CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction The satisfaction and retention of employees is a primary component of organizational effort and has been connected to organizational success

CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
The satisfaction and retention of employees is a primary component of organizational effort and has been connected to organizational success. Issues about quality employees are very much important for an organization to give attention because of the high costs related with them especially in services sectors.
Employees’ motivation is a prerequisite to the success of organization that provide services. Darmon (1974), believes motivation is a way of educating the employees to channel their efforts towards organizational activities and their specific roles. If management disregards to educate and motivate their employees, it is expected that they will become dissatisfied or disappointed with their job. Dissatisfaction in the workplace leads to absenteeism, turnover, sick leave, strikes, grievances and even accidents.
Employees turnover affects organization in terms of recruiting, training and learning cost which, in turn, has an effect on employee job satisfaction (Brown and Mitchell, 1993). Jeon and Choi (2012) shows in their developmental study that employee satisfaction leads to customer satisfaction. Hence, the requisite of satisfied customers, is satisfied employees.
In the 1970’s, Internal Marketing was first proposed in the service aspect as a solution of the problem of delivering high quality service (Vary and Lewis, 1998). The concept of internal marketing is to develop employees consistently and deliver high quality service to the external customers (Papasolomou-Doukais, 2003).
Internal Marketing consists of different individual activities in the organization. It tries to inform and educate the employees about the mission of the organization, the benefits of the product or service being provided and even the customers’ expectation on the organization (Vary and Lewis, 1998).
According to Ahmed, Rafiq and Saad (2013), internal marketing aims to reshape the perspective of frontline employees and customer mindfulness while Helman and Payne (1992), considered that implementation of internal marketing is dependent on the structure of the organization. In addition, another aim of internal marketing is to improve the whole routine in the organization to make sure that resources used to improve the organization’s objectives are provided to the internal customer/employees (Joseph, 1996).
The Higher Education Institutions are showing extreme interaction wherein employee and customer’s degree of interaction is high as compared to other service providing organizations. A critical factor for the satisfaction of external customer trusts on core internal customer/employees (as core service providers i.e. lecturers and professors) satisfaction. When instructors are not motivated and satisfied then quality of their services will be affected and will create dissatisfaction among students (Zeithaml et al., 1990). Thus, satisfaction of the employees in higher education is important element for the research.
Saint Mary’s University is an educational institution that provides quality education and aims to form a person exemplifying excellence, innovation, communication and passion for Christ mission as indicated in its vision statement. Achieving these require an effective and efficient management in providing services. Service quality can only be assessed against customers’ subjective, nebulous expectations and past experiences (Evans and Dean, 2003).
Saint Mary’s University as a service organization assures that they provide a quality education to the external customers (students) which done by the employees (instructors). However, based on our own observation some teachers show lack of enthusiasm in teaching the students. In addition, based on our reference with some of the students and employees, the turnover rate of SMU instructors is high especially in the School of Engineering, Architecture, and Information Technology which affects the studies of the students.
Hence, the researchers found it necessary to determine the Saint Mary’s University employees’ level of satisfaction on Internal Marketing. They determined the employees’ satisfaction on internal marketing along the areas of motivation, internal communication, empowerment, and training and development.
Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to determine Saint Mary’s University employees’ level of satisfaction on internal marketing.
Specifically, the study sought to answer the following:
What is the profile of respondents in terms of:
1.1 Age
1.2 Sex
1.3 Civil Status
1.4 Employee Status
What is the level of satisfaction of Saint Mary’s University employees on the internal marketing along the areas of:
2.1 Motivation
2.2 Internal Communication
2.3 Empowerment
2.4 Training and development
Is there a significant difference on the employees’ level of satisfaction on internal marketing of Saint Mary’s University when grouped according to their profile variables?
What proposed internal marketing program should be forwarded?

Statement of Null Hypotheses
As the basic prediction of the study, it assumes the null hypotheses below:
There is no significant difference on the employees’ level of satisfaction on internal marketing of Saint Mary’s University when grouped according to their profile variables.
Theoretical Framework
For a quality service to succeed, there are three types of marketing, namely, external marketing, interactive marketing, and internal marketing, must be effectively implemented at this level the organization must keep its promises. On the base triangle (figure 2) is an interactive marketing, where employees and customers interact with each other. Unless, employees are willing and able to deliver services promise, to external customers would be disappointed.

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The left side of the triangle (Figure 2) is internal marketing, where employees are trained and given the skills and tools to enable the employees to provide the promised service. If the internal market is not well managed by the companies, the whole triangle will fail. (Wilson et al., 2012, p. 19)
Figure 2: Theoretical model of the service marketing triangle.
Source: “The Service Marketing Triangle” (Wilson et al. 2012, p. 19)
According to Chung-Cheng and Hung (2008), research shows that service sector should not only focus on internal and interactive marketing as much as external marketing. Specially on internal marketing since employee play the important role in organization.
The service marketing triangle (Figure 2) gives a better understanding of the importance of internal marketing and the crucial role played by internal customers i.e. the employees. Wilson et al. (2012, p. 252) wrote that the internal customers deliver a link between the customers, environment and the internal operations of the company.
The theories regarding internal marketing have taken a long time to develop. The concept of internal marketing indicates that the organization’s employees are the first market of the company (Caruana ; Calleya, 1998). This means that the company should work just as hard on satisfying the employees as they are at satisfying the external customers.

