Chapter Two Literature Review *Extracting from Committee Maritime International

Chapter Two
Literature Review

*Extracting from Committee Maritime International, the international working group position paper on unmanned ships and international regulatory framework.

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1. Introduction
The fast advanced nature of this Autonomous technology makes regulatory research an ever extra challenging fear, not least then, at least in some classes of activities, however, there are pure risks, there are also unlikely safety rewards for the misuse of Autonomous technology in existence activities which arise in the method of not having to account seafarers to the quiet difficult perils of the seas.

2. The Regulatory Framework

Maritime law is a suitable term used for impressive a whole range of laws and other foundations that rule the legal framework connected to vessels and their procedure. It covers a multiplicity of numerous legal systems, success from international law to regional and national measures and reduction down to local rules.
It shelters subjects of public worries, such as safety, security and environmental protection as well as civil law problems, such as contracts of carriage, liability, and compensation for damage, salvage, and rules connected to marine risks and assurance.
The effort of this chapter is on the international rules. Two main kinds of such rules need to be remarkable.
First, there are jurisdictional rules, which lay down states’ rights and duties to make arrangements with respect to vessels. These are typically laid down in the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which is discussed in section 3. Second, the applied rules cover safety, environment, and training and watchkeeping standards etc. are discussed in section 4. They are naturally accepted by specialized UN agencies, such as the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

3. Law of the Sea
3.1 General
The convention contracts with the rights and responsibilities of countries over the seas. As far as shipping, the key issues spoke by this body of law Include to what amount vessels can navigate in different sea zones what duties Do states have over vessels flying their flag and what privileges do other states have to delay in the navigation of vessels in different sea areas.
Today’s the convention principal navigation is more endless than ever before in history. The Constitution for the Oceans became UNCLOS, likes a general official acceptance worldwide and its regulations about navigational rights and obligations are generally acknowledged as said customary law. The convention put down the rules on establishment and definition of maritime zones and covers detailed rules for each zone with detail to states privileges and duties.
Existing international conventions that define the term vessel do not surround references to crewing and at the international level also, the definition of a vessel is normally divided from the question of whether or not the vessel is manned. It would also seem baseless that two vessels, one manned and the other Autonomous, doing related tasks between similar perils would not be a concentration to the same rules that have been measured to address those perils.
Article 91 suggestions that each state shall fix the situations for the contribution of its nationality to vessels, which suggests that the national law of the flag state will be serious for the definitions used.
From the statement that Autonomous ships are ‘ships’ and ‘vessels’ inside the meaning of UNCLOS, it tracks that they are a focus to the same rules of the law of the sea as any normally manned vessel. The same responsibilities apply to unmanned vessels and their flag states with respect to agreement with international rules. On the other hand, they also like the same passage rights as other vessels and cannot be rejected access to other states seas simply because they are not crewed.

3.2 Flag State Jurisdiction
Flag state authority denotes the traditional foundation of the regulatory authority over vessels. UNCLOS founds that all states have a right to sail vessel’s flying their flag and to fix the situations for admitting nationality to vessels (Articles 90 and 91(1)). However, the convention also contains a total of detailed duties for flag states.
Every state has the duty to “effectively exercise its jurisdiction and control in administrative, technical and social matters over ships flying its flag” (Article94(1)), including to “assume jurisdiction under its internal law over each ship flying its flag and its master, officers and crew in respect of administrative, technical and social matters concerning the ship” (Article 94(2)(b))
(Article 94(3)(b)), containing actions essential to ensure “that each ship is in the charge of a master and officers who possess appropriate qualifications, in particular in seamanship, navigation, communications and marine engineering, and that the crew is appropriate in qualification and numbers for the type, size,
Machinery and equipment of the ship” (Article 94(4)(b)). When assuming these procedures each flag state is required “to conform to generally accept international regulations, procedures, and practices and to take any steps which may be necessary to secure their observance” (Article 94(5)).
UNCLOS, in other words, generally escapes the need to express more detailed obligations of flag states by referring to a theoretical, and continuously changing, set of international rules to be established elsewhere. Duties are hence left to be settled by the IMO in particular.

