CHAPTER ONE

CHAPTER ONE. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study
Globalisation coupled with the advance in technology has turned the world into a global village. This has its advantage in creating ease flow of goods and services around the world. This ease availability of goods and services has thrown up number of choices /alternatives open to consumers thereby making consumer taste more sophisticated. The foreign based organisations with more financial and technological muscle can afford to provide high quality goods and services at affordable prices. However, globalisation has its own disadvantages in that it makes competition stiffer, far above what the local organisations can cope. This has pushed managers in third world countries especially in Africa to resort to finding out the most effective managerial mix that will offer them competitive advantage in the global market structure. Thus, there is need for a competent and robust combination of human resources (the only resources abundant in Africa) practices that will enhance human quality and activeness of workers. The relationship between human resources practices and organisational performance is based on the resources based view (RBV). The resources based theory posits that the potential for competitive advantage of any organisation is a function of its ability to take full advantage of the potentials in its work force. Such potentials include expertise, skill and knowledge possessed by its work force that is unique to the organisation. These unique resources are not easily imitated or replicated by the competitors and that makes organisations to differ from one another in terms of performance. Human resources are intellectual capitals comprising human abilities, skills, personalities, intellects and motivation that often direct various employee behaviours. Keir (2016). The Resources Based View or Theory also posit that organisations must put in place the needed capabilities to build core skills of staff and ensure that the attitude and value that support the development of these skills in staff are in place. Abraham and Cohen (2005). Organisations now as means of sustaining themselves, turn to effective utilisation o f various bundle of human resources practices to encourage employees not only to effectively carry out the assigned duties but also go extra mile to carry out beneficial extra-role activities. These extra-role activities that is voluntary, and non remunerative in nature and outside the assigned duty of the employee but do contribute to organisational effectiveness are called organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). Several Studies have shown that this kind of behaviour from employee’s services as strategic asset of the organisation that increases work quality .podsakoff et al (2009) enhances employee’s innovativeness. Xerri and bruetto (2013), determine organisational performance, level of task accomplishment and organisational profitability .podsakoff et al (2014). Human resources practices being the methods for building organisational effectiveness should be studied in context of its ability in encouraging citizenship behaviour among employees. Sun, Areyee and Law (2007), and Fu (2013)
The relationship between human resources practices, job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour is based on the social exchange theory. Reciprocity is seen as the key component of social exchange theory. Social exchange theory has it that employees reciprocate to high level of motivation by engaging in behaviours that have favourable implication for their organizations by feeling obliged to support their organization’s wellbeing. Lavelle, Rupp, ; Bruckner, (2007). The norms of reciprocity manifest in employees behaviour when he or she feels satisfied on the job. When people are satisfied with their jobs, they will reciprocate with positive behaviours to benefit the organization in return, sometimes, far beyond their normal in-role activities and engage in extra-role behaviours (organisational citizenship behaviour).
Researchers are not united in their findings on the influence of human resources practices on organisational citizenship behaviour with some finding no significant relationships between Human resources management practices and organisational citizenship behaviour Chen, Hui, ; Sego, (1998). Others like Morrison showed the existence of direct relationship between Human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour. Morrison (2010).This direct relationship position is hotly disputed by other findings that found that the relationship is not direct but indirect .Sun et al(2007),Snap and Redman((2010).Thus, it becomes necessary in the mist of this disagreement to explore not just the existence of such relationship but also the underlining factors that not only facilitated (mediated) this relationship, but also tend to increase the wiliness of the employee to participate in organisational activities through voluntary, discretional and non remunerative activities.
In this study, we chose to do just that by looking at not only the likely relationship between human resources practices with the employee organisational citizenship behaviour but also the underlying factors that may have facilitated or mediated such relationship . In this current study, we are going to open the so called “HRM black box” so as to see what are in the box , how why they relate to each other. There is an implicit assumption among Human Resources practioners that Human Resources management practices when properly structured and implemented will inevitably lead to positive results. While this may be a possibility, the detailed supporting evidence as to what leads to this are not fully explored. Research is required in order to “peels back onion” as Becker and Gerhardt expressed it for more clear definition and description of the most significant factors which characterize the processes involved and the extent to which these help to explain the outcome of the process. Becker ; Gerhardt, (1996).
In this current study, we are suspecting
job satisfaction (which is explained as employee’s positive emotional state of mind based on his evaluation of the job) as a likely significant factor which characterise the processes involved and the outcome of the relationship between Human Resources Practices and employee Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. The purpose of the present study therefore is to explore the relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour initiated and performed by the employee with job satisfaction as facilitator or mediator of such relationship. We are proposing a model that explains the relationship between human resources management practices and organisational citizenship behaviour where job satisfaction construct acted as the mediator of the relationship. We are proposing that human resources practices are significantly related to employee organisational citizenship behaviour. However, those human resources practices do not make the employee to involve in organisational citizenship behaviour directly. Therefore, we assume that the relationship between the two variables are indirect in nature meaning that human resources practices trigger organisational citizenship behaviour in an employee only when he has job satisfaction i.e. the relationship when existed is mediated by job satisfaction.
We chose the university teaching hospitals in Nigeria as context of study because of the increasing need for human resources practices that will improve staff effectiveness there. Government teaching hospitals in Nigeria is performing below expectation orchestrated by decaying infrastructure, shortage of qualified personnel (a direct consequences of brain drain syndrome, that have ravaged the teaching hospitals in the African continent) and the prevailing poor condition of services. Doctors to patient ratio in Nigeria are far below world health organisation recommendation. The same goes with nurses and midwives. World health report of 2006 showed such ratio for doctors as 28 per every 100,000 and for nurses and midwives, 16 per every 10,000 patients in Nigeria. According to Prof. Folashade Ogunsoya, a professor of medicine and chairman Association of Colleges of Medicine of Nigeria ,Nigeria needs 237,000 medical doctors to meet the world Health standard which is far away from the current number of just 35, 000 doctors(Premium times 2017).
Punch newspaper in a publication summarised the challenges in Nigeria health system and hospitals, thus
“More and more Nigerians are flocking overseas for medical treatment, seeking to escape the worsening health services here. This is worrisome. The current arrangement, a mixture of public and private system, is expensive. Most importantly, it is not working. As our population rapidly grew, the government neglected the emerging dynamics. According to the NMA, there are 40,000 Nigerian medical doctors, but 19,000 out of them are practising abroad, while 70 per cent operate in urban centres where 30 per cent of the population reside. This is a dismal ratio. As a result, the World Health Organisation classifies the country among the 44 per cent of nations that have less than one per cent of physicians-per-1000 population. Drugs are sometimes not available. The facilities are obsolete, too…. Strikes bedevil the system at every turn. The result is chaos, such that the military, in the 1980s, described the hospitals as “mere consulting clinics.” Nursing World Nigeria (2015)
Based on the above reports, there is every need to motivate staff in the university hospitals to greater performance through displaying bundles of human resources practices that will encourage organisational citizenship behaviours since a motivated employee is a happy employee. A happy employee is a satisfied employee and a satisfied employee will be happy not only to perform his in-role activities but also willing to perform non remunerative extra-role activities as well (i.e. exhibiting organisational citizenship behaviour). This will provide the needed improvement in the hospital performances, a must need, in the face of the prevailing qualified staff inadequacy, decaying infrastructure and poor work condition of service in the Nigeria teaching hospitals. These voluntary, spontaneous and non remunerative services from employees will save them from the current noticeable shortfalls in services and build more public trust and patronage. For instance, a satisfied doctor may be willing to stay beyond working hour to complete operation and save life, donate equipment from his private clinic if it is in urgent need and lacking in the hospital, ready to answer call to duty at odd hours even when not his schedule and come to work regularly and early even when salary is not paid as and when due.

OUR STUDY MODEL
1.2 Statement of problem
The focus of this study is the relationship between Human Resources Practices and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour and the role Job satisfaction may play in this relationship between the two variables in University Teaching Hospitals. Organisational citizenship behaviour is a new construct in human resources and has witnessed few published research works on it in Africa and in Nigeria. Much of the research work on human resources practices were concentrated in advanced countries and preponderances of the works being on its relationship with the employee organisational outcomes and organisational performance. Few have been on the underlining factors that may have contributed to the relationship. Currently much research interest has shifted from studying the relationship between human resources practices and various organisational outcomes to studying the underlining factors that explains such relationship. Further, our literature search did not so far reveal any such published research work involving university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.
Based on the above explanations and to achieve our present research objectives, this study attempts to find answers to the following:
1. Are there significant relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour?
2. Are there significant relationship between human resources practices and job satisfaction?
3. Is there significant relationship between job satisfaction and organisation citizenship behaviour?
4. Does job satisfaction mediate the relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour?
1.3 Study objective
We have earlier stated in the study problem that most of the studies on the two variables of Human resources practices (HRP) and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and their relationship have been done in advanced countries and less in Africa countries. Secondly, We also stated that much of the studies have been on the influence of human resources practices on the organisational outcomes and less on the underlining factors explaining such influence or association.
Thirdly, we did state that literature reviewed by us so far did not reveal any published research work involving university teaching hospital in Nigeria and Enugu state specifically on HRP-OCB relationship.
