control), 3) Instream Reservoir (Construction of Check Dams) 4) Drainage Projects funded from NABARD (RIDF)
Central sponsored
1. Sarva Sikshya Aviyan
State sponsored
2. Mass education
Rural development ; food security
Development Schemes Associated With Different Aspects of Rural Development
i) Annapurna Scheme ii) Antadaya anna yojana

Rural education
Central sponsored
1. Indira Awas Yojana
State sponsored
2. Biju pacca Ghara Yajana/ Mo Kudia
3) GGY
Central sponsored
1) Rajib Gandhi Gramin Viyudtikarn
State sponsored
2) Biju Gram Jyoti Yojana
5) GGY
Central sponsored
1. Pradhan mantri Gram sadak Yojana
State sponsored
2. Biju setuYojana
3) GGY

Rural electrification
Rural connectivity
Rural housing

Rural employment
Rural health ; well being

Central sponsored
Central sponsored
2) NRHM 3) Reproductive Child Health
State sponsored
2) Biju Kurshak kal -yan Yojana
3) PHC ; AHS

Development of National Parks, Sanctuaries ; Nature Reserves (Forest ; Wildlife Plan),ii) Elephant Management Project-Talasari-HVBA. The state implemented scheme i) Social ; Farm Forestry, ii) Communication ; Building – Construction of quarters for forest guards

Social Security, Social Welfare ; Nutrition

Rural sanitation ; water supply
Rural industry related employment

i) Central Sponsored Plan: ARWSP) ii) Nirmal Bharat Aviyan
iii) Jalamani
IGNOAP, NFBS, KSY, Mission Shakti, MBPY,


Table12.1: Block wise allocation of funds for Gopabandhu Gramin Yojana- 2011-12
Block Plan Outlay
(Rs. in lakhs) Z score
Block Plan Outlay
(Rs. in lakhs) Z score
Bahanaga 180.00 0.363 Khaira 193.50 0.730
Balasore 163.50 -0.086 Nilagiri 234.50 1.846
Balaiapal 168.50 0.050 Oupada 113.50 -1.447
Basta 196.00 0.798 Remuna 166.50 -0.005
Bhograi 188.00 0.581 Simulia 100.50 -1.801
Jaleswar 155.00 -0.317 Soro 140.50 -0.712
Mean 166.67 Stdv 36.75 Source: Comprehensive District Annual Plan =2011-12.

received maximum allocation and Simulia block required minimum allocation. The average fund was 166.67 lakhs. Except Nilagiri block all other block has almost similar allocation.
12.2 Rural Housing
12.2.1 Central sponsored: These include- Indira Awas Yojana: This scheme was implemented by the Central Government to provide assistance for construction and up-gradation of dwelling units of the BPL families. The scheme started from 1985-86 and from 1993-94 onwards, the scheme was extended and also included the non SC and ST BPL families. This is became an independent scheme with effect from 1st April 1996(MORD, Government of India,2013).The non SC and ST beneficiaries will be less than 40 % of the total IAY allocation. The scheme was extended to the ex servicemen families of the armed and paramilitary forces killed in action. Except this, 3% of the houses are for physically and mentally challenged and 15 % of the total houses are reserved for the religious minority community. The funding ratio for this scheme is 75:25 respectively by central government and state government (Comprehensive District Annual Plan 2011-12, District Administration, Balasore). In 2008-09 the allocation was approximately RS 3021/-lakh . The performance of the utilization was almost 98% in 2006-07 but reduced to 35.37% in 2008-09. The main beneficiaries are OBCs.

Table 12.2a : Performance of IAY in Balasore district
Indicators 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09
Allocation 1554.00 1554.00 3021.90 3021.55
Release 1408.62 1554.00 3021.90 3021.55
Utilization 1465.82 1528.60 730.86 1068.61
% utilization 96.10 98.36 24.19 35.37
Target( Nos. of houses) 6216 6216 12087 12086
Achievement ( Nos. of houses) 5863 6114 2639 4855
% achievement 94.32 98.36 21.83 40.17
Source: Comprehensive District Annual Plan 2011-12
In 2011-12 activities and physical targets for rural housing in both national and state level schemes were 1200 households through Mo Kudia Yojana and 21705 households through Indira Awas Yojana (Comprehensive District Annual Plan 2011-12, District Administration, Balasore).

12.2.2 State Sponsored : These are Biju Pucca Ghara / Mo KudiaYojana: The habitations with ‘pucca ghar’ or brick/cement houses are considered a sign of developed economy. The failure of IAY to provide houses to all genuinely poor rural families made the requirement of implementation of another scheme necessary. To supplement the need of the local people not identified as below poverty line (BPL) this scheme was introduced. In 2008 this scheme was launched in the name ‘Mo Kudia’ (My Hut) and the present name has been introduced from the date 20.10.2014.It has been launched to provide houses to 10 lakh poor families who would be deprived of the benefits meant for BPL families (Information ; Public Relations Department, Government of Odisha,2015)
Component: The families not included in the IAY scheme will get the facility of a pucca house with a minimum built up area of at least 20 sq m. In the guideline it has been stated that the “A pucca house means that it should be able to withstand normal wear and tear due to usage and natural forces including climatic conditions. It should have roof of permanent materials” (Information ; Public Relations Department, Government of Odisha,2015).