3.3 Port and Coastal State Jurisdiction
While the flag state’s power spread over the regardless of the vessel’s location, other states parallel jurisdiction over the same ship depends on the maritime zone
To be disturbed. The coastal state’s power over a foreign vessel increases with the proximity of the ship to its shores.
In other words, a port state may (if it has recognized specific obligations to the difference) refuse Autonomous vessels access to its ports or internal waters, and its objective and that the prevention does not establish an abuse of right (Article 300).
Under an old principle of the law of the sea, all vessels enjoy a right of ‘innocent passage’ through other states’ territorial seas. The passage is considered to be innocent as long as it is not “prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal state” (Article 19(1)).
Regarding the coastal state’s legislative authority, Article 21(2) provides that a state may not execute its national requests on the construction, design, equipment or manning of foreign vessels in its territorial sea, unless those requests are giving result to “generally accepted international rules and standards” (Article 21(2)).

3.4 Other relevant provisions in UNCLOS
Another UNCLOS provision which assumes a crew on board is the responsibility of the master to reduce assistance to persons in danger or distress according to Article 98(1) (as specified in SOLAS Regulation V/33). The rule would find no claim to the amount that an Autonomous vessel has no master, even if this is little ease since this an express condition of Article 94(4)(b) UNCLOS, as stated above. The communication share of the duty can likely be met by remotely operated vessels with relayed radio communications, but it is less pure how physical help can be reduced by a vessel without a crew on board.
The duties contain qualifications by reference to “in so far as he can do so without serious danger to the ship” or “in so far as such action can be reasonably expected of him” which will maybe decrease the number of duties for Autonomous vessels, as the presented options will be fewer. However, the lack of a crew does not in itself avoid the duty to provide assistance to the amount necessary and reasonable.

4. Technical Requirements
4.1 General
There are over 50 IMO international shipping conventions are in force today. The common of the responsibilities imposed by IMO regulations are imposed on flag states and these states must release these duties by suggesting enforceable national shipping legislation reflecting the worldwide agreed standards.
The next is not a comprehensive analysis of the use of IMO regulations to Autonomous vessels but instead an investigation of some of those regulations most related in the framework of the behavior of navigation of Autonomous vessels, both remote controlled and autonomous. These will be the vital initial regulatory obstacles to be discussed if Autonomous shipping is to become well-known. The analysis will reflect the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS), the International Regulations for the Preventing of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREGS) and the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW Convention). It will consider both applicability of these regulations to Autonomous vessels and the capability of such vessels to comply with them, as well as how the related level of Autonomous vessel autonomy impacts upon the position.

4.2 The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS)
Chapter I – General Provisions
It can be expected that, in general, the provisions of SOLAS would find the request to Autonomous vessels to the amount that they are highlighted and involved on international voyages.
SOLAS suggests no general definition of “ship” and so autonomous operability grants no weakness to applicability. Instead, SOLAS refers to “cargo ships”defined generally as any vessel which is not a passenger ship i.e. a vessel not carrying at least 12 passengers. Essentially, the Convention and its Annex normally find no request to vessels of less than 500 gross registered tons (Grt) although this is subject to the exact applicability provisions in each chapter.
SOLAS is not without flexibility. A Contracting Government may excuse from a contract with the provisions in Chapters II-1, II-2, III, and IV those vessels which “features of a novel kind” to the amount that the use of such provisions “might seriously impede research into the development of such features and their incorporation in ships engaged on international voyages”. It can be said that Autonomous operability (both remote control and autonomous) founds a feature of a novel kind and therefore such vessels may view to advantage from this dispensation. Much depends on the outlook to the knowledge of domestic regulators. Further promises for the Contracting Government to award exemptions to individual vessels from the requirements of certain regulations are set out in the individual Chapters.
There is also considerable existing “equivalence”. When a SOLAS provision demands for a “particular fitting, material, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, to be fitted or carried in a ship, or that any particular provision to be made”, the applicable maritime administration may authorize the use of changes to be accepted if content that these are at least as real as the express provisions SOLAS recommends. It is unsure that this would certification Autonomous operability (to the extent that it is otherwise prescribed) since the vessel’s crew which, of course, is traditionally accepted on board, cannot be understood to be a “fitting, material, appliance or apparatus”.