While our objective is to close these gaps in the literature, this current study aims to achieve the following objectives in our study problems thus;
1. To find out whether there is significant association/relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour
2. To find out whether there is significant association/relationship between human resources practices and job satisfaction
3. To find out whether there is significant association/relationship between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour.
4. To find out whether job satisfaction mediates the association/relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour.
1.4 Hypothesis Formulation
A. Human Resources Practices (HRP) and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB).
Researchers have shown that bundles of human resources practices (recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation, performance management and industrial relations) may contribute to emergency of citizenship behaviours. Organ et al (2006), Snap and Redman (2010), Hussein et al (2012), and Fu (2013).The assumption here is that employee perception of human resources practices of an organisation determine how he feels about the organisation. For instance, employee who feels fairly treated by the organisation’s human resources practices will feel a sense of belonging, recognition, motivation and satisfaction with his job. With this positive emotional state, such employee may not only strive to satisfy his in role functions but also exhibit extra role functions in reciprocity. Based on the literature and the assumption above we propose our first hypothesis thus;
H1: There is significant relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour
b. Human Resources Practices and Job Satisfaction
Human resources practices encompass all activities involved in managing the human resources of an organisation made up of human resources planning; recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation, performance appraisal and grievance handling activities. Keir (2016). These practices influence employee behaviours, his attitude and performance at work. Noe, Honnenbeck, Gethart and Wright (2007).
Job satisfaction is said to be a pleasing or positive emotional state which follows from employee’s evaluation of his job. Lock (1976). This positive or pleasing emotional state of the employee reflects in his general attitudinal disposition regarding his job. Robbins (1999).
Researchers did show that human resources practices are closely related to job satisfaction. Huselid (1995), Spector (1997), Ting (1997), Gould and Williams (2003), Steijn (2004), and Peirjescu and Simmons (2008)
The assumption therefore is that when employee perceives the human resources practices of his organisation positively he will be satisfied with his job and vice versa. A satisfied employee in turn may feel motivated and happy to carry out his in- role activities. Based on the literature and the assumption above, we propose our second hypothesis
H2: There is significant relationship between human resources practices and Job satisfaction.
c. Organisational Citizenship Behaviour and Job Satisfaction
Various empirical studies have indicated that job satisfaction has significant and positive relationship with organisational citizenship behaviours. Smith et al (1983), Bartman and Organ (1983), Bolon (1997), Murphy, and Organ (2006), and Saepeng, Sikinno and Sienyhai (2015). According to Organ (2006), when an employee is motivated, he will display it in his character toward the organisation including a drive to display organisational citizenship behaviour toward the organisation, himself, and his colleagues at work. A well motivated employee is likely to be a satisfied employee and a satisfied employee may be in a better position emotionally to display organisational citizenship behaviours.
Based on the literature and the assumption above, we propose our third hypothesis.
H3: There is significant relationship between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour.
Job satisfaction as mediator.
Employee job satisfaction has been implicated in a number of published research works to have mediated in a number of organisational outcomes: Self efficacy and organisational citizenship behaviours .Rahman, Sulaman and Omar (2014), Job characteristics and organisational citizenship behaviour. Chiu and Chen (2015), employee performance and employee engagement .Ahmed, Shahzad, wheee and Khan (2004), and high performance work practice and staff absenteeism. Chidebere Ogbonnaya and Danat Valizade (2016). However, literature reviewed by us so far in course of this study did not reveal similar published work on the mediating role of job satisfaction on the relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviours. However, it is assumed in this current study that employee who has positive view about the human resources practices of the organisation he works with will feel job satisfaction. Opposite will be the case for an employee who has negative feeling about his organisation’s human resources practices. Extending this assumption, employee who experiences job satisfaction as a result of positive feeling about the organisation’s human resources practices will correspondingly strive to go extra mile helping the organisation, helping others and helping self i.e. exhibiting extra role behaviours.
Based on the ability to mediate in the relationship between human resources practices and some organisational outcomes as indicated by literature and the assumption above, we put forward our fourth hypothesis.
H4: Job satisfaction mediates the relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour
1.5 Significance of the study
The main significance of this study is in the managerial implications. Managers of organisations in Africa from this study outcome will see the need to review, design and implement human resources practices that will improve employee job satisfaction and increase the desire to put extra role behaviours’ at work place which is currently needed at this time of intense competition in global market structure.
Secondly, The teaching hospitals in Nigeria will also see from the findings of and recommendations that follow from this study the need to evolve a type of human resources practices that will motivate hospital employees, improve their job satisfaction and encourage organisational citizenship behaviours that are good enough to stem the brain drain of doctors and nurses overseas in search of greener pastures, an action buoyed up by poor working conditions back home.
Thirdly, the study will broaden the knowledge of the term Organisational citizenship behaviour which is a new construct in human resources and may then lay the foundation for further research studies on it in Africa.
1.6 Scope of study
This study will concentrate on the nature of relationship between three important human resources management constructs; the human resources practices, the job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour. Other numerous HR practices organisational outcome (employee performance, commitment, trust, voice, turnover, intention, absenteeism, perceives organisation support etc) were excluded from this study.
Secondly, a study of these importance involving teaching hospitals in Nigeria could have included more university teaching hospitals to make it more representatives. Nigeria has 59 of such institutions including federal medical centres. However, due to time, monetary and logistics limitations, it was restricted to two university teaching hospitals in Enugu state; university of Nigeria teaching hospital and Enugu state university teaching hospitals.

Chapter two literatures Review
2.1 Introduction
The objective of this chapter is to overview and review the key literature relevant to human resource management (HRM) practices, organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), and job satisfaction
Section 2.2 provides explanation and comparison of Personnel management (PM), Human resources management (HRM) and Strategic human resources management (SHRM) to lay the foundation for the various dimensions of human resources practices we used in this study. Section 2.3 provides an overview of HRM practices used in this study and how they may affect work related outcomes. Section 2.4 examines the organisational citizenship behaviour and some of its dimension; Section 2.5 discusses the job satisfaction literature while Section 2.5 discusses some empirical studies related to the topic of the study.
2.2 The concept of Personnel management (PM), Human resources management (HRM) and Strategic human resources (SHRM)
This current study is on the relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour with job satisfaction being a likely mediator. It is important that we include in this section the explanation of the three important concepts whose major functions bring about the human resources practices/dimensions in use for this study. Put in another way, the various attempts at actualising the functions inherent in these concepts bring about the human resources practices in display in this study. It is our view that understanding these concepts will be of immense help in our understanding of the HR dimensions and how they relate to various organisational outcomes.
Personnel management is the progenitor of Human resources management. This means that Human resources management arose as an advancement of personnel management functions. It refers to administrative efforts to management of the workforce in organisation. Its main concern was how to handle workforce and make them happy. Human resources management goes beyond the mere administration of work force such as pay and salary to that of treating the work force as resources of the organisation that is of equal importance with other resources of materials and money. This means an upgrade for inclusion into the so called organisational 3Ms of money, material and manpower. This upgrade and regard as organisational resources lead to further upgrade as an important strategic resources for the realisation of organisational goals with HR managers now seen as strategic partner in the business success (Thus, from PM to HRM and to SHRM concept). A summarized comparison of the three concepts is given below for better understanding.
Comparison of PM, HRM and SHRM
Personnel Management (PM) Human Resource Management (HRM) Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM)
Basic Assumption People as commodity People as resources People as strategic resources
Goal Performance of pre- defined professional activities Individual HR behaviours Organisational effectiveness as a whole
Nature Plural, collective reactive Unitary, individual proactive Strategic proactive
Framework Lack of systematic framework Isolated HR activities which are separate from each other and not linked to the overall environment of the organisation Broad, contingency-based. An HR system designed to fit the organisational environment and mutually reinforcing or synergistic in strategic intent.
Level Lower level Middle level Top level
Context Special field within the organisation Within the organisational scope Interact with organisational factors as well as external factors
Psychological Compliance Commitment Long-term commitment/development
Evaluation Cost minimization Maximum utilization Overall business success
Status Marginal Major managerial function
Source: Yususif Keir (2016) summary from Wright ; Boswell (2002), Truss ; Gratton (1994), and Baker et al. (1999).
Details from the above showed that People are regarded as commodities in personnel management, regarded as Resources in human resources management, and not only as a resource but very strategic resources needed in the realisation of the organisational goals in strategic human resources management. While personnel management is to minimize cost, that of the human resources management and strategic human resources management are cost maximization of the individual HR outcome and organisational effectiveness as a whole respectively. From the figure above, nature of PM is plural and reactive, that of HRM is unitary and more active while SHRM is strategic proactive approach.
SHRM focused more on top level of organisation, PM focus at lower level while HRM is on lower and middle management levels. In SHRM, managers/HR professionals are seen as strategic partners in the business unlike in PM and HRM. The major actors of these three approaches, the line and HR managers, take active roles in the strategic human resources functions with that of HR managers being supportive. Contrary to the roles managers play in SHRM which is supportive, HR managers and professionals are the major actors in human resources management with only few tasks delegated to line managers. Keir(2016)
2.2.1 Studies that linked Human Resources Management (HRM), Employee Job Satisfaction (JS) and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour(OCB)
Green et al. (2006), in their study of ‘Work Attitude and Work performance’ conducted a survey which involved 269 HR professionals employed by large US manufacturing firms.