Funding pattern: The funding pattern or the budget allocation for any financial year is distributed between two components. Among them one is for new construction and another is for the houses affected by any natural or manmade calamities. It is true that many of the regions of this district are flood prone. During field survey it was noted that many houses had collapsed due to storm surges and floods. BPGY is a significant step in this matter. The beneficiary already having the Indira Awas Yojana house can also apply for BPGY (special) if the house gets damaged by natural calamities (Information ; Public Relations Department, Government of Odisha, 2015).
Unit cost: For implementation of the scheme the budget has been divided into two halves-one is for the IAP Integrated Action Plan district and another for the Non IAP districts. As Balasore is a non IAP district so 70000 Rs/- unit cost has been selected. Target group: The scheme not only gave preference to the genuine poor people but also to poor women in distress condition like deserted/divorced, widows as well as transgender, freed bonded labourers, liberated manual scavengers, physically challenged (over 40%), mentally challenged, adult orphans of government registered institutions, victims of leprosy and AIDS, parents of children affected by AIDS, PVTG/PTG, extremely poor and vulnerable groups and victims of river/sea inundation (Orissa Review Information ; Public Relations Department, Government of Odisha,2015)
Impact on Rural development: The scheme like BPGY is influencing the rural sectors of Balasore district. During the primary household survey it was noticed that the beneficiaries are found in the regions that have relatively backward village economy. Actually the process of acquiring the benefit becomes little bit complicated so in maximum cases they do not like to apply for the scheme. Sometimes the political and local powers influence the distribution of the facility. The main hindrance is unequal distribution.
12.3 Rural Connectivity
12.3.1 Central sponsored: These are- Pradhan Mantri Gram Sarak Yojana (PMGSY): Roads are the main component of the basic infrastructure of a region. After implementation of the PMGSY in 25th December 2000, there has been some relief from the underdeveloped connectivity status. The objective or goal of the scheme was to connect the habitations with population of 500 persons and above in the plain areas and more than 250 persons and above in the hilly regions (PMGSY, MORD, Government of India, 2004). In Balasore district, three distinct physiographical zones provide sufficient scope of implementation of PMGSY. The overall district status shows a good condition of road construction. Among the blocks, Bhograi is most benefitted, as almost 147 habitations are connected by PMGSY. Remuna, Balaiapal, Soro, Simulia, Bahanaga and Oupada have negative development It is significant to relate the physical setting and the road development at block level. Nilagiri Block has hilly physiographic set up yet it shows a moderate rate of allocation of expense. As Nilagiri is a NAC or Notified Area Council so the rate of development could be high. But Oupada, another hilly block, shows least road infrastructure development. Bahanaga, though a coastal plain, has experienced nominal development. So the road infrastructural development is irrespective of the physical setting. (Appendix12.3) Only for blocks like Oupada, the physical set up could be a main constraint. From 2014- 15 almost 1073 new connectivity were implemented and 143 up-gradations were done (Appendix12.5). On an average, 84 new generated habitations were connected. Total number of un-connected habitations was 932. Comparative status of progress of PMGSY in Balasore shows that almost 4.9% of the total state’s sanctioned road length was in Balasore. Total 1580.77 km road length has been sanctioned for Balasore and sanctioned cost was Rs/- 64278.54(Annual report, 2011-12, RDD, Government of Odisha).
Figure: Year wise percentage of new connectivity to the total connectivity from 2000-01 to 2014-15 with collaboration of PMGSY by Rural Works Organization. (Appendix12.4).

The road inspection has been done by the engineers to find out the status of the projects. Under SQM or State Quality Monitor inspections conducted since November, 2010 (2nd tier) total 756 roads were inspected and within this 193 roads were completed roads , 552 roads are in progress roads, total 6 roads are under maintenance and 5 bridge works has been reported. Among all the blocks maximum or 93 roads were inspected, within this 24.7% were completed and 73.1% are in-progress roads. In Bahanaga block only 28 roads were inspected and among them 17.9% are completed and 82.1% are inprogress roads. Among the blocks Bahanaga, Basta, Oupada Soro and in Remuna all completed roads are in satisfactory state. In Jaleswar block only 73% of the blocks are satisfactory so 27% of the completed are satisfactory but need improvement. Among in-progress roads in Oupada block 95.8% are in satisfactory state and 4.2% are in unsatisfactory state. In Bahanaga and Remuna block no roads are in unsatisfactory state. In Balaipal block only 55.3% of the roads are in satisfactory condition, 14.6% of the roads are in satisfactory state but need improvement, and 8.3% of the roads are in unsatisfactory state representing poor progress. Highest maintenance of roads were found in Bhograi and Jaleswar block. The bridge work inspection was done in Nilagiri, Khaira dn Bliapal block. (Appendix12.5a and b).

In the third phase of inspection of the National Quality Monitor or NQM total 82 inspections has been done in the district. Within the roads 89% of the roads are in progress state. Only 9.8% of the roads are completed and only 1.2% of the roads are in maintenance state. Among the blocks highest number of road inspection was done in Balasore, Bhograi and Jaleswar block. In Khaira bock least number of roads was inspected.
This ultimately represents the condition of the roads and its status of maintenance. The good road condition provides better scope to develop connectivity as well as accessibility. New roads in the rural regions are significant for the enhancing the connectivity of rural segment of the district with the developed one. In this respect the PMGSY have done a significant to connect the interiors with standard roads. (Appendix12.6a and b).

Figure12.3: Block wise percentage of completed and in-progress roads of total inspected roads in SQM inspections conducted since November, 2010, PMGSY1 (
12.3.2 State sponsored: These are- Biju Setu Yojana: Rural connectivity is the most important component related with rural development. It is difficult to connect every part of the district because it is endowed with number of rivers, lakes, nallahs and other natural water bodies. To provide all weather connectivity the development of bridges and culverts is necessary. PMGSY is also a well known scheme implemented by the Government of India. But the New Biju Setu Yojana is launched to strengthen the rural connectivity by connecting the missing links by bridges and culverts. This also helps to improve the delivery of social services. Different authorities like RD Department, Panchayati Raj, Water and Forest Management Department are responsible for maintaining these roads. Connecting all villages with all weather roads will be able to provide connectivity to large number of people in inaccessible areas. Bridge Projects for implementation during 2011-12 under Biju Setu Yojana (through State Resources) includes 9 projects like- Bridge over Coast canal on Tikhia –Gopinathapur,ii) Bridge over Palpala Nallah at 1.900 KM on Langeswar PWD Road at Balipati to Irda Road,iii) Bridge over Baunsamukha Nallah at 0.260 KM on NH-60 (Gandhichhak) to Sadanandapur Road iv) Bridge over Chitei Nallah (Near Nilipura Village) at 7th KM on Baharda Bhuatuentuli & Nilipura via Chirkula Road v) Bridge over Andia Nallah at 0.550 KM on Kalikapur Chhotkanpur Road etc. the project cost varies from Rs 60/- to Rs 150/- Lakh (BSY, Department of Rural Development Government of Orissa,2011). (Appendix12.7a)
In 2012-13 to 2013-14 almost 11 projects have been proposed to be implemented. Some of these are i) Bridge over Coast Canal on Tiakhia Gopinathpur ii) Bridge over Ghagara Nallah at 3rd Km. on R.D. Road (Tarini Chhack) to Malyani Via Kharadia iii) Bridge over Kamala Nallah at 10th km on Bhalukasuni Matiali Road iv) Bridge over Prasanna Nallah at 1/100 Km. on Durgadevi R.D. Road to Gududa Road v) Bridge over river Jalaka on Badadhanadi to Koilisahi Road. Rough. Project cost ranging from Rs/-75 Lakh to Rs/- 675 Lakh and total rough project coast was Rs/-3018 lakh. All these roads are either completed or in final stage of completion (BSY, Department of Rural Development Government of Orissa, 2011). (Appendix12.7b).