Conceptual Framework

Figure 1. Research paradigm of the study
Varey and Lewis (2000) proved that internal marketing can improve employee creativity, innovation and performance. Internal marketing practices and employee job satisfaction can enhance the performance and commitment of employees towards delivering the services.
This study determined the Saint Mary’s University employees’ level of satisfaction on internal marketing.
The independent variable used is the profile of the respondents which are age, sex, civil status, and employee status. While the dependent variable is the employees’ level of satisfaction on internal marketing of Saint Mary’s University which is measured using the variables- motivation, internal communication, empowerment, training and development. These variables are according to Hog et al. (1998) as cited by Al-Hawary et al. (2012).
The results of the research bring out proposed internal marketing program for improving the internal marketing program of Saint Mary’s University.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study was conducted to determine the employees’ level of satisfaction on internal marketing. The variables that were used for internal marketing are motivation, internal communication, empowerment, training and development.
The respondents were randomly selected teaching personnel in the different schools of Saint Mary’s University namely, School of Accountancy and Business, Schools of Engineering, Architecture and Information Technology, School of Health and Natural Sciences, School of Teaching Education and Humanities in Saint Mary’s University for the second semester of the school year 2017-2018. The researchers chose the teaching personnel because they are the frontline employees of SMU and they are the ones who most frequently engaged by the students or the external customers.
Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to:
SMU Administration. The research will provide them an evaluation of employees’ satisfaction on internal marketing of Saint Mary’s University as a basis for developing new policies and programs that will satisfy the employees.
SMU Human Resource Department. The result of this study may provide additional information that can be used to improve the management on the employees.
SMU Teaching Personnel. The result of this study can be used to improve the current internal marketing of SMU which results to the satisfaction of employees.
The Researchers. This study will help them to understand internal marketing which is very significant in their future career as marketers.
Future Researchers. This study may serve as a reference for those who are interested in reviewing and discovering studies related to internal marketing.
Definition of Terms
Employee Satisfaction. It pertains to the pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences (Ahmad, Ahmad & Shah, 2010), and directly influences the mood and manner in which the service is performed, and as a result, the service quality experienced by the customer (Gu & Siu, 2008). In this study, it refers on how contented the employees are on the schools’ administration.
Empowerment. The authority and ability to take independent action, within well-defined parameters, which will actively influence the outcome (McCoy and Associates, 2006). In this study, it refers to giving the employees/instructors power to do their tasks, to make their own decisions and involvement in decision making.
Internal Communication. It refers to the transfer of information between employees (Ahmed and Rafiq, 2003). In this study, it refers to the dissemination of timely and trustworthy information, memorandum, new policies of the university and opportunity for the employees to communicate with their superior
Internal Marketing. It is concerned with treating the employees as a customer (Kandampully, 2007). In this study, it refers to how the organization satisfies its employees.
Motivation. The movement of workers to act in a desired manner (Mark et al., 1998). In this study, it refers to the appraisals, recognition, and rewards that Saint Mary’s University provides to its employees.
Training and Development. It aims to improve current work skills and behavior, whereas development aims to increase abilities in relation to some future position or job, usually a managerial one (Dowling & Welch, 2004). In this study, training refers to how the university helps the employees acquire knowledge and skills that can help them perform their tasks well while development refers on the improvement of their personality and attitude.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Internal Marketing
According to Kotler and Armstrong (2014), the role of internal marketing in an organization is to motivate and orient its employees and helping service people to work as a team to meet customer expectation. Kotler (2008) also stated that holistic marketing incorporates internal marketing by ensuring everyone in the organization appreciate the principles, particularly to senior management. In addition, the work of internal marketing is the following: hiring, training, and motivating employees who are willing to serve customer. Marketing components must work together and aligned from the customer’s view, there should have a vertical alignment with senior management and horizontal alignment with other departments.
Furthermore, Ioanna (2002) has also other definition of internal marketing, which is a management process through which an organization enters in a dialogue with wide internal audiences while Zimuto (2013) supported the earlier definition but should focus with the staff attention on internal works that could be changed to enhance external environmental performance.
Moreover, Shaw (2011) point out another definition of internal marketing to an individual as being a market or being a market oriented firm. It focuses on what to happen, why it needs to happen and who should be involved in making it happen. The study also found out that senior management provides information if what marketing is, so that they can understand and why it should have implemented and highlights the pros and cons that an organization may experience if internal marketing implemented.
Prior to Berry and Parasuraman (1992), internal marketing is a way to attract, develop, motivate, and retain qualified employees through performance. They also stated that internal marketing is a philosophy of treating employees as customers and serve to identify their needs in the firm. In the same way, they also define internal marketing as community spirit and motivation to personnel administration.
Another key point by Berry (2001) suggested that employee satisfaction must be attained in order to ensure the satisfaction of external customers. Therefore, employee will consider internal customers by satisfying first their needs and wants while addressing the objectives of the organization, in short internal marketing is a tool to motivate employee’s.
On the contrary, Rafiq and Ahmed (1993), as a result of inter-functional conflicts internal marketing was inherently difficult to implement between departments, management and employees and innate to change. But later on they found out new developments of internal marketing.
Then in 2003, by emerging and analyzing their study they found out that internal marketing develops skills, creativity, and firm edge. In view of the study if people were educated around internal marketing objectives to achieve, there is a connection to internal marketing. In detail it shows that motivation and commitment to the firm will lead to employee involvement, consultations, information sharing and awareness in the firm.
Consequently, Papasolomou and Vrontis (2006), discussed the emphasis on internal customers by creating people oriented culture and the sets of foundation for building strong corporate service brand. In addition, Varma et al. (2009), suggested that well-structured and rationalized internal marketing approach can improve employee satisfaction with management and overall organizational edge and performance.
In that case, Papasolomou (2006), explained that well-motivated employees will exert effort towards service excellence in the organization that others cannot copy. Forthwith, Muhammad and Yazdani (2009), in order to achieve the vision of the organization employees must be the one to market the firms first, to motivate them to patronize the organization employees needs must be considered. For Akroush et al. (2013), by meeting employee’s needs, they will experience satisfaction and commitment they will become more customer oriented and striking for higher levels of service excellence.
To put it differently, Sahaf and Qayum (2013), states that a well organize employees create brand representatives in the organization and have the ability to create power to the customer to meet satisfactorily, faithfulness, ultimately, and effectiveness while Mudie and Pirrie (2006), stated that internal marketing is made up of controllable elements within the organization to satisfy employees.
In the study by Sahaf and Qayum (2013), reveal that there is a relationship between internal marketing practices and employee satisfaction they also found out that internal marketing is effective measurement in universities in achieving employee satisfaction and enhance performance. On the other hand, a study accomplished by Arshad et al. shows that internal marketing has impact on organization commitment. As a result, commitment will be achieving if organization provide strategic rewards, training, and shared vision to make them loyal to the organization in the long run. On this side, the study by de Meyer et al. (2015), the findings stipulated that employee satisfaction is influenced by internal marketing, common culture and organizational structure. Given this point, meaningful training and development will enhance skills and by coaching to support and ensuring the right fit between the employee’s skills, personality and the job.
Henceforth, Yang (2010) believes that there is a similarity between the role of internal marketing and human resources management, including communication, training, education, and the dissemination of information and that the aim of internal marketing is to motivate employee satisfaction. Therefore, employees must be the first priority in the organization followed by external customers to attain the company objectives.
A recent study by Ahmed et al. (2003), stated that the implementation and alignment of internal relationships between departments, roles and employees inside the organization is necessary to improve the performance of the company and its human resources. Hence, every organization should be concerned with the elements of internal marketing in order to help the marketing department achieve its goals.