They concluded that HR practices that were well integrated with the organisation’s strategic plans bring about high levels of satisfaction and enhanced commitment in employees . (Keir(2016), Green et al (2006)
A study conducted by Yaduveer Singh and Partel in Uduanpour, India using hotel industry involving 88 hotel employees in 2014 found that human resources have significant association with job satisfaction and that human resources dimensions such as recruitment and selection, working condition and career growth have positive impact on job satisfaction
A study in Malaysia by Leyia Farahbod and Soureh Arzi published in the interdisciplinary journal of comparative Research in Business in 2014 involving 139 hotel employees from six hotels in Kuala Lumpur showed that human resources practices of training and development, staffing, performance appraisal and rewarding system separately have significance and positive relationship with job satisfaction. The multiple regression analysis from this study also found that all the dimensions of HR practices studied except training have a significant impact on employee job satisfaction with performance appraisal having the most.
A study by Sinto Sunaryor and Joko Suyono that examined a model of the relationship between public service motivation, job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour in Indonesia involving 136 public servants working for the government of the district of Stragen showed that motivation has a positive and significance impact on job satisfaction and that job satisfaction has relationship with organisational citizenship behaviour. This means therefore that employee motivation through bundles of human resources practices can mediate the relationship between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour. Sunaryo and Suyono(2013). This means that employee who is motivated on his job can also have job satisfaction and exhibit organisational citizenship behaviour as well.
2.3 Variables in the study
2.3.1 Dimensions of Human resources practices
a. Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment and selection is the process by which actions are taken to ensure that an organisation engages the most suitable person for the declared position. Recruitment as a general term refers to the arrangements made to ensure that potential applicants are made aware of the intention of the organisation to make an appointment while Selection refers to the procedures used to choose the most appropriate candidate based on job specification .This involves collection of application, short listing from the applications, interviewing, selection and deployment as appropriate.
A direct link between the rigour of the process for attracting and selecting the most appropriate employees and overall employee productivity was reported in Huselid (1995) as shown by keir(2016)
b. Training and Development.
McGhee and Thayer(1965) defined training as the formal programme or procedures which a company uses to facilitate employees learning so that their resultant behaviour contributes to the attainment of the company’s goals and objectives McGhee and Thayer(1965). Ubeku(1975) sitting Seymour and Humble defines operative training as the process of transforming skills from those who posses them to those who do not and management training as the process of developing manager’s knowledge, skills and attitudes to meet the present and future needs of the business. Ubeku(1975). Attempts have been made by authors to differentiate training and development efforts. Maxwell and Roberts (1969) stated that training refers to the means used to improve employees on the job while development is any method used to prepare a manager for his intended job. He went further to explain that their difference anchored majorly on the fact that one prepares employee for his present job and the other prepares him for his future job. The above definitions have been supported by others like Nadler(1981),Evans(1981),and Johnson (1975). The important of training and development in organisation has been highlighted by authors. Lall(1990) wrote that shortages of managerial capabilities appear to have significant negative effect on the operating efficiency of most companies who lack trained personnel. Lall(1990) . Ubeku(1983) noted that the major problem of developing nations of which Nigeria is one, is their inability to manage their resources effectively orchestrated by the fact that they lack trained managers. Ubeku(1983). Some authors see the need for training emanating from changes in organisation, individual and societal needs. Ajuogu (1980) said that the need for training and development is reflected in the fact that the people and the institution which affects managerial actions in organisations and which makes demand on it are continuously changing: the sub-system within the organisation whose needs are to be considered are also changing: the output by the organisation which affect the society are also changing continuously. Ajuogu (1980) .Agathon(1980) wrote that the need for manpower development arose from the fact that the ways of doing business is becoming extremely complex in terms of product lines, changing technology, and services. Competitions within the business community are becoming more intense. Organisation characters and structures are in constant flux as companies live through radical swings in business practices. Ubeku(1988) saw the need for efficient training in terms of the need to reduce cost in labour and overheads through reduction in time, reduction in losses, reduction in personnel costs, absenteeism, and accidents as well as reduction in administrative cost. Mbanugo(1985) on his part saw the need for training as just to develop an individual to perform his job well for the realisation of organisational objectives by increasing his skills, attitudes and his knowledge. Mbanugo(1985) . On the individual level, authors argue that through training employee acquire needed skills and knowledge he needs to survive on the job which in turn has direct link with employee productivity , job satisfaction, commitment to the organisation and turn-over intention Huselid(1995), Noe et al(2004) and Johnson (1967). McGehee and Thayer(1965) outlined the ways of determining the existence of training need of any organisation to include
1. Analysis of the activity in a logical step (process, job and operation),
2. Analysis of equipment especially availability of new equipment,
3. Analysis of the problems facing the organisation,
4. Analysis of behaviour of workers in terms of chronic absenteeism carelessness, accident rate etc.,
5. Analysis of the organisation.(Confused planning, weak discipline, unclear goals and other action that may affect employee morale and lead to organisational performance may reveal the need for training), and
6. Analysis of performance appraisal reports. McGehee and Thayer(1965)
Pigor and Meyer(1977) succinctly outlined various method of imparting training to include
1. Classroom training.
2. On-the-job training. This is the type on training the trainee is shown what to do while the supervisor watches. The supervisor first demonstrates the job and watch the trainee do it. He then makes correction as and when due
3. Vestibule training. This is where the training takes place in a place that mimics the actual working place. This kind of training is desirable where the job is difficult where mistakes will impair production schedule and where special coaching is needed.
4. Apprenticeship training. This where the trainee is sent to training under guidance and supervision of an expert for longer period of time.
5. Programmed instruction. Programmed test materials are utilized for training. All principles of learning, reinforcement, feedback, involvement and repetition are applied in this kind of training. Pigor and Meyer(1977)
Thomson(1978) classified development programmes into three; internal development programme inside and outside the company including on –the- job, job rotation and counselling, formal development programme mainly within the company including various types of formal courses of instruction , and external formal courses making use of courses at universities, colleges and industrial training institute. Thomson(1978).
Jones (1980) was more succinct in his classification of training by grouping them into off-the-job training by way of formal courses run outside the company and on-the-job training for courses run within the company with or without a coach. All this group of training take the form of methods of lecture, case study, role playing, business games or programmed learning in a typical management programme. Jones (1980)
C. Contingent Pay and Reward Schemes (Compensation System)
Compensation system is an important consideration if organisation intends to procure, maintain and retain quality staff. Organisations must develop reward system and strategy that is clear enough in terms of how it is determined and paid. Within public sector institutions in Nigeria, this is determined nationally by the national wages and pay system unlike the private sector where there is flexibility on the part of the organisation in fixing their wages and pay which may build in options like bonuses and incentives, employee benefits or performance-related pay. Organisations in the private sector in Nigeria develop its own framework for compensation with a set of basic principles guiding such compensation system. Contingent pay and reward schemes are essentially designed in such way that will attract and retain desired employees. For a chosen pay system to be effective, it must fulfil the condition of the equity theory .Equity in compensation calls for the fulfilment of two basic principles to avoid disequilibrium in pay system. First, what is paid to individual employee must be at per or commensurate with his input or service to the organisation i.e. input=output. Secondly, what is paid to individual employee must be at par with what is paid to colleague in similar organisation in the industry doing the same job. When any of these principles is violated, there is going to be disequilibrium which may lead to dissatisfaction on the part of employees. Adams (1965). Based on this, pay system should accurately reflect the importance of the job role within the organisation.
Incentives are pay systems that reward employees for exceptional performance such as Merit pay provided to employees for their individual behaviour or performance contributions to an organisation, Skill based pay which may take the form of pay increases based on employee’s achievement of particular skills . Incentives could be provided through gain sharing, profit sharing, stock sharing or executive pay system. However, most of these are not applicable in teaching hospitals whose pay system aligns with that of the public service in Nigeria.
d. Performance Appraisal
All the formal process involved in monitoring and improving the productivity of workers is called performance appraisal (Brown and Heywood, 2005). It is the process that includes determining and communicating to employees how they are performing their jobs and establishing a plan for improvement. Ezigbo(2011). Appraisal system begins with job analysis and specification, setting of expectations or targets, performance management , measurement of performance in line with set targets, provision of feedback and subsequent management of the under performers. Armstrong(2009). It is a compulsory requirement in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria in line with the public service rules. Mullins (1999) observed that effective performance management should be an ongoing process to appraise the behaviour and performance of staff. He further stated that the key aspect of the process of monitoring performance is ensuring that employees are provided with what is expected of him and the parameters by which his performance will be assessed. Mullins (1999) . Desssler(2008) argued that this has to be agreed with the employee before his appraisal
Systematic appraisal systems can help in the identification of training needs, employee weaknesses (which may need to be addressed), employee useful strength (that can be utilised for organisational success), employee promotability, and the kind of rewarding system to be instituted. Keir(2016). Performance appraisal must be accompanied by complementary HRM practices like formal training, incentive pay and a robust disciplinary system for appraisal system to be effective .(Brown ; Heywood, 2005). Authors have shown that performance appraisal is vital for the organisation success and outcomes such as job satisfaction .Ellickson (2002), employee perception of unfairness in treatment. Daily and Kirk(1992), and turn -over intention. Dailey and Kirk(1992) . Dailey and Kirk (1992) warned that “ineffective performance appraisal and planning systems contributed to employees’ perceptions of unfairness”. Managers should therefore ensure that whatever appraisal system adopted must be fair and just in the eyes of stakeholders
e. Industrial relation/Employee Relations
Industrial relation is the regulation of employment relation in an employment situation by the employer/management or their organisations, the workers organisation and a third party, private and or government acting as an umpire, or controller. Akpala (1982).The purpose of industrial relation is to establish job rules and co-operation of man power resources toward attaining the objective of the employee, the organisation and the state through collective bargaining as a process whereby representatives of two parties meet and try to negotiate an agreement which states the nature of future relationship between them. Akpala(1982). Industrial relations play a great role fostering and sustaining industrial democracy. Monappa (2004). Well managed industrial relations creates peaceful and appropriate working environment for employees, good enough for them to have job satisfaction. Khan and Jahe,(2008).