12.3.3 On-Going Bridge and Road Projects under RIDF Scheme (as on 31.3.2012)
H.L. Bridge over Subarnarekha River on O.T. road to Chansla. 12 x 30m. the total project cost was Rs/- 1230.26 lakh.
Bridge over Local nallah at 1st km. on Gopinathapur Mandarpur road coast Rs/- 83.07 lakh project cost.

Bridge over Chitei nallah with approach road at 7.7 km on Baharda-Bhutentuli-Laxmipatna road with project cost 233.84 lakh. (Annual Report 2011-12 Rural Development Department, Govt,of Odisha)
12.3.4 Bridge & Road Projects approved by HPC & Sanctioned by NABARD under RIDF-XVII
Bridge over Local nallah at 1st km. on Gopinathapur Mandarpur road and NABARD loan was Rs/- 66.46 lakh,
Bridge over Chitei nallah with approach road at 7.7 km on Baharda-Bhutentuli-Laxmipatna road, and NABARD loan was 173.120 lakh. (Annual Report 2011-12, Rural Development Department, Govt,of Odisha)
12.4 Rural Electrification
12.4.1 Central Sponsored: These are- Rajib Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojana: To improve infrastructural development, it always becomes essential to provide electricity connection in each habitation of a rural area. RGGVY is a programme implemented by the central government through PGCIL in the districts Comprehensive District Annual Plan 2011-12, District Administration, Balasore. The programme was launched in April- 2005. 90% of the fund is provided to the Central Public Sector Undertakings like NTPC, NHPC and PGCIL for the stable execution of the scheme. In this scheme almost 90 % of its grant is provided by the Govt. of India and rest 10% as loan by REC or Rural Electrification Corporation to the state Government of Orissa. So in this program the main nodal agency is REC (Department of Energy, Government of Odisha, n.d). (Appendix 12.8)
a) Objective: i) Electrifying all villages and habitations as per new definition provided by the Government of India. ii) To provide and access electricity connection to all rural households. iii) BPL families will get free of cost electricity connection (Comprehensive District Annual Plan 2011-12, District Administration, Balasore).
b) RGGVY infrastructure: The basic infrastructure as selected by the scheme is: i) REDB or the Rural Electricity Backbone with 33/11 KV (or 66/11 KV) substation of adequate capacity in the Blocks, ii) Village Electrification Infrastructure (VEI) with provision of the distribution of transformers of sufficient capacity in villages and habitations. iii)In places where the power grid system or supply is not cost effective or feasible, DDG or the Decentralized Distribution Generation system based on non conventional and conventional energy resources will be implemented. However the BPL households targeted have not got electricity connection (Comprehensive District Annual Plan 2011-12, District Administration, Balasore).
During field survey it was noted that the rate of work is very slow. Except Bahanaga, Simulia and Soro, no other block has 100 % electrification. Oupada has maximum number of un-electrified villages till 2011-12. So Bahanaga, Simulia and Soro are more advanced from the

Figure 12.1: a) Block wise variability of the number of habitations benefited by PMGSY
b) Z-Score showing block wise variability of habitations benefited by PMGSY
aspect of electrification. Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL) is the implementation agency.

Table12.9: Status of implementation of RGGVY (implement agency PGCIL) in Balasore district
Details Status
Date of Sanction 5/3/2008
Sanctioned Project Cost (in Rs. Lakhs) 15922.28
Name of the Implementing Agency PGCIL Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd.