Chapter II-1 Construction
Chapter II-1 deals with vessels’ structure, subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical installations. Vessel structural wants do not, in general, the current particular difficulty for Autonomous operability. The chapter does, however, contain requests which require thoughts of similarity in an Autonomous background. For example, there is the
Regulation 5-1 requirement that the vessel’s “master be supplied with information as is necessary to enable him by rapid processes to obtain accurate guidance as to the stability of the ship under varying operating conditions”. This info must be assigned in shore-based remote controllers at all times in the conclusion making loop. The chapter also makes position to the need for, by way of example, engineers alarms. When alarms planned to alert those in command of the applicable vessel are mandatory, the body of such rules requires alarms to also alert those remote controlling the vessel from the shore. The body of such a regulation also wants autonomous vessels to be skilled of being taken under the instant control of a remote-controller so that somebody may act on the alarm indicator. It should be well-known that
Regulation 55 of Chapter II-1 licenses other design and arrangements in respect of machinery and electrical installations, topic to the agreed appraisal and approval.

Chapter II-2 Fire protection, Fire detection, and Fire extinction
Chapter II-2 also recommends structural requests but with the specific purpose of safety from fire. The chapter also suggests full requirements for fire detection through the suitable alarm systems.
Regulations 15 and 16 related to the onboard training, drills, and operations individually. These are meant for confirming personnel charged with command of the vessel are ready in the event of a fire to combat and contain it. This presents challenges of similarity in the situation of a fully shore-based crew. However, even to the amount that a severe application of the chapter offerings difficulty for Autonomous operations,
Regulation 4.1 deals with the relevant maritime administration the ability to excused individual vessels from the requests of the chapter if prepared that its full application is “unnecessary or unreasonable” if the applicable vessel is not to exceed a distance of 20 miles from the nearest shore. This allowance will be vital since maybe much of the spirit of the chapter is meant at the protection from fire of onboard to the crew and/or passengers, who may absence claim in Autonomous operations. This is a matter which must be talked about by those developed the technology for Autonomous shipping as well as regulators. The chapter also documents the use of other design and provisions to those specifically prescribed after the needed evaluation and approval.

Chapter III – Life-Saving Appliances and Arrangements
Chapter III recommends the life-saving appliances to be accepted on board the related vessel and agreeing arrangements. It covers the same general exemptions as chapter II-2. The chapter suggests standards for onboard operations, such as maintenance. Again thoughts will be essential as to its requirement and feasibility in the Autonomous framework. In the framework of the carriage of passengers, but, passenger safety must be confirmed to the same amount whether the vessel is manned or Autonomous. Some vital requirements are for example, in the background of survival crafts.
Regulation 10 involves that “there shall be sufficient crew members, who may be deck officers or certified persons on board for operating the survival craft and launching arrangements.” At the same time as the chapter allows the use of other design and provisions to those set out in this chapter, it will be very hard for an Autonomous vessel carrying passengers to follow with this regulation without placement onboard crew skilled in abandoned actions.

Chapter IV – Radio communications
Chapter IV deals with radio communications and recommends the functional requirements for vessels in the way of communication ability. The chapter is special in that it specifically applies to cargo ships of 300 Grt upwards. The Chapter needs continuous watches to be reserved on agreed channels. Regulation 16 specifically needs that every vessel “carries personnel qualified for distress and safety radio communications”. This regulation offers a struggle for Autonomous vessels. From a similarity viewpoint, it is important that the arranged radio communications skills may be settled by the shore-based crew. Again, the competence of any such procedure will be a topic to the fulfillment of the applicable maritime administration. Be it onboard or shore-based, the core of the chapter expresses human error. This grants serious difficulty for Autonomous, unofficial Autonomous vessels.