Studies have indicated a number of HR practices that could be tested in connection with employee organizational outcomes. Eleven human resources practices were used by Huselid in 1995. They were selection, appraisal, compensation, job design, information sharing, grievance procedures, and assessment of attitude, labour relations, and recruitment, training and promotion criteria. Huselid (1995) .Eight HR practices of training practices, compensation practices, employee performance evaluation practices, promotion practices, governance procedures and social security were used by Teseema and Soeters (2006)
In this study, we are going to use recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation system, performance appraisal , and employee relations. They are selected since they form the major functions of human resources management commonly used for research studies of this type.
Summary of human Resources Practices

Source: The Author
2.4 Organisational Citizenship Behaviour:
In 1983, Bateman and Organ introduced the term “citizenship “as form of behaviours that socially helps the organization reach its goal. Bateman and Organ (1983) .
Katz (1964) while expatiating on this stated that behaviours that contributed to organizational survival are of three types;
1. People must be induced to enter and remain within the system,
2. People must carry out their role assignments in a dependable fashion,
3. People must exhibit innovative and spontaneous behaviours in achieving organizational objectives which go beyond the assigned roles if organisations are to be immune to unforeseen, Unexpected and unprepared changes in the organisational environment. Katz (1964)
Smith and associates (1983) was guided by this idea of innovative and spontaneous behaviours in defining this type of behaviours as “actions not specified by role prescriptions which nevertheless facilitate the accomplishment of organizational goals” Katz( 1964). Organ (1988) put this succinctly when he defined such behaviours as
“Behaviours that are discretionary and are not directly recognized by the formal reward system but in the aggregate promote the effective and efficiency functioning of the organization. By discretionary, we mean that the behaviour is not an enforceable requirement of the role or the job description, that is, the clearly specifiable terms of the person’s employment construct with the organization; the behaviour is rather a matter of personal choice, such that, its omission is not generally understood as punishable”. Organ (1988).
This brought to the fore three important characteristics of organisational citizenship behaviour going by Organ’s definition and subsequent explanations by some authors thus,
1. OCB is discretionary in nature and goes far beyond the traditional requirements of the job (Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983).
2. Unlike the formal job description written in the employment contract, OCB is not directly or formally recognized by the reward system. Although engaging in such activities might attract some reward, it cannot be guaranteed by the terms of the contract. Organ (1997).
3. OCB in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organization.
The idea of organisational citizenship behaviour construct in human resources practise outcome did not go without criticism from experts. Morrison ( 1994), Mackenzie, Podsakoff, & Fetter( 1991).
The criticisms centred on the inability to clearly distinguish in- role behaviours from extra -role behaviours in certain situations. According to Morrison, employees may hold different views about their job responsibilities and may differ from each other while defining the boundary between what is in-role and extra-role behaviour. Therefore, engaging in OCB depends on how the employee defines his/her job at particular situation.
Another criticism directed to the OCB construct is based on the issue of rewards. Mackenzie et al. (1991), argued that some OCBs might be confusedly rewarded as if they are in-role performance elements. .
However, researchers have not been consistent with the terminology used to describe the organisational citizenship behaviours. It has been described as prosaically organisational behaviour. Brief and Motowidlo (1986), O’Reilly and Chatman (1986), George (1991) and McNeely and Meglino (1994)); extra-role behaviour by Van Dyne et al. (1995), Tiemey, Bauer and Potter (2002), Platow (2003)); contextual performance by Bormann, White and Dorsey (1995), and Bormann and Motowidlo (1997)); and organisational spontaneity by George and Brief (1992) ,and George and Jones (1997)). According to Katz and Kahn (1978), the above-mentioned behaviours are important because effective organisational functioning requires employees not only to perform their prescribed role (referred to as in-role behaviours), but also to engage in behaviours that go beyond these formal obligations. It is widely accepted that organisations need employees who are willing to exceed their formal job requirements since it is one of the gate way of improving organisational performance needed to survive turbulent unforeseen circumstances. For instance, Katz (1964) noted:
“No organisation planning can foresee all contingencies within its operations, or can anticipate with perfect accuracy all environmental changes, or control perfectly all human variability. The resources of people in innovation, in spontaneous co-operation, in protective and creative behaviour are thus vital to organisational survival and effectiveness”
Smith et al. (1983) also argued that ‘citizenship behaviours are important because they lubricate the social machinery of the organisation. They provide the flexibility needed to work through many unforeseen contingencies; they enable participants to cope with the otherwise awesome condition of interdependence on each other’. Further to this, George and Brief (1992) stated that OCB is essential because organisations cannot anticipate through formally stated in-role job descriptions the entire array of behaviours needed for achieving goals. In agreement with these authors, Van Scotter, Motowidlo and Cross (2000) argue that even though organisational citizenship behaviours are not part of individuals’ assigned duties, they are still beneficial to the organisation, its members and the employees themselves.
Yussif Keir(2016)cited several authors who have discussed the potential impact of OCBs on organisational performance and success in their respective studies to include Schnake, (1991); Williams and Anderson,( 1991). Organ (1988) and Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine and Bacharach (2000) showing that OCBs may contribute to organisational success by:
1. improving managerial productivity;
2. freeing up resources so they can be used for more productive purposes;
3. reducing the need to devote scarce resources to purely maintenance functions;
4. helping to coordinate activities both within and across work groups;
5. strengthening the organisation to adapt more effectively to environmental changes;
6. contributing to organisational performance because these behaviours provide an effective means of managing the interdependencies between members of a work unit, and as a result increase the collective outcomes achieved; and
7. Increasing organisational productivity because workers that exhibit such behaviour improve the ability of co-workers to perform their jobs or because such behaviour allows managers to devote more time to productive activities like planning, scheduling, problem solving and organisational analysis. Yussif Keir(2016)
Podsakoff et al (2000) argue that there is a lack of consensus about the dimensionality of this construct. Keir(2016) explained that literature have indicated that there are several different dimensions put forward by authors such as altruism and generalized compliance .Smith et al, (1983); obedience, loyalty, advocacy participation, social participation and functional participation. Van Dyne, Graham and Dienesch, (1994); helping behaviour .Van Dyne et al (1995); Van Dyne and LePine, (1998); and interpersonal helping, individual initiative, personal industry and loyal boosterism. Moorman and Blakely, (1995). Williams and Anderson (1991) gave two broad categories of OCB: OCB-0 behaviours toward the organisation and that benefit the organisation in general (e.g., the employee gives advance notice when unable to come to work); and (b) OCB-I behaviours toward other person (i.e., employee behaviours directed at other individuals) and that immediately benefit specific individuals, and indirectly through this means contribute to the organisation. Although a wide variety of specific dimensions of OCBs have been identified, Keir(2016) argued that the five-dimension framework proposed by Organ (1988) of altruism, conscientiousness, civic virtue, sportsmanship and courtesy, have been the most frequently examined by researchers citing. Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman and Fetter, (1990); MacKenzie, Podsakoff and Fetter, (1991); Moorman, (1991); Moorman et al (1993); Tansky, (1993);Konovsky and Pugh, (1994); Podsakoff et al. (1996); Van Yperen, Van den Berg and Willering, (1999); Diefendroff, Brown, Kamin and Lord, (2002) as such researchers. We also used them in the current research.