Status Target Achievement Achievement(till Dec 2009)
Electrification of Un-/De-Electrified villages 174 40
Achievement (%) 22.98
Intensive Electrification of Electrified villages 2448 129
Achievement (%) 5.30
No. of Connections to Rural Households including BPL 197749 4275
Achievement (%) 2.20
No. of Connections to BPL Households 168238 4275
Achievement (%) 2.54
Source: Comprehensive District Annual Plan 2011-12
Till December 2009 only 22.98% of the targeted villages got electricity connection. Intensive electrification has been done in 5.30 % villages. Up to December 2009 only 2.54% of BPL households got connection.
Table12.10: Progress of RGGVY Projects under Implementation in Balasore & Orissa
Coverage as per Revised RCE Achievement up to 31.03.2014
(nos.) Partially
( PEv)
(nos.) BPL
(nos.) Un-electrified
(nos.) Partially
( PEv)
(nos.) BPL
Balasore 106 2461 133555 104 2438 128562
2.25 % 17.44% 9.875% 2.35% 17.45% 10.77%
(PGCIL) 4702 14109 1352424 4432 13970 1193088
Orissa 14856 29351 3257471 14430 26090 2865036
Source: Schemes and project, DOE, Government of Odisha, Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY), 2014 (
12.4.2 State Sponsored: These are- Biju Gram Jyoti Yojana: Rural electrification has been one of the toughest challenges for the Government. The Rajiv Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojana was implemented and helped the State Government to provide electric connection to the villages that have more than 500 villagers. But it makes the other villages lie behind. To ensure electricity to all State Government of Orissa has launched Biju Gram Jyoti Yojana (BGJY) in the year 2007-08. Villages having 100 persons or less are the target of this scheme. Govt of Orissa provides full 100% financial support for implementation of this beneficiary scheme (Schemes & project, Department of Energy, Government of Odisha, n.d). The Government of Orissa has provided Rs 497/- crores for this programme so far. Till 2007-08 and 2008-09 total 239 and 194 villages were electrified, highest was in Balasore block in 2007-08 as well as in 2008-09. In 2008-09 Balaiapal also has shared firest rank with Balasore. In 2008-09 total 68 pumpset was energized in the district within that highest share was done by the Basta block. 2ph KV line was distributed 93.475 km in 2007-08 and 69.856 in 2008-09. The 1 ph 2W A.B.L.T line was distributed total 58.549 km and 67.145 km in 2007-08 and 2008-09 respectively. Total substations were 72 in 2007-08 and 27 in 2008-09 of 10 KVA capacities. Total 168 nos. substations of 16 KVA were established in 2007-08 and 2008-09. (Appendix12.11)
The basic target was to electrify 11579 villages and 139257 BPL households till 30.04.2012. For implementation and carrying the program, almost 1 crore Rupees has been allotted to each block (BGJY, Department of Energy, Government of Odisha, 2016). The continuation of progress till 2013 shows total 456 habitations of Balasore has been taken under the scheme that is only 2.7% of the State’s total. In all, 3.33% or 5199 of BPL households were charged when the state numbers of BPL households were 156070. Total fund allocation up to 30/4/13 for the district was Rs/- 1629.8 lakh i.e. only 3.24% of the State’s (Appendix.12.12)..From the year of implementation in Balasore district almost 711 applications were received among these Jaleswar block provided 26% of the districts total. Oupada and Nilagiri two hill block has given only 0.1% and 0.4% of the districts total. Almost similar trend is found for the beneficiaries shared 30% of the estimated cost deposited. Among these total 357 works order were issued and the highest was in Balaiapal (21.3%) and Jaleswar block (22.1%) blocks. Within 357 total issued work order only 208 i.e. 58.26% has been completed up to 2009-10 (Appendix.12.13).
Table 12.12: Biju Gram Jyoti Yojana (BGJY) Progress as on -30-04-2013
Total no. of Habs taken  up    under the scheme   (Nos) Total no. of Habs. Electrified till 30.04.13  (Nos) Total no. of BPL  households charged (Nos) Total fund allotted till date in (Rs) in lakh
Balasore 456 456 5199 1629.8
Orissa 16611 13120 156070 50375.31
Source: Progress as on -30-04-2013, BGJY, Department of Energy, Government of Odisha, 2016.
12.5 Rural Health and Well Being
12.5.1 Central Sponsored: These are- Rural Health Mission (NRHM): This includes number of schemes related to health issues. These include Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health or RMANCHA+, Rastriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram(RBSK), Rastriya Kishor Swasthiya Karyakram (RKKY), ORMS, HRIMS, ASHA, GKS, Patient transport service like -102 service , 108 Service, MCTS, RNT, RNTCP, Nationl Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP). National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB), Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP), RSBY, BKKY, OSTF etc. (National health Mission, Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of Odisha, n.d) RMANCHA+: This scheme has been implemented in 2013 to focus on the Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (RMNCH+A, NHM components, NHM, MOHFW, Government of India, n.d). Rastriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram(RBSK): A new initiative of NRHM to provide ‘Child Health Screening and Early Intervention Services Programme’ to give complete care to all
The children in the community has been implemented from 2013-14.(RKSK, NHM, MOHFW, Government of India, n.d) Rastriya Kishor Swasthiya Karyakram (RKKY): This is a Health Programme for the adolescents (10-19 years) Launched on 7th January 2014. Key objective of the scheme is to improve nutrition, improve sexual and reproductive health, improve mental health, prevent injuries and violence, and prevent substance misuse. Etc. (RKKY, NHM, MOHFW Government of India, n.d) National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP): The programme was launched in 1983 to eradicate the chronic infectious disease like Leprosy. (NLEP,MOHFW,n.d) Nationl Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP): This programme focuses on the prevention and control of vector borne diseases like Malaria, Dengue, Filaria, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis and Chikungunya etc. (MOHFW Government of India, n.d) Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP): This is a project on disease surveillance under Ministry of Health and Family Affairs. This aims to make stronger surveillance for infectious diseases to detect and respond to the outbreaks quickly. For this CDSU or Central Disease Surveillance Unit and SSU or a State Surveillance Unit is required in each state. Implemented in Odisha in 2006-07, it monitors core diseases like Dysentry, Diarrhoea, Jaundice, Measles, Typhoid, Dengue, Malaria, Chikungunya, AES/JE, Leptospirosis, Anthrax, Swine flu, Bird flu etc. It also plays a role as State Health Control Room during natural calamities (DOHFW,Government of Odisha, n.d) National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB): This national programme for control of Blindness was launched in 1976, a centrally sponsored scheme. The main aim was to reduce the prevalence of blindness.( MOHFW Government of India, 2010).In the district Rs 31.30/- lakh was the annual plan outlay under the scheme in 2011-12(District Administration, Balasore) Rastriya Swastha Bima Yojana (RSBY): The Central Government has launched the programme for BPL workers and their families. A family of five members can avail insurance of Rs/- 30000 in a year. State government has implemented the scheme. In Balasore the scheme has been introduced in the District Head Quarter Hospital Balasore, Subdivision Hospital Nilagiri.
(RSBY, MOHFW, Government of India, 2009) Janani Surakshya Yojana: This is an incentive based programme to support the institutional deliveries, implemented in Orissa in June 2006. This is attended to by a Skilled Birth Attendant to reduce and prevent pregnancy related problems and maternal deaths.
Table12.14: Janani Surakshya Yojana Programme trend during 2006 to 2009
year Total beneficiary Home deliveries % Institutional deliveries %
2006-07 11409 952 8.34 10457 91.66
2007-08 27245 963 3.53 26282 96.47
2008-09 32625 296 0.91 32329 99.09
2009-10 27266 175 0.64 27091 99.36
Source: District Statistical Handbooks 2007, 2009, 2011
With increasing beneficiaries, institutional deliveries have increased. From 91.66% of institutional deliveries in 2006-07 the percentage has become 99.36 in 2009-10. But the interior parts of the hilly blocks and coastal parts still face difficulty in health related issues.
There are certain other schemes also.

12.5.2 State Sponsored: These are- Biju Kurshak Kalyan Yojana (BKKY): The farmers are the socio-cultural back bone of Balasore. Agricultural production as well as the rural economy depends on them. Biju Kurshak Kalyan Yojana is a scheme that provides health insurance cover to the farmers and their families, implemented by Department of Agriculture and Food Production, Government of Odhisa. The basic objective is to improve access of identified Farmer Families to quality medical care for treatment of diseases involving hospitalization, through an identified network of health care providers(Directorate of Agriculture and Food Production, Department of Agriculture, Government of Odisha,n.d)
The State Nodal Agencies and the insurer have suggested and specified the package rates for the medical and surgical treatments. Actually the health facility has been classified into two subclasses. These are classified as health care provider and critical care provider. The health care provider package is kept within Rs/- 30000 only. The critical care package includes surgical procedure that varies from Rs/- 56000 to approximately Rs/-150000. The medical management varies from Rs/-1000 to Rs/- 60000 according to the intensity, criticality and types of the disease. (Directorate of Agriculture and Food Production, Department of Agriculture, Government of Odisha, 2013).

