1.1. Background of the study
As the United Nations human trafficking protocol to prevent, suppress, and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, and known as the Palermo Protocol (2000) by Supplementing the United Nations Conventions against Transnational Organized Crime defines trafficking in persons, in Article 3 (a) as the following. According to them human trafficking were defined as, the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud of deception. In addition to this, they define human trafficking as of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, to exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
As human trafficking scholars suggest that, the available data on human trafficking were not based on concrete, reliable and comparable data. As Cwikel and Hoban, (2005b), Laczko (2005a), Laczko and Gramegna (2003), Lange (2011), Macklin (2003) there is high level of variability and unreliability in the global human trafficking data. It also explained in this definition, trafficking in persons is more than simply moving someone from one location to another against their will. In addition, it was forcing someone to work in poor conditions. The complex phenomenon of human trafficking is often confused with other forms of people movement, such as irregular migration and smuggling of migrants. As a result, people who have been trafficked were treated as criminals rather than victims.
Ethiopia has ratified major international instruments that criminalize trafficking in persons. The FDRE Constitution Article 18 (2) reads as; ‘No one shall be held in slavery or servitude’. ‘Trafficking in human beings for whatever purpose is prohibited.’ The revised Criminal Code of Ethiopia further incorporates the provisions that criminalize trafficking in persons, particularly of women and children (articles 596, 597, 598 and 635). Despite the international, regional, and national human rights standards, thousands of Ethiopians young ages were trafficked to different countries of the world including to the Sudan, South Africa, and the Middle East. However, there were very little or no reliable information on the nature of human trafficking in Ethiopia because trafficking in human done secretly and little crime were reported for fear of retribution (ILO, 2011)
As Wegayehu Tufa (2014) cited in Beyene, (2005) Traffickers can brainwashes young and productive age and make promises of glorious life as the result, they were engaged in human trafficking process. In addition to this, there are pressures from families, friends, and neighbors influences youth’s decision for trafficking. The victims of human trafficking can an easy prey to trafficking because of inappropriate information from peers and other nearby people. Peoples lent money to pay for the traffickers from their neighbors to send their young group. In addition to this the trafficked people also believe, that when he or she can go out they can make money in easy way at short time. Even if there is a chance of getting opportunity of work in homeland country, he or she can compare and calculate the time of money they make big asset in and outside country. Hence, they can make money in two or three years outside country, but they believe, as it was, take lifetime process working inside the country
Trafficked young ages were traumatized in many cases, they are beaten, the grill can be raped, and threatened, confined and/or deprived of food until they agree to the trafficker’s demands, and make them dependent on traffickers and as debt bondage to control and coerce them. Many are forced to have sex with multiple clients per day. They also suffer from a series of diseases associated with multiple rape and physical abuse. Worse still intimidation and violence are very common, and extreme, particularly in cases with “mafia” or organized crime connections (OSCE, 1999).
Victims of trafficking person could hardly care for their elderly and their children. This leads to the breakdown of families and neglect of children (Danilova, 2010). Human trafficking can also affect democracy and democratization in many developing nations in many ways. Among these the trafficked person can lose, his/her live during the trafficked process or has no health. Bellesa Jemal (2014) cited in Agrinet (2003) and PCI (2010) the ever-growing processes of human trafficking perpetuated by organized and sophisticated criminal enterprises. These criminal activities and the official corruption linked to trafficking undermine democratic institutions and challenge of the principle of the rule of law. While the trafficked persons go distance area, and as the result, they may lose their liver due to hardship they face on their journey. This can challenge the activities of the government (Gabriel, 2012)