Altruism refers to behaviours that help others with existing job-related problems. This behaviour is directly intended to help a specific person in face-to-face situations. Examples of this behaviour include: helping others ; performing a task or solving a problem for others; standing in for others who have been absent; helping others who have heavy workloads; and orienting new people even though it is not officially required .Organ, 1988; Podsakoff et al, (1990). While these behaviours may be intended to benefit an individual, organisation also benefits. Keir(2016)
Conscientiousness refers to behaviour which benefits the organisation. It is performing one’s role in the organisation in a manner that is far above the norm of the organisation. Organ (1988). Thus, conscientiousness refers when someone goes beyond normal requirements or expectations in an organisation such as being punctual, regular attendance despite illness or extreme weather conditions, obeying rules and regulations of the organisation, not idling away work time. Organ, 1988; Podsakoff et al (1990) ,and Keir(2016)
Civic virtue refers to the extent to which one contributes to political issues in organisations in a responsible manner. Civic virtue is defined as ‘responsible participation in the affairs of the organisation’ Graham (1986), Podsakoff et al, (1990). Examples include Keeping up with matters that affect the organisation, attending meetings, participating in organisationally sponsored community development, and expressing positive emotions about one’s organisation to outsider’s .Organ( 1988). Keir(2016)
Sportsmanship refers to the willingness of an employee to tolerate less than ideal circumstances and temporary personal inconveniences without making a fuss, ‘to avoid complaining, petty grievances, railing against real or imagined slights, and making federal cases out of small potatoes’ (Organ, 1988). Being a good sport includes not only the absence of complaint when faced with unfavourable conditions or behaviours from others, but also maintaining a positive attitude and tolerance of the rejection of one’s ideas Podsakoff et al, (2000). Examples include not consuming a lot of time complaining about trivial matters and not always finding fault with what the organisation is doing. Keir (2016)
Courtesy refers to actions taken to help prevent problems of work. It involves preventing problems by keeping others informed of your decisions and actions which may affect them, and passing on information to those who find it useful. Examples include consulting with others before taking action, not abusing the rights of others, giving advance notice, reminders, passing along information, and being mindful of how one’s behaviour affects other peoples’ jobs. Organ( 1988), Podsakoff et al( 1990).These behaviours are important in several ways including: enhancing individual and group productivity; freeing up resources for more productive purposes; increasing coordination; enhancing the stability of organisational performance; and assisting in the maintenance of a favourable work climate. Podsakoff et al (2000). Organ’s (1988) five-dimension framework described above has been the subject of vigorous empirical research. Keir(2016). We used them in this present research for the basic reasons that it is often being used in most organisational citizenship Behavioural research
2.5 Job satisfaction
Job satisfaction is defined as pleasing and positive emotional state which comes out of the person’s evaluation of his job. Locke (1976), Hague and Taher (2008), Nurul Agbari, Tahlil Azim, Blalasurundaram andAkhter(2010). Robbins (1999) said that job satisfaction is an individual’s general disposition (attitude) regarding his or her job. He also stated that it is the employees feeling about the different dimensions of their job. Robbins (2003). Job satisfaction is a function of how satisfied or dissatisfied an employee is with his or her job .Spector(1997)
Researchers have indicated a lot of dimensions of job satisfaction. Snepung et al(2011). They are motivators and hygienic factors otherwise called Herzberg two factors theory of motivation. Herzberg, Mausner and synderman(1959), Five dimensions of job satisfaction was proposed by Smith, Kendal and Hulin(1968).They are the work itself(challenges, opportunities etc), pay system(appropriateness of rewards/financial remuneration received in services or sacrifices made and in comparison with colleagues in similar firms),promotional opportunities( advancement opportunities and fairness associated in determining promotability), supervision(level of support received by subordinates from supervisors), co-workers( how cooperative and socially supportive are the co-workers in the same organisation). Some authors agree with the above but added that employees needs and desires, social relationships, job design, compensation system, promotional opportunities, and level of work-life balance affected employee job satisfaction. Javed et al(2012), Byers and Bue(1887), and Moorhead and Griffin(1999) , Keir(2016)
According to Smith, Kendall and Hulin (1969), all sources of job satisfaction fall into two categories: intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction. Intrinsic sources originate from within the individual and have psychological value. Such satisfactions are essentially self-administered. In contrast, extrinsic sources of satisfaction originate from the environment (outside the individual). Forces beyond the individual’s control (e.g., job security and fringe benefits) determine the frequency and magnitude of extrinsic satisfaction. In addition, some sources of satisfaction serve a dual purpose; that is, they can be extrinsic or tangible in nature while having intrinsic or psychological value because of what they symbolise. Keir(2016)
2.5 Review of previous empirical studies
Human Resources Practices and Job Satisfaction
A lot of studies have linked human resources management practices with job satisfaction of employees in various sectors of the economy of countries around the world.
A study conducted by Yaduveer Singh and Partel in Uduanpour, India using hotel industry involving 88 hotel employees in 2014 found that human resources practices have significant association with job satisfaction and that human resources dimensions such as recruitment and selection,, working condition and career growth have positive impact on job satisfaction.
In a study by Mohammed khan Niazi in Pakistan on employees of textile industries found that bundles of human resources practices of training and development, respect and integrity, opportunities for growth and career path, increment and promotion, performance appraisal, compensation and benefit have significant positive impact on job satisfaction of employees. The study also showed that front line managers were less satisfied with human resources practices compared with middle level managers. Khan Niazi(2014).
A study in Malaysia by Leyia Farahbod and Soureh Arzi published in the interdisciplinary journal of comparative Research in Business in 2014 involving 139 hotel employees from six hotels in Kuala Lumpur showed that human resources practices of training and development, staffing, performance appraisal and rewarding system separately have significance and positive relationship with job satisfaction. The multiple regression analysis from this study also found that all the dimensions of HR practices studied except training have a significant impact on employee job satisfaction with performance appraisal having the most.
In Bangladesh, Nurul Absar Tahul Azim, Balasundaram and Sadia Akater. In a study titled ‘impact of human resources practices on job satisfaction evidence from manufacturing forms in Bangladesh’ involving 60 employees from 20 manufacturing companies found that Bundles of human resources practices have significant association with job satisfaction. The study also showed that training and development has the greatest impact on job satisfaction. Six dimensions of human resources practices were used in this study. They were human resources planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and industrial relations.
In Africa, George Mainoo, Bright Addo and EEnnin Kobina studied human resources practices and employees job satisfaction: Focus on public institutions in Ghana. Using cross sectional survey of employees of Obuasi Municipal District Assembly consisting of low and middle level management staff, and found that significant negative relationship existed between career development and job satisfaction(r=-0.683,p=0.000) , career development and promotion(r=0.184,p=0.025. However, the study found that employee recognition of good performance and job design were positively related to job satisfaction. This finding could be explained from the fact that the study involved management staff who might be aspiring for the upper level of motivation of self recognition and self actualisation in line with Maslow’s theory of motivation and Herzberg’s two factor theory of motivation. Maino o et al (2014)
It is evident from our review of literature of studies of Human resources practices and job satisfaction relationship that such published studies were in its lowest ebb in Africa and Nigeria. This current study is aimed at closing this gap in the literature.
Human Resources Practices and organisational Citizenship Behaviour
Organisational citizenship behaviour is a very new construct in human resources management practices outcome that have not been richly studied in Africa. The reason might be from the poor human resources practices in Africa where employees are less regarded as important organisational resources when compared with other organisational resources of material and financial resources. In Africa, organisations less aspire to motivate employees since they are seen to be in abundance resulting in employees poor job satisfaction. The other consequence is that the much needed extra- role behaviour will be sacrificed. Only a satisfied employee will strive to give non remunerative organisational citizenship behaviour toward the organisation.
A study by Mohammed Ghafoor in Pujab, Pakistan involving school teachers titled “Linkage between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour through mediation of perceived organisational support found that there is significance and positive relationship between two dimensions of human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour..The study further showed that perceived organisational support mediated the relationships mentioned above among teachers in Punjab, Pakistan. Ghafoor(2016).
A study on the impact of human resources policies and practices on organisational citizenship behaviour in Brazil by Joel Adame and colleagues retrieved from the publication of the free library of the Brazilian school of Business Studies involving 156 workers of public companies in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil found that bundles of human resources practices of recruitment and selection, training and development, performance evaluation, remuneration and reward, work conditions, and employee involvement accounted for 31.7% of employee citizenship behaviour in those companies studied.
Job Satisfaction and Organisational citizen behaviour
A number of empirical studies abound linking job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour around the world.
A study by Sinto Sunaryor and Joko Suyono that examined a model of the relationship between public service motivation, job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour in Indonesia involving 136 public servants working for the government of the district of Stragen showed that motivation has a positive and significance impact on job satisfaction and that job satisfaction has relationship with organisational citizenship behaviour. This means therefore that employee motivation can mediate the relationship between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour. Sunaryo and Suyono(2013). This means that employee who is motivated on his job can also have job satisfaction..
An exploratory survey by Tabatabel, Takapoo and Leilaeyoun on the relationship between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship among 270 nursing staff of social security hospitals in Isfahan province of Iran disclosed that if job satisfaction is increased, organisational citizenship behaviour is enhanced significantly.
Empirical study of group of companies in Turkey by Faruk Unal on the relationship between dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour and the facets of job satisfaction involving 199 employees showed that the facets of job satisfaction have various impact on dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour. Facets of job satisfaction used were job itself, co-workers, supervision ,company policy, pay and promotion while dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour used in the study were altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness and sportsmanship.
Amna Arif and Aisha Chohan studied the relationship between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour among employees working in banking sector of Pakistan economy involving 350 employees based o n Herzberg’s two factor theory of job satisfaction and dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour developed by parsons and Shriolls(1951)comprising interpersonal help, individual initiative, personal industry and loyal boosterism . They discovered that both variables are highly correlated and that job satisfaction accounted for 57.2% of organisational citizenship behaviour among bank employees.