Table12.15: Medical and Surgical Interventions available at the Health Care Provider
Medical treatment types & facilities in hospitals Cost
Non surgical(medical) treatment in general ward Rs. 500 / Per Day
If admitted in ICU Rs. 1000 /- Per Day
Surgical procedures in general ward (not specified in package): To be negotiated with Insurer before carrying out the procedure
Surgical procedures in general ward Rate without service tax
Varies from
Source: BKKY Biju Kurshak Kalyan Yojana (guidelines as on 1 Dec, 2013)

The implementation has been from 1st July 2013. Smart card based set up makes the scheme more contemporary and usable. The policy period will cover 12 months from the date of its commencement. If the renewal of such scheme is exercised by the State Nodal Agency for the district then the policy will be extended for next 12 months. The BKKY provides 14 types of dental, 28types of ear, 35types of nose, 45types of throat, 343 types of General surgery, 52 types Gynecology, 28 types Endoscopic procedures, 4 types Hysteroscopy, 58 types Neurosurgery and many more. Rates, without service tax, vary from minimum Rs/- 100 to Rs/-29750(Appendix12.16). The BKKY stream I and stream II have helped to keep estimated 118143 numbers of farm families (4.63%) and 165130 farm families (4.87%) respectively (Directorate of Agriculture and Food Production, Department of Agriculture, Government of Odisha, 2013).For this enrolment capacity of each kit per day was 40 for BKKY Stream I and 60 for BKKY Stream II where as the tentative number of kits required are 24 (3.68%) and 27 respectively (Appendix 12.17) Odisha Emergency Medical Ambulance Service (OEMAS): i) 108 services: This is to provide comprehensive pre-hospital emergency medical service i.e. ambulance service to cover entire state free of cost. The main aim of this is to offer quality emergency care transport within the possible, shortest time in an emergency. This will be provided from the door step of the patient, with the appropriate care, to the hospital. Two ambulances i.e. Basic Life Support (BLS) and Advanced Life Support (ALS) will be available. EMAS has been implemented in a phased manner, so in the first phase 15 districts, including Balasore, have received the facility with 280 ambulances- 56 ALS and 224 BLS. This is also known as 108 services NHM,DOHFW, Government of Odisha,2015). ii) 102 services: This gives 24X7 free referral transport services for pregnant women and also for sick infants under NAS or National Ambulance Services through 102 call center(NHM,DOHFW, Government of Odisha,2015).

Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme: This is the advanced form of NTP (1962) and renamed as RNTCP in 1993 with DOTS strategy to make a TB free India (District Administration, Balasore).

12.6 Rural Employment
12.6.1 Central Sponsored: These are- National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme/ MGNREGS: Among the implemented social welfare programs, NREGS is a significant one, launched by the Govt of India as the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act in September 2005.In February 2006 a pilot basis implementation had been done in 200 economically disadvantaged districts of the country. In April 1, 2008 the second phase of the implementation was done and additional 130 districts were taken under its cover. Actually The NREGS is conceptualized as ‘more than a few daily wage jobs’. The scheme has been implemented at a crucial time when the rural economy of the country was facing complete collapse due to immature policy making. To overcome the unemployment scenario it was necessary to implement such a programme that ultimately provide job to every deserved rural people. Balasore district is located in the coastal region of the state at its north-eastern corner. Major sources of livelihood of the people in this district are agriculture and its allied activities. Balasore is covered under NREGS in phase II. In this phase (2008-09) almost 44706 households have demanded jobs, almost 16.79% of the total households of the district (Nayak,,n.d).In 2007-08 Balasore district was included under phase III MGNREGS and in 2008-09 and the programme was started (Comprehensive District Annual Plan 2011-12, District Administration, Balasore).the provided data in MGNREGS shows that during 2008-09 financial year 44963 No. of households demanded employment and 44239 households got employment (Appendix12.18). Maximum job cards have been issued in Bhograi block and lowest in Oupada block. The relation between the household demanded employment and provided shows perfect positive relation. Within 12 blocks of the district, Balaiapal has got maximum households employed, that is 16.29%, and again Oupada has got minimum households employed, that is 3.31% of the district total Soro and Basta block has got more employment than demanded and Bhograi block received less number of household having employment (Table10.14, Appendix).
The financial performance has medium variability of 31.43%. Maximum allocation of the fund was given to Bhograi block.The mean available fund is Rupees 252 lakhs. Bhograi, Nilagiri, Balasore, Jaleswar and Bahanaga have received more funds (Appendix12.19). The variability is almost nil in all the Blocks .The relationship between net sown area and total job cards issued in 2011 and relationship between the block wise total population and total job cards issued in 2011has been calculated and the values of ‘r’ are 0.13 and 0.88 respectively. This means that with increasing population the number of job card holder is increasing but it shows poor positive relation with net sown area. The impact of the MGNREGS has increased from 2011-12 to till date. The bank account has increased from 2011-12 to 2015-16 but a decrease is noticed for the case of post office accounts. Among all the blocks Oupada block is lagging behind with 6716 (4.05% of the districts total) bank accounts and no post office account till 2015-16. The tribe concentration in Oupada Block i.e. 24.7% makes this factor more important (Appendix12.20, 12.22). Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana: – This is one of the most important rural development schemes that provides income generating assets to those rural people below poverty line .The expenditure of this scheme will be handled by both central and state governments at 75:25 ratio. The list of BPL families will be prepared and the suitable families will be chosen. Priority will be given to those persons having inherent skill. Progress under this scheme is monitored by the Gram Panchayat officials (District Administration, Balasore). To finance the scheme properly, key activities of each block are identified by the DRDA or District Rural Development Authority. However the allocation for SGSY has increased from the year 2005-06 to 2007-08 by almost Rupees 145.01 lakh. In the Comprehensive District Plan it was mentioned that SGSY had an unsatisfactory result due to low investment, lack of sincerity of the bankers and lack of the entrepreneurship on the part of the beneficiaries to handle big units. Balaiapal block shows highest percentage of BPL families’ covered under SGSY Scheme i.e.3.5% and in Basta it was lowest i.e. 2%. According to the District Statistical Handbook 2011-12, the average percentage of the beneficiaries covered is only 2.80%. Bhograi block has maximum families covered. Oupada Block contains minimum number of beneficiaries. Bhograi block had maximum number of women beneficiaries. As total number of BPL families are lowest in number so the number of
Table12.23: Key Activities selected for SGSY in the district
Block Key activity Block Key activity
Bahanaga Dairy, Agro ; allied activity Khaira Dairy, Pisciculture
Balasore Dairy, Agril. Produce ; Marketing Nilagiri Dairy, Agro ; allied activity
Balaiapal Dairy, Farm Mechanization Oupada Dairy, Pisciculture
Basta Dairy, Pisciculture Remuna Dairy, Farm Mechanization
Bhograi Dairy, Pisciculture Simulia Dairy, Pisciculture
Jaleswar Dairy, Pisciculture Soro Dairy, Farm Mechanization
Source: Comprehensive district annual plan 2011-12 p. 12
women beneficiaries covered is also low in Oupada block i.e. a hilly as well as backward. On an average, 38 disabled beneficiaries are covered in the district and Bhograi block has maximum number of disabled beneficiaries. (Appendix12.24 ).