Another definition by Doukais (2003), suggested that internal marketing is a tool to achieving service excellence to deliver customer expectation in the firm while Zeitmal et al. (2002), described internal marketing as an instrument to change the morals and behaviors of employees’ to the overall organization goals.
To emphasize a proper implementation of internal marketing employees and management will affect employee behavior that may lead to a better outcome and performance in the organization specially to the employees’ (Grace and King, 2005; Wilson and Punjaisri, 2007). They also stated that internal marketing program must upgrade all the time and support by management to produce effective results.
Above all, a research work conducted by Pranowo (2012), found that rewards, internal communication and training development have competencies and direct influence in the organization. Owing to Ballantyne (2002), he believes that internal marketing is a strategy to enhance relations among employees and management it also determines the boundaries inside the firm. He added that, the main purpose of internal marketing is to enhance internal and external environment.
Similarly, to Gronroos (2002) stated that internal marketing focuses on relationships between employees and management. Because of that, a service oriented and customer oriented approach is a foundation among employees in dealing with customers. As a result, internal marketing act as a complete management mechanism that merges and integrates complex tasks of the organization in two paths.
In future, Denis (1995), believes that internal marketing is a philosophy that attracts, motivate, develops, and maintains the relationship and importance of employees by providing them high quality work environment and satisfying their needs. However, Piercy (2002), define internal marketing as a way to implement strategies in the organization while Carter and Hogg (2002), defined internal marketing as part of market orientation that requires technique inside a firm in order to create values for the firm.
Formerly, a study piloted by Mondanipour et al. (2013), found out that there is a significant relationship of internal marketing to employees in terms of managerial styles, payments, and the environment of the organization and organization-based self-esteem.
Opposite to Joseph (1996) and Anselmo (2008), internal marketing defines as selling the firm mission to its employees’ as satisfying their needs and wants by supporting and offering good ambiance of environment to increase employee satisfaction. Under those circumstances, many scholars such as Aeeni et al. (2013),), Gonza´lez and Garazo (2006), Prevail and Rafeq (2003), agreed that internal marketing is concerned with helping employees’ to become committed and motivated to the firm.
Further, ElSamen and Alshurideh (2012), stated that the components of internal marketing are motivation, communication, employee recruiting, development, internal environment and work system. Forthwith, Liylod (2004) outlined that internal marketing entails, but not limited to communication, recognition, orientation and training. All in all, Ching and HsinHsin (2007) understood that the five aspects of internal marketing are training of employees, communication both internal and external, administrative support, human resources management and development.
To support a study by Alshurideh et al. (2014) shows that there is a relationship between internal marketing and organizational citizenship behavior. In brief, internal marketing is a way and tool to establish customer focused organizational culture with an aim to establish both internal and external awareness by diminishing obstacles and barriers in the organization (Christopher et. al., 1991). Now, the basic purpose of internal marketing is to motivate employees and create a good image of the organization to serve customers with great and well manner way (George, 1990; George & Gronross, 1981).
In the light of Cowell (1984), understanding in internal marketing as a management approach in which frontline and staff must support their area included the approach and motivate them to exert effort for their performance for the adoption of customer oriented. Equally important, De Brum (1998) explained that the objective of internal marketing is to inform the employees about the mission and vision of the firm. On the contrary, Vasconcelos (2004) emphasized that internal marketing is a way to ensure employees experience enjoyment to their job to fulfill job satisfaction.
Identically, Caruana and Calleya (1998) justify that internal marketing process is associated with delivering customer satisfaction focusing particularly on the relationship between the internal environment and extent of internal marketing by its outcome in terms of level of commitment and satisfaction of employees in the firm and they found out that internal marketing and dimension of organizational commitment are significant between service quality, and business performance (Yafang Tsai, 2008; Opoku, 2009; Panigyrakis, 2009).
Moreover, Hogg (1996) suggested that to attain employee commitment, internal marketing is the answer to gain commitment. Lack of commitment in the communication and commitment of employees can harm the organization performance resulting to improper service both internal and external environment.
Furthermore, Drake et al. (2005), recommended that the effective implementation of internal marketing can create significant change in the organization. He also asserted that by involving employees in internal marketing corporation can convert employees as asset in the organization that can result financial rewards and commitment.
In the same way, Dunmore (2002) explained that strong position of internal marketing strategy can be critical in maintain competitive advantage, as well as being key driven of change and shaping performance in the long run, a realistic result demonstrates that potential relationships exist between internal marketing and customer satisfaction in terms of service quality (Bansal et al., 2001; Ewing and Caruana, 1999).
Some findings about organizational problems are more internal marketing, not external and therefore, implementation of an internal marketing creates opportunity to enhance service quality of organization (Prasad and Steffes, 2002).
In recent literature Abzari, Madani, and Ghorbani (2011), defined internal marketing to ensure employee feelings about the care of management for them and level of consideration about their needs.
In contrast, to Moores and Reynoso (1996) internal marketing can increase employee’s attention in enhancing service quality and efficiency through communicating their vision while Chang and Lee (2008), describes internal marketing to positive relationship with job satisfaction and employee performance.
A result found, that internal marketing has a positive impact on employee job satisfaction by Ishaque and Shahzad. In addition, a research by Jumadi (2014), shows internal marketing in organizations must serve to employees, if the employee serves properly the result is better performance. At the same time, another study conducted by Shukur et al. (2015), shows that staff appraisals, staff meetings, and management are good element of intemal marketing.
To explain, Collins and Payne (1991) affirm that internal marketing, relates that management of human resources and describes the application of internal marketing in the firm. It is understood that both employees and customers is part in the organization that work together to achieve the goals of the firm.
In effect a research study by Yildiz (2016) shows that internal marketing and organizational citizenship behavior have relationship. In short, if internal marketing will emphasize on employees it will show citizenship behavior. As has been noted, males show more organizational citizenship behavior than female, in addition, when age and income increases, organizational citizenship decreases. In short, internal marketing affects organizational citizenship behavior and in other word internal marketing application increase academic staff citizenship behavior.
Despite a lack of implementation framework in internal marketing literature, a number of key elements of the internal marketing mix can be identified from the literature. According to Gummesson (1991), the elements of the internal marketing mix of literature are communication, training, education, and information. Gronroos et.al (1985), motivating, developing and, educating or training employees are the key elements of internal marketing.
Founded by Gilpin (1997), on the review of the internal marketing literature and elements. The key elements of internal marketing based from Galpin’s organizational influence system are:
1. Strategic rewards
2. Internal communication
3. Training and development
4. Incentive systems
5. Empowerment
Motivation
According to Herzberg, 1968; Bigley, and Steers (2003), motivation has enormous impact on employee’s productivity and performance. In short, organization should also understand on how to motivate their employees. Equally to Mark et al. (1998) and Saadat (2005), motivation is a technique to act employees to exert their expertise to their responsible job in the organization. They found out that a one way to motivate employees is through recognition and rewards but there is a difference impact between rewards and wages. Rewards is base from superior performance while wage is base from their duties at a normal standard
To explain, financial reward is an example of motivation for employees in the organization it means that employees are spends a lot money on the gift directly. Financial rewards have only short term effect on employees and easily forgotten later on in their work place. There are four common financial rewards namely cash, bonus, salary, and praise. Based from the surveyed by Society for Human Resources Management (2009), found out that benefits and compensation are important. A cash bonus is an strategy or serve as extra bonus on the salary to encourage them to work harder and to meet the company goals. In addition, they also found out that six out of ten employees indicated that they would be very likely to resign to their current position if they will have received a 30% salary increased and same benefits packaged offered by another company.
As a matter of fact, Mckinsey Quarterly found that seventy percent (70%) of organizations they use motivation as their strategies to encourage employees. Another result found out that non-financial rewards or recognition serve as better motivator than money.
Internal Communication