Chapter V – Safety of Navigation
For these purposes, it is at least doubtful that the most vital regulation in Chapter V is Regulation 14 on ships’ manning. The regulation needs that from the opinion of safety, all vessels are “sufficiently and efficiently manned”. Contracting Governments are vital to doing this through the founding of a clearly documented process, i.e. Ship’s manning documentation. The regulation does not want that at least one crew member is on board at any one time. Nevertheless, it can be asked whether a condition of manning competence essentially forbids Autonomous operability, since an Autonomous vessel is not at all manned, by definition. On the other hand, it is clear that the competence of manning provisions is an idea qualified to the particular vessel in question, and its specific skills. It can be claimed that if a vessel operates highly advanced communications technology allowing it to move as quickly as when under the command of a conventional onboard crew, an onboard crew totaling zero might be technically satisfactory.
Both clarifications are similarly possible. But, it seems unlikely that the expression of Regulation 14 essentially excludes Autonomous operations absolute and all conditions. The regulation’s goal is to found a means by which the related administration may fulfill itself as to the safety qualifications of a vessel’s match rather than calling for any specific mode of operability. But, in advance, the support of maritime administrations may show very hard, mainly in the early stages of Autonomous operability and in the lack of modified and organized regulations for the specific operations.
Regulation 15 recommends values in relation to bridge design. The first principle is “facilitating the tasks to be performed by the bridge team and the pilot in making full appraisal of the situation” In an Autonomous shipping background, navigation will be realized from the shore but any additional “electronic bridge” will need to fulfill with these values if there is any view of addressing expected safety worries and filling at least the soul of this regulation. The same holds true for vessels in autonomous mode, supervised with crew qualified to accept remote-control of the vessel directly. A ship operating autonomously without any human error cannot fulfill with the Regulation. For such vessels, there is no human evaluation.
Regulation 22 recommends minimum levels of visibility possible on a vessel’s bridge. It is true that a vessel may be dually-operable, i.e. accomplished of both Autonomous and conventional manned operation. In such case, both the onboard bridge and the electronic bridge would have to fulfill the bridge design needs. Dual operability may also give assistance in fulfilling the required pilot transfer arrangements in Regulation 23 by allowing the qualified crew to board and start the pilotage operations. Then, the pilot transfer would have to be finished electronically and the port facility would have to have the services to accept remote control.
Another mainly important regulation is Regulation 24 (Use of heading and/or track control systems). It needs that in “hazardous navigational situations” it will be possible to start “manual control of the ship’s steering immediately”. Even on the statement that manual control may be done remotely, unofficial autonomous unmanned vessels will not be able to fulfill this regulation which needs officers to be talented to control the vessel’s movement directly. In importance, all Autonomous vessels must be managed by qualified crew accomplished of supposing manual control directly.
Regulation 33 repeats the duty for the master of a vessel if in a place to do so, to ensure with all speed to the help of lives in distress at sea. For the responsibility to be of any significance in an Autonomous situation, a member of the shore side crew governing or managing both remote controlled and autonomous vessels must be believed to be the Autonomous vessel’s master. To the amount that this is the example, it is sure that the duty is not limited to taking lives on board. In an Autonomous situation, the responsibility may be cleared by ensuring that any distress signals received are relayed to the applicable search and rescue authorities or retaining estimated location to form a center for communications. The requirement that lives rescued on board be treated with humanity is capable by the practical skills and limitations of the vessel and it can be claimed that this qualification relates to the duty more generally.
If a remote controller of an Autonomous vessel were to determine lives in distress and does nothing at all to please himself that the suitable authorities are knowledgeable, he is an obstacle at least of the spirit of the duty and such behavior would not promise well for Autonomous vessel addition into the more conventional maritime community.
Significantly, Regulation 3 (Exemptions and Equivalence) offers that maritime administrations may award exceptions and equivalence when a lack of general navigational perils and “other conditions affecting safety” are such to reduce a filled application of Chapter V “unreasonable or unnecessary”. Exactly refer to conditions are the extent of the voyage and the maximum distance of the vessel from the shore. The amount to which an Autonomous vessel may depend on this give will depend on its operational route. Again, much will depend on the capability of a possible Autonomous vessel operator to assure the related authorities as to the safety of the other means by which the vessel will be controlled, be it remotely or autonomously.