12.7 Rural Education
Education is considered as an important component in rural development.
12.7.1 Central sponsored schemes: These are supposed to enhance the status of literacy by increasing the scope of education. Sarva Sikshya Abhiyan (SSA): this scheme was introduced in the ninth five year plan. This will help to reduce the gender gap as well as social gap and improve the quality of learning. From 2001 onwards SSA is working in Odisha as well as in the district with number of objectives. i) By 2003 all children of 6-14 years age group should be in school ii) By 2007 all children have to complete 5 years of schooling iii) By 2010 all children have to complete 8 years

19050488950Figure 12.2: Variability of the block wise total number of job cards issued ; total households applied for job cards from 2011-12 to 2015-16
Figure 12.3: Category wise total job cards issued to beneficiaries of each block of Balasore district in three consecutive years.

Figure 12.4: Block wise change of the total bank and post office account between 2011-12 ; 2015-16 for MGNREGS
of schooling iv) Universal retention by 2010 v) Gender and social category gaps have to be bridged at primary stage by 2007 and at upper primary stage by 2010 vi) Focus on Elementary Education of satisfactory quality vii) Over all focus on education for life (OPEPA, 2012). The distribution pattern shows that the block wise number of Government schools has increased from 2005-06 to 2009-10. There is a decreasing trend of inequality. No significant variability is found throughout 2011 to 2015 as the average coefficient of variation was 25.8% (Appendix12.25) Bhograi maintains the maximum number of student enrollment and Oupada shows lowest number of student enrollment with declining trend (Appendix12.26). Kasturaba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV): This central sponsored scheme is proposed to provide good education to the rural SC /ST girls. In this scheme residential schools are opened for the girl students (Comprehensive district annual plan 2011-12, District administration, Balasore). National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL): From 2004-05 onwards this programme is in operation. Under this, two most important steps are opening of Model Cluster School (MCS) and Childhood Care and Education Centre (ECCE). The MCS consist of 7 to 9 schools and form a cluster and at as a resource center for promoting girl education and provides all types of educational facility and act as a resource center (Comprehensive district annual plan 2011-12,District administration, Balasore).
12.7.2 State sponsored schemes: These are-


Figure 12.5: Block wise variability of category wise mean Total Job Cards issued, MGNREGS, 2011-16-a) Scheduled Caste b) Scheduled Tribe c) Non-SC/ST d) Block wise total allotted work , MGNREGS-2013-14


Figure12.6: a) Block wise variability of all category student enrollment- a) (boy’s), b) Girls in all schools of Balasore District (2011-12 to 2015-16) c) Block wise variability percentage of Government Schools (2011), d) Block wise increase of Government schools (2005-06 to 2009-10 (Appendix: 12.26)
12.7.2 State sponsored schemes: These are- Mass Education: It is a state sponsored scheme and a part of National Literacy Mission, launched in the State in 1991-92. The main aim was to make all the adults, up to age 45, literate (District Administration, Balasore, n.d).The Early Childhood Care and Education Centre (ECCE) was set up in 2007 with an aim to leverage and institutionalize expertise in the field of pre-schooling.

12.8 Irrigation and Water Resource Management
For overall agricultural development irrigation plays a vital role. Flood management and water resource can be managed by implemented schemes by both central as well as state schemes to induce the rural development
12.8.1 Central Sponsored Plan: The schemes implemented by central government are: i) Flood Management Programme (River Bank protection work of River Subarnarekha and Budhabalanga) ii) Flood Management Project, Installation of Lift Irrigation Projects under RKVY.

12.8.2 State sponsored: Biju Krushak Vikas Yojana (BKVY): The scheme was launched in 2001 to provide employment opportunity to the rural population. For tribal benefits, small irrigation projects are implemented. In the block with maximum tribal concentration, application of BKVY is a significant step. In other blocks also the construction of lift irrigation projects has been implemented. A major impact of the scheme was the implementation of 35% irrigation.
Except these other schemes has also been implemented like – i) Construction of Check Dams (In-Stream Storage structure), ii) Deep Borewell Secha Karyakrama 2010-11, iii) Bridge-Cum-Barrage, iv) Participatory Irrigation Management(Pani Panchayat). All these schemes are mainly implemented in the session 2010-11. To develop the water resource and irrigation potential some other schemes are vi) Minor Irrigation Projects funded from NABARD (RIDF) vii) Minor Irrigation (Lift) BKVY Bank Protection Work (Flood Control) viii) Drainage Projects funded from NABARD (RIDF viii) Har Khet Ko Pani etc.

12.9 Social and Farm Forestry
Forests are one of the important resources for the rural population. Those regions suffering from lack of agricultural productivity can depend on forest resource if available.

12.9.1 Central schemes are i) Development of National Parks, Sanctuaries & Nature Reserves (Forest & Wildlife Plan),ii) Elephant Management Project-Talasari-HVBA. (Comprehensive District Annual Plan 2011-12, District Administration, Balasore)
12.9.2 State schemes are- i) Social & Farm Forestry, ii) Communication & Building – Construction of quarters for forest guards etc.