According to Barnfield (2003), internal communication is a way of disseminating communication or information in the organization while Jo and Shim (2004), building relationship between employees and management is a meaning of internal communication. But Heron (1942), stated that communication is way of sharing information to employees and contribute goals, attitudes, and criteria for effective communication. He is the first one who introduce the new world of organizational communication to implementing two- way communication between employee and management and allowing to have an open and honest communication. He stated that communication is a line function of organization it is a two-way communication and not persuasion or propaganda campaign in which employees have a freedom and opportunity to ask queries and exchanging of answers and ideas.
For further explanation, a research by Hunt and Ebeling (1983), at the medical manufacturing facility, he studied the effectiveness of organizational communication program. The ten-week study composed of ninety members, the researchers witnessed that management lectured to employees they developed several attitude and work satisfaction, the purpose of the research is to communicate downward management to the workers they found out that communication program and job satisfaction are only one contributing factor for satisfaction and the satisfaction result by employee feeling appreciated of their job.
Empowerment
Mc Coy and Associates (2006), explained empowerment as the power and ability to take independent action, within well-defined limits, which will influence the performance while Greer and Melvin in (1994), it is processed to enhance skills and abilities to develop themselves and to find solutions for their problems. Empowering means the process of distributing the decision making when employees are empowered, they are charged with the responsibility of whatever their actions may be. In addition, empowerment usually accelerates the knowledge that is linked between work and skills which have an influence on the motivation.
At this instant, Melhem (2004) pointed that the empowerment literature shows diverse meanings and definitions of empowerment. However, most definitions indicate that empowerment implies giving employees more right and prudence in performing employment odd jobs and giving them autonomy to solve all issues related to their work. To summarize, in spite of a diversity of definitions of empowerment, this concept means giving power to subordinates at a lower level to make them able to make their own decisions when serving customers.
Together with, Amir and Amen (2014) empowerment has turn out to be an important matter within contemporary organizations there is real supports and encouragement to give the freedom to get a job done and the ability to realize organizational goals. Recently, the usefulness of empowerment has started to become recognized in the different environment of project management
Training and Development
According to Al-Hawary et al. (2013), training is defined as the attainment of skills and attitudes required to perform specific tasks. In contrast, Liyold (2011) an organization should be able to make new employees have the feeling that they have been hired due to their competence and experience. The employees should be trained and developed in such way that they get to understand the organization’s objectives so that they can handle the tasks delegated to them quite perfectly. Similarly, Hayton (1990) discusses the need for skills with an organization involving employees in the process and linking skills audit to the organization strategy. It highlights the simple need approach which can be understood by employee’s unions and management. He also identifies the potential issues in the organization.
Research by Hussey (1999), looking at the use of education and training as a strategic action found that only a third of firms surveyed applied training and development as management development programs to an organization to achieved organizational goals.
Synthesis
This portion reviews all the information gathered through various studies about internal marketing and authors of different books and journals to support our study. The above mentioned works collected the importance of internal marketing in all any organizations and objectives to its mission and vision. It also demonstrates the barriers that can affect in implementing internal marketing such as people, concept, and utility or cost, and different strategies which could lead to developments. The aforementioned stated the internal marketing variables that can be used as a conceptual framework, recommended by different authors and various studies.
To summarize the different meaning of internal marketing given by different authors and related studies, it highlights how you can market or promote your company objectives to your employee using the internal marketing to have a better performance and satisfaction in terms of excellence.
Putting together all the findings, results, and recommendations from the twenty-five (25) related studies about internal marketing. Internal marketing has competencies and strongest influence on employee satisfaction and excellent performance to external customers. The results demonstrate also that internal marketing is totally effective in an organization and shows that employees will remain loyal to the company even in difficult times, if the company is transparent about the challenges it is facing and about its strategic direction. One of the recommendations from the study of Vaseer and Shahzad from Higher Education Institution of Pakistan recommended to use internal marketing for the management of public and private universities. It could guide them in applying the internal marketing concept for their faculty members and as a result enhance job satisfaction and excellent service, ultimately leading to enhance employee performance and student satisfaction.
To differentiate the study from related studies, the researchers used internal marketing to educational institution to find out the level of satisfaction of SMU employees on internal marketing. Yet, other studies conducted by different researchers they used internal marketing to commercial banks, maritime transport, furniture manufacturers, medical, tourism industry and private sector. Based from the given studies they found out that internal marketing has an important role in an organization.
The similarity of our study is some studies use internal marketing also in university to identify the employee satisfaction and effect on organizational self-esteem.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design
The researchers used a descriptive-quantitative type of research. Descriptive research because we asking questions from individuals in the situation (through interviews and observation) while quantitative of research which aims to systematically describe a problem or phenomenon. Evaluation rating sheets particularly questionnaire checklist was used to know the profile of the respondents, measure the level of satisfaction of employees on the internal marketing of Saint Mary’s University along the areas of motivation, internal communication, empowerment and training and development and the significant difference between the profile of the respondents and the level of satisfaction of employees on the internal marketing of Saint Mary’s University.
Data were gathered and descriptive statistics were then used to analyze such data. Thus, descriptive research considers one variable at a time.
Research Environment
The study was conducted at Saint Mary’s University, an institution accredited Level III for undergraduate programs and Level II for graduate programs by Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools, Colleges, and Universities. It is located at Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya. The college department of SMU consists of four schools namely: School of Accountancy and Business, PAASCU accredited; School of Teacher Education and Humanities, designated by CHED as Center of Excellence for Teacher Education; School of Engineering, Architecture and Information Technology, designated by CHED as Center of Development Category 2; and School of Health and Natural Sciences. Hence, Saint Mary’s University is one of the best schools in Region II.
Respondents of the Study
The researchers used quota sampling method in identifying the respondents. Simple random sampling (also referred to as random sampling) is the purest and the most straightforward probability sampling strategy. In simple random sampling each member of population is equally chosen as part of the sample.
The respondents were randomly selected teaching personnel in different schools of Saint Mary’s University namely, School of Accountancy and Business, Schools of Engineering, Architecture and Information Technology, School of Health and Natural Sciences, School of Teaching Education and Humanities in Saint Mary’s University for the second semester of the school year 2017-2018. The researchers chose the teaching personnel because they are the frontline employees who most frequently engaged by the students or the external customers.
The expected number of respondents supposedly is 74 employees however only 63 of them were able to answer the questionnaire because some of the respondents didn’t cooperate well during gathering of the data.
Table 1: Number of Respondents
Total No. of Teaching Personnel No. of Respondents
148 148 x 50% = 74 Employees
Research Instrument
The researchers used a survey questionnaire as the primary data gathering instrument in measuring the employees’ level of satisfaction on internal marketing of Saint Mary’s University.
The questionnaire is divided into two parts:
Part I: Profile Sheets (For employees)- This part is used by the respondents to fill up the necessary information regarding their profile by using a random sampling. This includes their age, sex, civil status, and employee status.
Part II: Level of Satisfaction on Internal Marketing Practices – This part of questionnaire is for the employees to determine or to measure their level of satisfaction on internal marketing practices in terms of motivation, internal communication, empowerment, and training and development. The sampling technique in this questionnaire was the random sampling technique.
The questions that were used in employees’ level of satisfaction on internal marketing of Saint Mary’s University was developed by the researchers. The researchers used a 4-point scale parameters for the level of satisfaction on internal marketing.
Table 2: Scale Parameter
Rating Scale Qualitative Description
1 1.00-1.49 Not Satisfied at all
2 1.50-2.49 Slightly Satisfied
3 2.50-3.49 Satisfied
4 3.50-4.00 Very Satisfied