Job satisfaction as mediator
Published research studies have found that job satisfaction has mediating effect in various aspect of human resources management practices outcome. In a study on the role of job satisfaction as mediator in the relationship between self-efficacy and organisational citizenship behaviour involving 339 teacher in religious school ,it was found that job satisfaction significant mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and organisational citizenship among teachers in Indonesia. Rahman, Wan sulaimon, Rohany Ieasia and Fatima Umar (2014). Rahman and his colleagues also reported a study by chiu and chen (2005) that examined the role of job satisfaction in mediating job characteristics and OCB involving 270 employees from 24 electronic companies that showed that job satisfaction(intrinsic ) has mediating mechanism on the relationship between job characteristics and organisational citizenship. Rahman et al (2014).
In a survey of 273 administrative employees of four universities in Jordan by Ahmed Al-shuaibi, Subranian and Faridahwatn Shamsudin(2012),it was found that job satisfaction mediated the relationship between four dimensions of human resources practices(performance appraisal, compensation practices, career advancement, and employee security) and cyber deviance. Also in the finding is that one dimension of job satisfaction, satisfaction with pay, partially mediated the link between performance appraisal and cyber deviance while the other job satisfaction dimension ,satisfaction with workload ,was a partial mediator between career advancement and cyber deviance.
The Mubashiri , Ahmed et al (2014) studied the relationship between high involvement practices and employee performance with job satisfaction as mediator variable in banking sector of Pakistan. 300 bank employees were involved with a response rate of 71.3%. The report showed that job satisfaction fully mediates the relationship between high involvement management practice and employee performance in the banking sector of Pakistan.
Literature above has provided us with evidence of the mediation capacity of job satisfaction on relationship between human resources practices with some organisational outcomes. However, there is lack of published work by our literature search on its mediating effect on human resources practices relationship with organisational citizenship behaviours.
2.6 Gaps in the literature this current study is out to close
Organisational citizenship behaviour, being a new construct in human resources management has not been well studied as shown by few published work on it in Africa and in Nigeria in spite of the need for it if organisations in Africa is to survive intense competition in the global market structure.
There are preponderance of published works on human resources practices and the relationship with organisational outcomes in advanced countries and third world countries of Asia. The same is not the case in Africa continent which have so far recorded few published research works on them. That means organisations in Africa either are adapting their human resources practices from developed nations that invariably is unsuitable in African environment or utilising a very poor form of human resources practices that is not enabling enough if organisations in Africa are to stand out of the crowd and survive the effect of globalisation, advance in technology and increasing sophistication in consumer taste.
Most of the published researched works on human resources management practices have been on its relationship with organisational outcomes (employee commitment, job performance, voice, and trust, perceived organisational support turn over intention, job satisfaction, and organisational performance).Few works have been done on investigating the underlining factor that facilitated or explained the “why” and “how “of such relationship especially in third world countries. Such studies will help managers engage human resources practices that will meet the requirement of 21s century business community that is characterised with intense competition. Again, human resources are the only resources abundant in Africa that needed to be improved on and relied upon for survival in the global market structure.
Finally, Nigeria university teaching hospitals are not only faced with infrastructural decays but also faced with the problem of human capital flight through the so called brain drain syndrome of doctors and nurses to overseas in search of greener pasture and as a way of escaping the poor condition of service back home . There is glaring dearth of research works on three important Human Resources Management constructs that may prove helpful in improving the performance of these hospitals and engender public trust and patronage while diminishing the human capital flight overseas. These constructs are the Human resources practices, Job satisfaction and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. For instance, no research studies have been seen on how Human Resources Practices re-mixing, re-engineering and re-configuration could come to rescue i.e. what Human Resources architecture could motivate hospital employees to improve on their in-role activities and move further to add extra-role behaviour for the improvement of the teaching hospitals and stem the brain drain syndrome plaguing the nation’s hospitals.
Based on the identified gaps in the literature, this current study is meant to close them.
Theoretical framework
In this study we propose that Human resources practices relate to job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour respectively, and that the relationship between Human Resources Practices and organisational citizenship is mediated by job satisfaction. Theories abound that support this. In this section of our literature review, we are going to look at these related theories. They are the motivation theories, the Resources Based View (RBV), social exchange theory, and the HRM Box Theory
Herzberg Two- Factor Theory of Motivation.
Berelson and Steiner in Koontz, O’Donnell and welheriah (1964) defined the term motive as “an inner state that energizes, activates and moves (hence motivation), and that directs or channels behaviour toward goals”. This therefore means that a manager motivates his subordinates by engaging in those things that satisfy them on the job especially in the areas of meeting their needs wants and desires. Koontz et al (1964) presented this motivation satisfaction chain as a chain reaction that starts with felt needs resulting in wants or goals sought which leads to desires for satisfaction of wants, and ends with eventual satisfaction of wants or goals. Koontz et al (1964).
This leads to the phenomenon of motivator which Koontz et al (1964) defined as some things that influences an individual to behave in certain way. Herzberg and colleagues succinctly explained how motivation leads to satisfaction with the so called Two-Factor theory where he came up with what he classified as maintenance or dissatisfier, the presence of which will not motivate staff but its absence will make employee dissatisfied with the job. In this category he includes those factors he called hygienic factors (company policy and administration, supervision, working conditions, inter personal, status, salary, job security and personal life).Their presence is necessary in the organisation since its absence will lead to employee dissatisfaction with his job. The other group he calls the motivators or satisfiers whose presence in the organisation will ultimately lead to job satisfaction. These factors include achievement, recognition, challenging work, advancement and growth in the job. This means that if managers must engage in human resources practices that improve on job satisfaction such human resources practices must be the ones that improve on job contents, recognizes employee contributions ,better compensation system etc.
In this current study we propose that Human resources practices significantly relate to job satisfaction in line with the above theoretical explanation.
Resource Based View/Theory
Strategic management stipulates that competitive advantage is determined essentially by having resources that is distinctive in the area of capabilities, skills and expertise found in staff employee. The view also support the fact that organisations build the needed capabilities to build core skills of staff and as well ensure that the attitude and value that support the development of these skills in staff are in place. Abraham and Cohen (2005). The resources based view recognised the facts that other organisational resources such as material and technology can easily be imitated by competitors thereby eroding most organisations of any competitive advantage possession of such resources can accrue. This is where the need for competitive advantage that accrues from the organisational resources that are not easily imitated comes to play. The resources based theory posits that the potential for competitive advantage of any organisation is a function of its ability to take full advantage of the potentials in its work force. Such potentials include expertise, skill and knowledge possessed by its work force that is unique to the organisation. These unique resources are not easily imitated or replicated by the competitors. This explain the differences in business performance among organisations since Human Resources Practices in place impact on employees by influencing his organisational outcomes such as organisational performance, Boral and Steeveid (1999), Keir (2016). Guest (1997) argued that some of the HR practices can be imitated as well insisting that tailor made and targeted Human Resources Practices that improve skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviour that cannot be imitated is preferred.
Social exchange theory
According to Organ (1990), the basis of the relationship between job satisfaction and OCB is social exchange theory. This theory states that the existence of certain conditions in an organisation predisposes people to reciprocate those who benefit them. Belau (1964) argued that the relationship between employee and organization is based on exchange relationship that is both social and economic in form. The key to social exchange theory lies with the norms of reciprocity according to Shapiro (2002) to which people feel obliged to respond positively when treated favourably by others. Social exchange theory emphasizes the socio-emotional aspects of the Relationship between employee and organization, including feelings of obligation while economic aspect of this exchange dwelt on tangible means of exchange such as pay and benefits Shore, Tetrick, Lynch, ; Barksdale, (2006); Song, Tsui, ; Law (2009). . Reciprocity is seen as the key component of this exchange. At high level of social exchange relationships employees are motivated to engage in behaviours that have favourable consequences for their organizations by feeling obligated to support their organization’s wellbeing Lavelle, Rupp, & Bruckner, (2007).
The norms of reciprocity manifest in employees behaviour when he or she feels satisfied on the job. When people are satisfied with their jobs, they will reciprocate with positive behaviours to benefit the organization in return ,most times ,far beyond their in -role activities and engage in extra role behaviours( organisational citizenship behaviour) .
HRM Black Box theory: its meaning and opening
When looking at the relationship between Human resources management and performance, researchers must also look for the causal factors . There is the need to consider understanding of the “HRM Black Box” concepts in understanding and explaining how HRM practices are supposed to contribute to performance. The importance of being clear on “how” something is done compared to just “what” has been done is very relevant leading to the research literature increasingly shifting toward looking into the “black box” in explaining the why and how of relationships between variables. Boselie et al., (2005). Essentially this refers to a process that seeks to make clear how providing specific inputs are then converted into useful outputs (Purcell et al., 2003). There has been a persistent appeal in the literature for future Human resources management research to move beyond a demonstration of main effects of HR practices to an examination of both how and why high performance human resource practices are related to organisational performance. Sun et al. (2007)) .Keir(2016) .It is through investigation of this problematic model of “Black Box” that factors which are otherwise often termed as “a remaining void”, “a gap” or ” a largely unexplained facet” can be clarified. The causal chain linking HR practices (inputs) and employee’s response to them outputs) is complex and has been referred to as the “black box” problem in the literature .Boxall ; Purcell, (2008). The “Black box” model builds on a psychological contract, i.e. on an employee’s and an employer’s perception of mutual, often informal and imprecise, obligations and stresses a notable role of line managers in ensuring conducive work environment for building employee Involvement in Organisational citizenship behaviours. Opening the black box will expose what is inside, how they interact and why they interact the way they do inside the box leading to a particular outcome.