12.10 Mining and Industry
Lack of minerals is the main reason behind the absence of mineral based industry in the district. There were only 10 major, 9 medium industries and at present 8 of the medium industries are closed. Only 232 registered small scale industries are functioning in the district but almost 300 small scale industrial units are present, but are unorganized in nature. To provide employment, priority was given to SSI units so a limited number of schemes have been implemented.
12.10.1 Central Scheme: Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP): This is a newly implemented scheme both for rural and urban areas. The basic objective is to generate employment opportunities through establishment of micro enterprises. Two former schemes i.e. Prime Minister’s Rojgar Yojana (PMRY) and Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) were merged on 31.3.2008 to implement PMEGP. In this schemem 25% subsidy rate was given to general category and 35 % for special or reserved category in rural areas. The vast agricultural fields and extensive coastal tracts provide the environment for the development of agro based and marine based industries (District Administration, Balasore, n.d).
12.10.2 State schemes: this are-
i.Promotion of Handloom Industries ii) Workshed-cum-Housing, iii) Skill Up gradation Training, iv) Promotion of Industry Sector, v) Integrated Handloom Development Scheme – Group & Cluster Approach, vi) Marketing Incentives, vii) Health Insurance for weavers viii) Mahatma Gandhi Bunakar Bima Yojana etc are some of the schemes Comprehensive District Annual Plan 2011-12, District Administration, Balasore, n.d). RKVY or Rastriya Krishi Bikash Yojana: It is a centrally assisted state plan scheme that has been implemented to provide assistance to the farmer community. The scheme was first launched in 2007-2008 by the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. The main objectives were to i) increase public investment, ii) provide autonomy and flexibility to the state based agricultural planning according to the available technology, agro-climatic condition and natural resource, iii) reducing yield gaps iv) to maximize the return to the farmers engaged in Agricultural and allied sectors. Supportive role of this scheme helps to improve the agricultural and allied sectors. In Balasore district the scheme has been implemented in sub sectors like crop husbandry, animal husbandry and horticulture, etc (Comprehensive District Annual Plan 2011-12, District Administration, Balasore, n.d).
With this scheme another potential financial resource for sustainable agricultural development, under ATMA (Agricultural Technology Management Agency), has been constructed (Comprehensive District Annual Plan 2011-12, District Administration, Balasore, n.d).
12.11 Rural Water Supply and Sanitation
Safe drinking water and sanitation are always basic requirements for any region. During field study, it was noticed that almost every block of the district suffered from lack of sanitation and drinking water facility. Hand pumps, the deep ones, are the most reliable source of drinking water in all seasons. So lack of safe drinking water is a noticeable problem specifically in villages located at the foot hill zones, lateritic caps and in few cases on older alluvium. So the strategy for providing water supply through newly constructed pipe water project and maintenance of existing water supply can bring about sustainable use of the resource. For this, Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme or ARWSP has been launched. Central and State Governments are working on the improvement of rural pipe water supply project. But during field survey this facility was seen in few villages.

12.11.1 Nirmal Odisha Abhiyan: In 1986, CRSP or Central Rural Sanitation Programme scheme was implemented by the Central Government to improve the life of rural people and to provide privacy and dignity to the rural women. However with time, the next improved scheme was implemented as TSP or Total Sanitation Campaign in 1999. To bring full sanitation coverage to the villages Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) has been implemented. Encouraged by the success of NGP, TSC was renamed and implemented as Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in 1st April, 2012. Later it was decided to implement the NBA with the MGNREGS. The State Government, in collaboration with the Panchayati Raj Department, decided to launch Gram Sabha Sashaktikaran Karyakarma (GSSK) to send the information to the village grass root level on Govt. launched development programmes from 2nd October 2012 onwards. The implementation of NBA through the GSSK is named as Nirmal Odhisa Abhiyan. At first villages are divided into three categories. Category I: These villages are devoid of any toilets constructed under TSC or Total Sanitation Campaign or others and no other intervention has been made. Category II: These are the villages already proposed as NGP village but need little modification to fill the gap. Category III: the villages are partly covered under TSC. The cost of construction of demo toilet ranges from 900/- (AWW), to 4500/- and 4600/- rupees. Almost 4600/- rupees is required for the construction of NBA toilets. In Balasore the NGOs played an important role. During the field survey it was found that almost 86.18 %, 76.2%, 76.67% of the surveyed household still use open field toilets of Foot hill undulating upland , alluvial plain and coastal region respectively. In many cases it was also noticed that primary construction has been done but yet not completed. So the villages are under developed from the aspect of sanitation facility (Department of Rural Development, Government of Odisha, 2012),
Table12.27 Highlights of Demand Generated in Pallisabha
District No of beneficiaries AWC Total
BPL IAPL Balasore 2290 19384 28 21702
0.1028% 0.7178% 0.62% 0.44%
Total Orissa 2225933 2700186 4542 4930661
Source: Steps towards Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan .pdf , 2012-13 Department of Rural Development,Government of Odisha(2012), Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP): This is a centrally sponsored programme but Panchayati Raj Institution is playing an important role in implementation of the scheme. The DWSM or District Water and Sanitation Mission is also included in the process. Two main activities under this scheme are-a) Rural pipe water supply b) Digging of tube wells (District Administration, Balasore).
The annual plan outlays for 2011-12 for these two activities were 2022 lakhs and 209.82 lakhs(District Administration, Balasore). The available pipe water supply or number of habitations with piped water supply shows that Khaira and Remuna blocks have higher number of households facilitated by piped water supply i.e. 12.6% and 19.4 % respectively. Similarly Bahanaga, Oupada, and Remuna block have less habitation with piped water supply (Appendix12.28). Delivery points i.e. tube wells, both deep and shallow, have been implemented in each block. Least water supply scheme sources have been found in Oupada Block, where as highest in Bhograi block. Delivery point is high in Khaira block and least number of delivery points is found in Oupada block. Bahanaga block also has second lowest number of delivery points (Appendix12.29).
12.11.3 Jalmani: This is a rural water supply programme implemented in 2008. Though the existing Rural Drinking Water Supply Programme aims to provide safe drinking water to the rural areas including the rural schools and Anganwadis but it deteriorate at the point of consumptions due to various factors. So the ‘Jalamani’ programme has been implemented to install Simple Stand Alone Purification System to supply pure water to the rural schools and rural villages (MDWS, as on 2015)
12.12 Rural Development and Food Security
12.12.1 Antyodaya Anna Yojana: This scheme was launched by the Central Government in 25th December; 2000.The main objective is to provide food security to the rural as well as urban areas.The implementation of the scheme will mainly improve the public distribution system. Approximately 5% of the rural populations do not have the capacity to get two square meals per day. They do not have the capacity to buy food grains at the BPL price. To provide food security to these ‘poorest of the poor’ is the prime objective of the scheme. These families will get 25kg food grain per month and the rates of the food grains are 2 rupees/ kg for wheat and 3rupees/ kg for rice. After identification of the Antyodaya families, the designated authority will issue the ‘Antyodaya ration card’ (DFPD, 2001). The reliable distribution of the ration cards is the most important step to provide food security. As an example in November 2009, in Balasore almost 66.660 metric ton rice was allotted for SC/ ST hostels at the BPL rate and 16.740 metric ton rice was allotted for Welfare Institutions (FSCW, 2009, Government of Orissa). Maximum number of Antadaya card has been distributed to Bhograi block. The calculated Z-score of total Antodaya card holder shows that Basta, Oupada, Simulia and Soro have negative values. Except this, three other cards are in circulation to provide the food security to the rural persons (Appendix12.30).
Except these, a number of other schemes are launched that also influence socio-economic aspects related to rural development. Both Central Government schemes and State Government schemes simultaneously work throughout the rural areas of Balasore district.
12.13 Social Security, Social Welfare and Nutritional Programmes:
Some of the important social security, social welfare and nutritional programmes are also in action in the district. These directly and indirectly influence the rural population, their wellbeing and simultaneously a significant aspect of rural development. Some of the most important schemes are presented in Table 12.31.