The researchers conducted a pilot test to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The Cronbach’s Alpha of pilot testing is .940 it implies that there is a higher reliability statistic.
Data Gathering Procedure
To accomplish a well-order and organized collection of data required for the study, the researchers measured the following procedures.
The researchers asked the permission of the SMU HRD Office Director and the Vice President for Administration for the conduct of the research study.
The researchers got the list of teaching personnel from the different schools in the tertiary level from the HRD Office.
The researchers developed the survey questionnaires.
The instruments were checked by the Research Adviser, Research Instructor, and Panel members and after that the tool validation was done at the University Research Center through the assistance of the University Statistician.
The questionnaires underwent pilot testing to establish its reliability and validity.
The researchers floated and retrieved the questionnaires during the Second Semester of School year 2017-2018. After the data gathering, the data were analyzed and interpreted.

Statistical Data Analysis
To analyze the data gathered for this study, tables and textual write ups of data were used, with the help of the University Statistician. The University Statistician ran data in SPSS.
The following statistical tools are applied to analyze and interpret the data:
Frequency Counts Percentage Distribution- It was used to analyze the profile of the SMU employees and students.
Mean and Standard Deviation- It was computed to identify the level of employees’ satisfaction on SMU internal marketing.
Kruskal- Wallis U Test- It was used to determine the significant difference of age, and employment status of the respondents and their level of satisfaction on internal marketing of SMU.
Mann- Whitney U Test- It was used to determine the significant difference of sex and civil status of the respondents and their level of satisfaction on internal marketing of SMU.
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CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter discusses the data gathered by the researchers from the respondents, the analysis of data, and their interpretation.
Part I. Profile of Respondents