In the context of this current study, “black box” refers to the causal chain of a direct relationship linking HR practices and organisational citizenship behaviour. Looking inside the black box will expose the why and how of the likely relationship between these two variables.
Keir (2016) in other to encourage better understanding of the black box concept in HRM presented authors Propositions related to the Concept
Authors Proposition
Theriou, Chatzoglou (2009)
Although there are a large number of research papers which have been published which looks at the effect of HRM practices on performance there is little work done which provides an underpinning theory which can be generally applied. The mechanisms by which processes lead to “competitive advantage” are not clear. .

Lytras, Ordonez de Pablos (2008)
The literature lacks an underpinning rationale which explains the key factors which can be identified as explaining how HRM practices generate organisational performance improvements..

Boselie et al. (2005)
The inputs and outputs to the transformational process are not clearly defined and little attention is paid to examining the potential for intermediate or compounding variables. Generally there is very little research which focuses on the “linking mechanisms and “mediating effects of key variables” in this relationship.

Wright et al. (2003)
Much of research has demonstrated statistically significant relationships between HR practices and firm profitability. While these studies have been useful for demonstrating the potential value created through HR practices, they have revealed very little regarding processes through which this value is created.

Purcell et al. (2003)
Many previous studies have examined the link between HRM practices and performance and shown there to be a positive relationship, but none has explained the nature of this connection how and why HRM practices impact on performance
Delery (1998)
Causal pathways which explore the mechanisms which influence results which are positive are neither clearly understood nor described in much of the literature. Influencing factors to explain research results need to be more clearly described.

Huselid & Becker, (1996)
The starting point for research in the areas is often from a standpoint where there is an implicit assumption that HRM practices which are properly structured and implemented will inevitably be an “economic asset”. The detailed supporting evidence for value creation pathways leading from this are not fully explored. Research is required in order to “peels back onion” and more clearly defining and describing the most significant factors which characterize the processes involved and the extent to which these help to explain the outcome of the process. The positive association between specific practices in “adding value” is often presented as the main goal or objective of research but does little to

Source: Keir(2016) summarized Authors propositions related to “Black Box” Concept based on Savanaviciene and Stankeviciute,( 2010)
It can be seen that a key theme which characterises the publications discussed above is that t here is a need to focus on the mediating variable in the relationship between human resources practices and organisational outcomes. This current research seeks to fill that gap .

Chapter three Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction
The main aim of this study is to explore the mechanism through which human resources practices (HRP) relate with employee organisational outcome of organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). In this chapter, we discussed study design (the plan or blue print that detailed how to go about data collection and analysis), sources of data collection either from primary or secondary source or both, the population of study (all the people or things that makes the target of study),sample and sampling techniques (parts of the population selected to present characteristics of the main population and the method of selecting this parts from study population respectively),hypothesis testing techniques (how the proposed hypothesis could be tested for acceptance or rejection), data collection instruments ( the instruments to be used for data collection), and method for data analysis( presentation of data in more comprehensible format).
3.2 Study design
This study is a survey study. A survey research is where group of people or items is studied by collecting and analysing sample data from population. Onwe(2004). In this study ,we are going to apply structured questionnaire survey . The research will be undertaken in phases, the first phase being request for endorsement letter to the management of case organisations (the university of Nigeria and ESUTH teaching hospitals at Ituku Ozalla and Park lane, ENUGU. Respectively) .The request for endorsement will be clear on the intention of the research and confidentiality of the information to be provided in the course of the study by the management and staff of these organisations. It has been proposed by the expert that getting the necessary support of the management of the organisation of study is very helping in building the trust and eventual participation of employees and management which in turn improves the questionnaire return rate. Diliman((2000),Ruth and Bevier(1998, 2000),Weliu(2000).
The second phase is structured questionnaire that will be administered on the respondents who are the employees of University teaching hospitals in Enugu state, Nigeria.
3.3 Sources of data collection
Our main source of data collection in this study is through primary source. Primary source of data is a way of getting data directly from the person who observed the data .Uzuagulu(1998). It is observed data that come from direct observation of events, manipulation of variables, and contrivance of research situation including performance of experiments and responses from questionnaire .Asikia(1991), Onodugo,ugwuonah and Ebinne(2010).
We will also deploy data from secondary source when there is need especially in the validation of some information from primary sources. Secondary information will be gotten from the management on the human resources practices of the case organisations,
3.4 Study population
A study population is said to be the entirety of cases which possess the designated set of criteria of character necessary for the study. This means all elements found in the group. Polit and Hungler(1978). This means also that to be included in the population of study, you must possess the pre-designated characteristics of that group.
The population for this study is the employee of University teaching hospital in Ituku Ozalla and ESUT university teaching hospital, Park lane, all in Enugu state, Nigeria. The combined population of the two teaching hospitals is 9,800(UNTH, 6,400 and ESUT, 3,400). The population consist of Doctors, Nurses/midwives, paramedics and administrative staff.
3.5 Sampling and sampling techniques.
Onodugo and et al(2010) stated that the idea of sample arose because in most cases, it is difficult to study the entire population. They further stated that studying the entire population will be time consuming and with high cost implication. The method deployed to select appropriate representative sample from the population is called sampling. Eboli(2009)
In this study, the technique to select from the entire population the needed sample will be purposive and statistical. Purposive sampling is a technique that uses researcher’s prior knowledge of the population which enables him to know which proportion of the population will be useful and representative for the current study. Babble (2007). In this study ,we pre select respondents from the population based on their ability to understand and respond to the questionnaire items. Educational level and length of service of employees will be the criteria for selection purposively. Based on this, messengers, security personnel, outsourced staff, drivers, cleaners and health assistants will be excluded. Also excluded are those who have been with the organisation for less than six months who must have been less affected by the human resources practices and thus possess low understanding of the HR practices. Appropriate sample for this study will then be statistically determined after the purposive sampling.
3.5.1Determination of sample size
The below statistical formula will be used to determine the appropriate sample size for this study.
n= zxzNpq/(Nexe+zxzpq) where
n=sample size
N=the population
P=probability of success (50%). (Arbitrarily selected)
Q=probability of failure (50%).(Arbitrarily selected)
Z=standard error of mean(1.96)
E=limit of tolerance error/level of significance (5%)
Source: Onodugo et al (2010)
The total population for this study after purposive sampling is 8, 300. Applying the above statistical technique, our sample size will be determined thus
n=(1.96)(1.96)8300(.5)(.5)/8,300(.05)(.05)+(1.96)(1.96)(.5)(.5)
=7971.32/20.75+0.9604
= 7971.32/21.7104 =367.165
A total of 367 Questionnaires will be produced and administered on the respondents proportionally and according to percentage composition of categories of employees (doctors, nurses, paramedics and administrative staff)
3.6 Hypotheses testing technique in use
This section explains the method employed in testing the hypothesis in this study which will help the author accept or reject as the case may be.
To test for relationship, we will use multiple correlation analysis. . This is statistical technique for testing the linear relationship or association between two or more variables. Onodugo et al (2010). Here it will be deployed to test for the degree of association between human resources management practices and organisational outcomes in this study. They are human resources practices, organisational citizenship behaviour and job satisfaction. Pearson correlation formula will be used. The coefficient ranges from -1 to +1 with -1 signifying perfect negative relation, o signifying no relationship and +1 signifying perfect positive relationship.
To test the hypotheses, we will use hierarchical multiple regression analysis. This will test the degree of relationship between one variable, the dependent variable with another variable, the independent variable so as to draw certain statistical inference on the manner and strength of their relationship. The results of regression analysis always indicate how the dependent and the mediator variables are influenced by the independent variables.
Mediation analysis tests a hypothetical causal chain where one variable X affects a second variable M and, in turn, that variable affects a third variable Y. Mediators describe the how or why of a relationship between two other variables and are sometimes called intermediary variables since they often describe the process through which an effect occurs. This is also sometimes called an indirect effect. This kind of analysis may be conducted through Baron & Kenny’s (1986) 4-step indirect effect method. In Baron and Kenny 4-step approach, the following must be fulfilled for mediation to be established:
1. The independent variable must significantly correlate with the dependent variable
2. The independent variable must significantly correlate with the mediator variable
3. The mediator variable must significantly correlate with the dependent variable
4. When the mediator variable is entered in the regression equation, the independent variable will drop in strength or significance. The drop signifies the mediation effect.
In our current study, the following apply;
Independent variable (IV) is the Human resources practices.
Dependent variable (DV) is the organisational citizenship behaviour.
The mediator variable (MV) is the job satisfaction.
The direct effect is represented by x-y in the below figure(c)
The indirect effect or mediator effect is represented by x-m-y in the below figure(a and b)
Thus, for mediation to take place , the strenght of the effect of HRP on OCB through JS causal chain (x-m-y) has to reduce when compared with that of HRP on OCB direct(x-y)

Control variables.