Chapter VI – Carriage of Cargoes and Oil Fuels
Chapter VI contracts mostly with operational needs for the safe carriage of solid bulk cargoes. It covers different provisions for the carriage of such cargoes but also cargoes of grain.
Regulation 2 needs the shipper to offer “the master or his representatives” data about the cargo. This purpose would need to be satisfied by a shore-based remote controller. Again, it is uncertain the amount to which the act of this purpose by a shore-based remote controller technically contents the obligation.

Chapter VII – Carriage of Dangerous Goods
The chapter finds to confirm the safety of the carriage of dangerous goods and needs their carriage to be in harmony with the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code. The chapter recommends reporting needs in respect of incidents connecting such dangerous cargo. The degree to which this might be discharged by the shore-based crew will be governed by on the observation technology enabling the shore-based crew to supervise stowed goods.

Chapter VIII – Nuclear Ships
The chapter recommends certification requirements in deference to nuclear vessels. It has no single significance in the background of Autonomous operations. While
Regulation 3 says that a nuclear vessel will not, in any conditions be exempt from an agreement with “any regulations of the Convention”. So, any exceptions debated in the context of SOLAS which Autonomous vessels may stand usually to advantage from will not exist in the situation of Autonomous nuclear vessels.

Chapter IX – Management for the Safe Operation of Ships
The chapter mainly needs that the related “Company” and vessel fulfill with the needs of the International Safety Management (ISM) Code. The ISM Code needs the vessel owner or such person who has expected responsibility for the vessel to create a safety management system. The ISM Code seeks to guarantee greater addition of the shore-based company in the safety management of vessels. The ISM Code contains a requirement that the master’s responsibilities be plainly defined as well as provisions for shipboard operations, procedures, and documentation. From a regulatory viewpoint, there is little or no organized practice management in the area of full shore-based control of a vessel. Such management and practices must be established. Arguably, the ISM Code is a suitable instrument for this progress.

Chapter X – Safety Measures for High-Speed Craft
This Chapter has no unique relevance in the context of Autonomous operability.

Chapters XI (-1 & -2) Special Measures to Enhance Maritime Safety / Security

The chapters recommend extra procedures expected at enhancing safety and security of vessels.
Regulation 4 of Chapter XI-1 offers that a vessel in a port of Another Contracting state will be a focus to control by authorized officers of the port state when there are clear grounds for considering that the master or crew are not familiar with important shipborne measures relating to safety. Under Chapter XI-2, Regulation 3 involves the related maritime administration to “set security levels and ensure the provision of security-level information” to their flagged vessels. Exclusive security challenges are modeled in the framework of Autonomous operability, be it remote controlled or autonomous, mainly with regard to cyber penetration.
Regulation 6 involves vessels to have a ship security alert system (SSAS), which has the skill to transmit ship-to-shore security alerts to selected authorities, representing the vessel’s position and that its security is under threat. This system must be capable to be involved from the vessel’s bridge and at least one other place. In an Autonomous shipping context, there must be a related ship-to-shore alert device in place to alert persons at the shore-based office as to when the vessel’s physical or cyber-security has been conceded. Regulation 8 states that the master’s option is not forced by the company or any other crew member in detail of ship safety. In belief, a chief Shore-based remote controller might be given this role and assume such authority in respect of the safety of an Autonomous vessel despite his shore-based place.
The chapter calls for an agreement with the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code, which fears, the specific duties on shipping companies in detail to security, with security measures, the employment of security-focused crew and certification and verification wants. Regulation gives contracting states the permission to settle joint agreements for different security measures in detail of shorter voyages between ports of those contracting states.
Regulation 12 allows the Maritime Administration to allow a particular vessel or group of vessels to make use of another like security measures, provided such measures are at least an actual as those agreed by Chapter XI-2 and the ISPS Code.