Table 12.31: Information on social security, social welfare & nutritional programmes
Programmes Nature Date of implementation & authority Objective
IGNOAP National Social Assistance Programme 15.08.95
Ministry of rural development, Government of India old age pension is
provided to the aged, destitute persons of 65 years and above of BPL category
MBPY Old age pension rule & Disability pension rules combined and renamed 1st January 2008
Woman and child development department, Government of Odisha The beneficiary receives an amount of Rs. 200/month as pension.

NFBS second component of National Social Assistance Programme 15th August 1995,
Ministry of rural development Government of India one time lump sum financial assistance of Rs.10,000/- is given to a bereaved
BPL family on the death of its primary breadwinner in the age group of 18-64 years
Programmes Nature Date of implementation & authority Objective
IGNDP National Social Assistance Programme February,2009
Ministry of rural development, Government of India Age group of 18-64 years. – The applicant should be suffering from severe or multiple disabilities. – The applicant should be belonging to BPL category; the beneficiaries will get 200/- rupees per month.

IGNWP National Social Assistance Programme February,2009
Ministry of rural development, Government of India Widows from BPL families from age 40 to 65 will get 400/- per month
BSY 15.08.1997. Ministry of Women and Child Development Girl child status improvement, a post birth grant of 500/- rupees and class I to x the girls will get
Source: District Statistical Handbook, 2011. And NSAP State scheme enabled,
(National Social Assistance Programme) FAQ pdf, Compiled by author
All these schemes show block wise variability of the number of beneficiaries under each programme. The coefficient of variation shows that maximum variability was found for IGNDP and NFBS schemes; 63.76% and 79.02% respectively. Other three schemes like MBPY, IGNOAP and IGNWP have 35.71%, 30.51% and 38.47 % variability. Balasore block has maximum number of MBPY beneficiaries, almost 15.07% of the total MBPY beneficiaries and Oupada block has least number of beneficiaries, that is 4.86%. Bhograi block has maximum number of IGNOAP beneficiaries and Oupada has least. Balaiapal and Bhograi blocks have maximum beneficiaries under IGNDP & IGNWP schemes respectively. Although the BSY scheme has been launched as a part of the national social assistance programme, still it has no beneficiaries (Appendix 12.32)
12.14 Block level Composite analysis
This has been done with respect to the schemes distribution and beneficiaries covered, to highlight the status of the blocks for ensuring rural developmental progress. On the basis of the available data on fund allocation on different schemes and beneficiaries covered a composite index has been prepared following the rank weighing method using eighteen criteria Block wise allocation of funds for Gopabandhu Gramin Yojana, block wise total expenditure (in lakhs) of PMGSY, block wise number of beneficiary families covered under SGSY, block wise number of women beneficiaries covered under SGSY, block wise disabled beneficiaries covered under SGSY, number of electrified villages under RGGBY, block wise number of job card issued under MGNREGS, block wise financial performance of MGNREGS ,block wise number of households provided employment under MGNREGS, number of bank account and number of
Index (in Average rank)
Block wise progress of Rural Development
Schemes and Beneficiaries covered

Figure 12.7: Block wise composite index showing progress of rural development schemes and beneficiaries covered.
Schemes, both ongoing and complete, block wise implemented Water supply Scheme Sources, block wise existing water delivery points, block wise number of beneficiaries covered under MBPY, IGNOAP, IGNDP, IGNWP, NFBS, block wise total Antodaya Cards in circulation, block wise number of AWC, block wise number of SHG available etc are the criteria used. In each of these criteria rank weighing has been given and then composite index has been
Calculated. .The highest rank represents block with maximum developed condition as it has maximum percentage of beneficiaries, fund allocation to the districts total. So in respect of the block wise distribution of beneficiaries, fund allocation, AWC, PWS schemes, maximum covered blocks got highest rank and minimum covered blocks got lowest rank. From this rank arrangement composite rank has been calculated. This represents that Bhograi is the most developed one, next Jaleswar, and Khaira blocks. Oupada is lagging behind.
Table:12.11 Rural Schemes Implementation Status of Balasore District 2011
Composite Rank Blocks Remarks
<4.0 Bhograi Highly progressive
4.0-6.0 Khaira, Jaleswar, Balaiapal, Balasore Moderately progressive
6.0-8.0 Remuna Basta, Nilagiri, Soro Progressive
8.0-10.0 Bahanaga, Simulia Less progressive
>10.0 Oupada Very less progressive
Source: Compiled by Author
So Bhograi is highly progressive. Number of facts like, significant amount of net sown area, coastal location, scope for fishing, good fertile soils encourages high population concentration and significant demand for the allocation of schemes.
Moderately progressive blocks are Khaira, Jaleswar, Balaiapal, Balasore. These blocks are also significant.

Progressive blocks include Remuna, Basta, Nilagiri, Soro. Among these blocks Nilagiri has hilly physiography but got progressive distribution of schemes. Maximum tribal population concentration makes this significant.
Bahanaga and Simulia are located on alluvial plain and coastal position respectively yet are less progressive with respect to the other blocks.
Oupada the western hilliest block remains less progressive.

The correlation with the Average Rank of Physical Parameters and the Average rank of blocks with rural scheme implementation status has been analyzed with the help of Pearson’s Product Moment. The value of ‘r’ = 0.4 representing a moderate relation.
correlation of physical ranks and composite index
Table 10.17 have to delete.
Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) ,