Table 1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Employees according to Age

Age Range Frequency Percent
21-29 14 222
30-39 25 39.7
40-49 15 23.8
50-59 9 14.3
Total 63 100

Table 1 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of employees according to age. Out of the 63 respondents, majority comes from the age bracket 30-39 which is represented by 25 or 39.7%, followed by 40-49 with 15 or 23.8%, 21-29 with 14 or 22.22% and 50-59 having 9 or 14.3%. Majority of the respondents are on their 30’s.
Table 2. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Employees according to Sex
Sex Frequency Percent
Male 25 39.7
Female 38 60.3
Total 63 100

Table 2 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of the employees according to sex. The respondents are predominantly females with 38 or 60.3% while there are 25 or 39.7% males. Approximately, the ratio is 6 females is to 4 males in a typical group of 10 individuals. Based on the list of employees provided by the Human Resource Development Office, there are 67 males and 97 females. It shows that the number of females outnumbered the population of males.

Table 3. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Employees according to Civil Status

Civil Status Frequency Percent
Single 22 34.9
Married/Widow/Widower 41 63.5
Total 63 100.0

Table 3 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of employees according to civil status. Majority of the respondents are married (41 or 63.5%) as compared to singles (22 or 34 .9%).

Table 4. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Employees according to Employment Status

Employment Status Frequency Percent
Part-time 4 6.30
Temporary 12 19.00
Probationary 6 9.50
Permanent 41 65.10
Total 63 100.00

Table 4 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of employees according to employment status. Most of them are permanent with 41 or 65.1%; followed by temporary with 12 or 19%; probationary with 6 or 9.5% and the least is part-time with 4 or 6.3%.
Part II. Level of Satisfaction of Saint Mary’s University Employees on the Different Areas of Internal Marketing

Table 5. Level of Motivation

A. Motivation Mean Standard Deviation Qualitative Description
1. How the mission of SMU makes me feel that my job is important 3.29 .633 Satisfied
2. Quantity of work hours given to me 3.00 .783 Satisfied
3. Recognition and praises received for doing a good performance 2.62 .812 Satisfied
4. Benefits/ rewards provided by the SMU administration 2.62 .792 Satisfied
5. The pay levels given by the SMU administration 2.54 .779 Satisfied
TOTAL 2.81 .644 Satisfied
Legend:
1.00-1.49 Not Satisfied at All 2.50-3.49 Satisfied
1.50-2.49 Slightly Satisfied 3.50-4.00 Very Satisfied

The descriptors of internal marketing in terms of motivation involve how the mission of SMU makes them feel that their job is important, the quantity of work hours given, recognition and praises received for doing a good performance, benefits/rewards provided by the SMU administration and the pay levels given by the SMU administration.
Table 5 presents the level of satisfaction of employees on internal marketing on the area of motivation. The respondents gave a “satisfied” rating on “how the mission of SMU makes them feel that their job is important” (x ?=3.29), “quantity of work hours given to them” (x ?=3.00), “recognition and praises received for doing a good performance” (x ?=2.62), “benefits/rewards provided by the SMU administration” (x ?=2.62) and the “pay levels given by the SMU administration” (x ?=2.54). Overall, the respondents are satisfied on the area of motivation (x ?=2.81).
The teaching personnel of Saint Mary’s University are motivated to work because of different reasons. One of the respondents said “the mission of SMU is good” which is one of the reasons why this item has the highest mean. Although this item has the highest mean, one of the surveyed respondents commented “the mission of the school should be practiced at all times.” Also one of the interviewees said “Sa akin ang motivation ko dito sa school is of course yung benefits, yung fairness of evaluation, facilities na meron tayo dito which is yun yung ginagamit namin sa pagtuturo, tapos yung infrastructure and environment.” (For me, what motivates me in this school are the benefits, fairness of evaluation, facilities that we have that are used for teaching and the infrastructure and environment.) Another interviewee said, “toward yung mga napapag-aral mo yung mga anak mo dito that’s already benefit na nakukuha mo na mas lamang ka sa government. Yun nalang siguro nagmomotivate sakin.” (The privilege given to send your children in SMU for free is already ahead than the benefits given on government schools. So that really what motivates me.) However, one of the surveyed respondents commented “the pay given by SMU is far from that of public school teachers”
In our interview with the Human Resource Director, she said that the quantity of work hours given to the employees are limited to eight hours only. She added that employees are awarded Service Awards which is based on the number of years they rendered their service, Service Excellence Awards and Academic Achievement Awards. Moreover, she stressed that employees are given government mandated benefits such as SSS, Pag-Ibig, and PhilHealth. In addition to that rice, medical and uniform allowance are also given to permanent and probationary employees. This connotes that Saint Mary’s University gives importance to their employees by giving them fair quantity of workloads and providing them benefits/rewards, recognition and praises for a job well done.