In the current study, the following control variables were taken into consideration: Age and Job Tenure since these variables could affect organisational citizenship behaviour also. Holding these variables constant was necessary in order to see whether there is a relationship between employees’ perception of the HR practices and extra-role performance towards the organization. It is expected that older employees and employees working longer in a firm are more likely to engage in OCBs. These variables were chosen based on earlier research which investigated extra-role performance. Organ and Konovsky (1989) proved in their research that the older the employees are and the longer the job tenure in an organization the more positive behaviours they will demonstrate towards their organization.
. 3.7 Measuring instruments
This section of the research methodology explains the various instruments in use for measuring various constructs in this study.
According to Tittle and Hill (1967), the most popular type of social science scale designed to measure an individual’s attitude is the Likert scale that includes items in which response levels are arranged parallel to each other. These items also require anchored verbal expressions in the form of a symmetrical construct where agreement and disagreement are located at both ends with neutral positioned in the middle. The typical Likert scale is a five-point system although it is possible to use 7 point items. The Likert scale has some advantages of being easy and enjoyable to complete .Dumas (1999)
This current research employs the Likert Scale that includes numerous statements relevant to employee attitudes related to OCB, Job Satisfaction (JS), and perception of human resources practices. Respondents were asked to state whether they agree or disagree with each of the Statements, using a five-point scale (1=Strongly Disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=No Opinion, 4=Agree, and 5=Strongly Agree).
Human resources practices will be measured using questionnaire items adapted from previous studies. It contains 30 items covering various dimensions of human resources practices adapted from the work of Abu Keir (2016), Snell and Dean(1992) ,Thamuja Thnaweera(2010). The five key dimensions of human resources management practices identified through various literatures are used in this study. They are recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation and employee relations. Respondents are to respond to the posed questionnaire items in likert scale ranging from strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1). This instrument is widely used and internationally acclaimed explaining why we adopted most of the question items from his instruments. Recruitment and selection has 5 questions, Training and Development has 5 questions, and Compensation has 8 questions, Performance appraisal has7 questions and employee relations 8 questions.
Job satisfaction will be measured using the short form Minnesota Job satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). This instrument was developed by Weiss ,Devis, England ,and Lofquist(1967).The selection of this instrument for this current study is as a result of its capacity to measure both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction.. Some authors have argued that when a cognitive based measuring instrument like MSG is used to measure job satisfaction, the outcome will be closely related to organisational citizenship behaviour. Respondents will be asked to respond to question items according to their level of satisfaction with the job ranging from very satisfied (5) to very unsatisfied (1). The overall satisfaction of each respondent will be measured by calculating the mean scores of all items in the questionnaire. The total items in Minnesota Job satisfaction Questionnaire is 24.The internal consistency of Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire is .91 showing very high reliability.
Organisational citizenship behaviour measuring instrument we are proposing to use is adapted from the work of Podsakoff and colleagues (1990) based on the original measurement from Organ(1988) that comprised the five dimension of organisational citizenship behaviour of altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue. Podsakoff et al.’s (1990) organizational citizenship behaviour measurement scale was created to measure related dimensions of employees’ discretionary and voluntary extra work efforts. The validity and reliability of the five dimensions of OCB showed that Altruism is .86 by Hui, Lam, and Law (2000), .89 by Organ and Konovsky, (1989), and .91 by Smith et al. (1983); conscientiousness, .79 ; Sportsmanship .89 ; courtesy ; .86 , and civic virtue .90 (Fields, 2002). Podsakoff et al.’s (1990) five dimensional organizational citizenship behaviour measurement scale appears to be an adequately reliable and valid construct that can address to the important elements of extra employee role behaviours. The scale contains 24 questions covering all the five dimensions of OCB thus; conscientiousness 5, sportsmanship 5, civic virtue 4, courtesy 5, altruism 5
Respondents are to respond to question items in likert scale of 5 ranging from very accurate (5) to very inaccurate (1).
3.8 Method of data analysis
This is where we work on the data collected to make it meaningful and usable for inferences or decision making. This will take three stages of scale measurement, descriptive analysis, and inferential analysis.
Scale measurement
Scale measurement involve test for reliability which in turn refers to the consistency of measure. Sekqran(2003). Such reliability measures include split half reliability test and the cronback alpha. In split half method, the questionnaire is administered once and the result is divided into two halves, may be by odd and even number items. The two halves are correlated and further corrected using the spearman brown formula shown below.
Cronback alpha is used to calculate the internal consistency of results across items on the same test. the Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was computed to determine the internal consistent reliability of the response scale of the survey instrument. Alpha computation was based on the mean correlation of each item in the scales with every item. According to Nunnally(1994), Cronbach’s coefficient alpha determines reliability based on internal consistency and provides a good estimate of scale reliability. Measures of this study were judged to be reliable if Cronbach’s alpha was 0.60 or greater Nunnally & Berstein, (1994 )
Descriptive Statistics
Data analysis starts with descriptive statistics calculation. Data analysis includes arrangement of the collected information of the population in a way it can be explained, understood and used. Data could be analysed in calculation of the percentage, central tendency (mean, medium, and mode) ,standard deviation, and variance form. Burns and Bush (2006). We will use percentages, mean standard deviation and variance to analyze data in this study. We will also present the data in pictograms where possible.
Inferential Analysis
This stage of data analysis provides information for making inferences or conclusions or predications about the population of study. Pearson and mooonaw.2002. In the current study our inferential analysis will be done using a multiple regression analysis for the purpose of explaining and determining levels of relationship between independent and dependents variables. Before use of dataset, we will test for normality, outliers, , linearity, and homoscedasticity
Most statistical tests rely upon certain assumptions about the variables used in the analysis. When these assumptions are not met the results may not be trustworthy, resulting in a Type I or Type II error, or over- or under-estimation of significance or effect size(s). As Pedhazur (1997) notes, “Knowledge and understanding of the situations when violations of assumptions lead to serious biases, and when they are of little consequence, are essential to meaningful data analysis”. They are assumptions of linearity, reliability of measurement, homoscedasticity, and normality. Pedhazur (1997)
Normality
Regression assumes that variables have normal distributions. Non-normally distributed variables (highly skewed or kurtotic variables, or variables with substantial outliers) can distort relationships and significance tests. There are several pieces of information that are useful to the researcher in testing this assumption: visual inspection of data plots, skew, kurtosis, and P-P plots give researchers information about normality, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests provide inferential statistics on normality.
Linearity
Standard multiple regression can only accurately estimate the relationship between dependent and independent variables if the relationships are linear in nature. As there are many instances in the social sciences where non-linear relationships occur , it is essential to examine data for linearity.. If the relationship between independent variables (IV) and the dependent variable (DV) is not linear, the results of the regression analysis will under-estimate the true relationship. This under-estimation carries two risks: increased chance of a Type II error for that IV, and in the case of multiple regression, an increased risk of Type I errors (over-estimation) for other IVs that share variance with that IV. Authors such as Pedhazur (1997), Cohen and Cohen (1983), and Berry and Feldman (1985) suggest three primary ways to detect non-linearity. The first method is the use of theory or previous research to inform current analyses. The second is examination of residual plots (plots of the standardized residuals as a function of standardized predicted values, readily available in most statistical software). The third method of detecting curvilinearity is to routinely run regression analyses that incorporate curvilinear components (squared and cubic terms. In this study, we will use the second.
Homoscedasticity
This means that the variance of errors is the same across all levels of the independent variable. When the variance of errors differs at different values of the independent variable, heteroscedasticity is indicated. According to Berry and Feldman (1985) and Tabachnick and Fidell (1996) slight heteroscedasticity has little effect on significance tests; however, when heteroscedasticity is marked it can lead to serious distortion of findings and seriously weaken the analysis thus increasing the possibility of a Type I error. This assumption can be checked by visual examination of a plot of the standardized residuals (the errors) by the regression standardized predicted value. Most modern statistical packages include this as an option. Ideally, residuals are randomly scattered around 0 (the horizontal line) providing a relatively even distribution. Heteroscedasticity is indicated when the residuals are not evenly scattered around the line. There are many forms heteroscedasticity can take, such as a bow-tie or fan shape. In cases where skew is present, transformation of variables can reduce the heteroscedasticity.
In this study SPSS package will be extensively used to run tests.
Ethical Approach
This section addresses the ethical concerns associated with the study since it provides some guidelines into the compliance with the ethical issues regarding research in general and this study in particular.
When conducting research, it is essential that ethics and the unbiased answers by respondents are taken carefully into account. This study complied with these issues through assuring that the answers of the respondents will be confidential and assuring that they would be used only for the purposes of the research being undertaken and further reassuring them that they will not be subject to any risk since the surveys themselves were anonymous and the respondents were invited to choose how they wished to return these to the researcher – opting to deliver personally to the researcher if they did not wish to do so through their unit heads. To ensure the universities of transparency and fairness, a commitment letter confirming that a copy of the report of the study will be made available to them from my head of department will be delivered. In summary, we are going to ensure high ethical standard in current study by ensuring that
1. Paper and electronic data disposed of securely on completion of analysis
2. Participant data filed securely in electronic format and paper copies securely filed and accessible only by the researcher
3. Communication with participants restricted to assisting them to understand requirements rather than bias their responses
4. Anonymity of additional information requested or given by participants assured by researcher
5. Participants given opportunity to decline/withdraw from research
6. Participant assured of measures to ensure confidentially and security of data
7. Participants informed of purpose and procedures of research.