Table 6. Level of Internal Communication

B. Internal Communication Mean Standard Deviation Qualitative Description
6. Effectiveness of communicated duties and control responsibilities by the management 2.63 .789 Satisfied
7. Adequacy of communication flow across the college (e. g. from department to department) that enables people to discharge their responsibilities effectively 2.75 .782 Satisfied
8. Established communication channels for people to report suspected improper ties 2.65 .699 Satisfied
9. Openness in discussing work problems & concerns 2.44 .778 Slightly Satisfied
TOTAL 2.73 .677 Satisfied
Legend:
1.00-1.49 Not Satisfied at All 2.50-3.49 Satisfied
1.50-2.49 Slightly Satisfied 3.50-4.00 Very Satisfied

The descriptors of internal marketing in terms of internal communication consist of adequacy of communication flow across the college (e. g. from department to department) that enables people to discharge their responsibilities effectively, established communication channels for people to report suspected improper ties, effectiveness of communicated duties and control responsibilities by the management and openness in discussing work problems & concerns.
Table 6 presents the level of satisfaction of employees on internal marketing on the area of internal communication. The respondents rated “satisfied” for “adequacy of communication flow across the college (e. g. from department to department) that enables people to discharge their responsibilities effectively” (x ?=2.75), “established communication channels for people to report suspected improper ties” (x ?=2.65) and “effectiveness of communicated duties and control responsibilities by the management” (x ?=2.63). However, the item “openness in discussing work problems and concerns” (x ?=2.44) was only rated “slightly satisfied”. Nevertheless, the respondents are satisfied overall (x ?=2.73).
One of the interviewed employees said that “In internal communication, usually there is always memo circulars from the head, the VPs and President office which is mostly updated.” In addition, one interviewed employees said “Of course, especially if that’s involve the institution like accreditation, those activities that affect our teaching so we are updated.” However, one interviewed employees argued “There is a slight delay on the communication flow for example it takes 2 or 3 days before we get updated on events and activities maybe because of the transfer of the information from the admin down to academic dean down to the departments.” Moreover, one of surveyed employees stressed “open forum should be conducted to hear the side of employees” which is considered as one of the reasons why “openness in discussing work problems ; concerns” is rated as “slightly satisfied.”
Furthermore, the Human Resource Director stressed that the communication process is a two-way approach (from top to bottom and vice-versa) She added that there is a protocol being followed in disseminating information. Saint Mary’s University gives importance to their employees by communicating to them the duties and control responsibilities and there are adequate communication channels that enables people to discharge their responsibilities effectively and to report suspected improper ties. However, the institution needs to provide further attention on openness in discussing work problems and concerns.
Communication within the organization is important because the employees should be informed regarding their duties, responsibilities and performances. Open communication between them and the management will result to the identification of the needs and suggestions of the employees. Hence, communication is considered essential in every organization. (Conduit and Mavondo 2001).

Table 7. Level of Empowerment

C. Empowerment Mean Standard Deviation Qualitative Description
10. Authority given in suggesting improvement 2.62 .705 Satisfied
11. Opportunity to get enough information needed to make good decisions 2.62 .792 Satisfied
12. How I independently perform my tasks within well-defined parameters 2.68 .758 Satisfied
13. Participation in setting goals and objectives of my job 2.75 .822 Satisfied
TOTAL 2.75 .740 Satisfied
Legend:
1.00-1.49 Not Satisfied at All 2.50-3.49 Satisfied
1.50-2.49 Slightly Satisfied 3.50-4.00 Very Satisfied

The descriptors of internal marketing in terms of empowerment comprise of participation in setting goals and objectives of my job, how I independently perform my tasks within well-defined parameters, opportunity to get enough information needed to make good decisions and authority given in suggesting improvement.
Table 7 presents the level of satisfaction of employees on internal marketing on the area of empowerment. The respondents gave a “satisfied” rating for “participation in setting goals and objectives of my job” (x ?=2.75), “how I independently perform my tasks within well-defined parameters” (x ?=2.68), “opportunity to get enough information needed to make good decisions” (x ?=2.62) and “authority given in suggesting improvement” (x ?=2.62). Overall, the respondents are satisfied on empowerment (x ?=2.75).
In an interview conducted, one of the employees said that “we are empowered by the school.” Saint Mary’s University gives their employees an authority to teach the way they wanted but with consideration to the rules and limitations given by the administration. Another interviewed respondent stated that “there are meetings conducted for setting goals and objectives regarding our job and they evaluate our action plan.” On the other hand, one of the surveyed respondents indicated that “decision making is mostly top to bottom approach and not a two- way process.”).
The Human Resource Director said that academic and administrative sessions are conducted every semester so that the employees can voice out their concerns. Saint Mary’s University gives importance to their employees by considering the suggestions of the employees, giving them opportunity to get enough information and to participate in setting goals and objectives.

Table 8. Level of Training and Development

D. Training and Development Mean Standard Deviation Qualitative Description
14. Professional development programs (trainings, seminars, orientation programs, etc.) 2.79 .765 Satisfied
15. Availability of the job aids (resources and technology) that supports what the employee learned from the training 2.68 .737 Satisfied
16. Training and orientation program I experienced 2.70 .710 Satisfied
17. Existing physical development programs (SIGLA) 2.27 .846 Slightly Satisfied
18. Existing psychological development programs (emotional and psychological counseling) 2.24 .837 Slightly Satisfied
19. Existing spiritual development programs (masses and recollections) 2.95 .771 Satisfied
20. Existing social development programs (team building, socialization events, etc.) 2.41 .873 Slightly Satisfied
TOTAL 2.62 .633 Satisfied

Legend:
1.00-1.49 Not Satisfied at All 2.50-3.49 Satisfied
1.50-2.49 Slightly Satisfied 3.50-4.00 Very Satisfied

The descriptors of internal marketing in terms of training and development include existing spiritual development programs (masses and recollections), professional development programs (trainings, seminars, orientation programs, etc.), training and orientation program experienced, job aids (resources and technology) that supports what the employee learned from the training are available, existing social development programs (team building, socialization events, etc.), existing physical development programs (SIGLA) and existing psychological development programs (emotional and psychological counseling).
Table 8 presents the level of satisfaction of employees on internal marketing on the area of training and development. The respondents rated “satisfied” for “training and development include existing spiritual development programs (masses and recollections)” (x ?=2.95), “professional development programs (trainings, seminars, orientation programs, etc.)” (x ?=2.79), training and orientation program experienced (x ?=2.70), and “availability of the job aids (resources and technology) that supports what the employee learned from the training” (x ?=2.68). However, they only rated “satisfied” for “existing social development programs (team building, socialization events, etc.)” (x ?=2.41), “existing physical development programs (SIGLA)” (x ?=2.27) and “existing psychological development programs (emotional and psychological counseling)” (x ?=2.24). Nevertheless, the respondents are satisfied overall (x ?=2.62).
Saint Mary’s University is a catholic institution that conducts an everyday mass. It also encourages their teaching staff to start and finish their class with a prayer. Because of these, the employees are satisfied with the existing spiritual development programs. Another surveyed respondent said that there is no sustainability when it comes to the existing psychological development programs which is one of the reason why “existing psychological development programs (emotional and psychological counseling)” is rated “slightly satisfied.” In addition, a surveyed respondent suggested that there is no sustainability in terms of “existing physical development programs (SIGLA)” which is one of the reasons why it was only rated as “slightly satisfied”. Furthermore, surveyed respondent commented on the item “existing social development programs” (team building, socialization events, etc.)” that the school does not conduct team building activity. Instead, those faculty or department concerned or willing are the ones who conduct their own team building activities. This is confirmed by the Human Resource Director when she said that there is an allotted budget for the training and seminar and employees are given the opportunity to attend at least one yearly. Saint Mary’s University in pursuit of excellence continually invests in the professional growth of the employees, provides technology for learning and involve employees in spiritual formation but the institution needs to provide further attention on the physical, psychological and social development of their employees.

Part III. Significant difference between Saint Mary’s University Employees’ Level of Satisfaction on Internal Marketing and the Profile Variables
Table 9. Significant Difference on Saint Mary’s University Employees’ Level of Satisfaction on Internal Marketing when grouped according to Age Profile
Variable Age Group N Mean Rank
Motivation 21-29 14 26.21
30-39 25 29.58
40-49 15 38.63
50-59 9 36.67
Internal Communication 21-29 14 29.64
30-39 25 31.70
40-49 15 35.33
50-59 9 30.94
Empowerment 21-29 14 30.75
30-39 25 31.58
40-49 15 30.87
50-59 9 37.00
Training and Development 21-29 14 31.75
30-39 25 30.90
40-49 15 28.13
50-59 9 41.89
Total 63

Kruskal- Wallis Test
Motivation Internal Communication Empowerment Training and Development
Chi-Square 5.509 .940 .957 4.333
Df 3 3 3 3
Asymp. Sig. .138 .816 .812 .228
Legend:
sig value > .050 = no significant difference
sig value .050), empowerment (sig .812 > .050) and training and development (sig .228 > .050).
Overall, there is no significant difference in employees’ level of satisfaction on Internal Marketing when grouped according to age, thus the null hypothesis is accepted. The findings imply that the university provides equal opportunities to all their employees regardless of their age.
Stoeldraijer et al. (2010), based from their studies on the e?ect of age on productivity and wages found out that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages. But some studies said that there is no difference in terms of age to work performance. In other word age are not related to productivity.
Table 10. Significant Difference on Saint Mary’s University Employees’ Level of Satisfaction on Internal Marketing when grouped according to Sex Profile
Variable Sex N Mean Rank
Motivation Male 25 31.30
Female 38 32.46
Total 63
Internal Communication Male 25 29.84
Female 38 33.42
Total 63
Empowerment Male 25 30.30
Female 38 33.12
Total 63
Training and Development Male 25 30.24
Female 38 33.16
Total 63

Mann-Whitney
Motivation Internal Communication Empowerment Training and Development
U 457.500 421.000 432.500 431.000
Z -.276 -.842 -.651 -.700
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .783 .400 .515 .484
Legend:
sig value ; .050 = no significant difference
sig value .050), empowerment (sig .515 ; .050 and training and development (sig .484 ; .050).
Overall, there is no significant difference in employees’ level of satisfaction on Internal Marketing when grouped according to sex, thus the null hypothesis is accepted. The findings imply that the university provides equal treatment to all their employees regardless of their sexual orientation.
A research study conducted by Higher Education Institution in European Union Member States (2006), shows that gender equality policies is greater than convergence. It means that the principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in matters of employment and occupation are equally treated.
Table 11. Significant Difference on Saint Mary’s University Employees’ Level of Satisfaction on Internal Marketing when grouped according to Civil Status Profile
Variable Civil Status N Mean Rank
Motivation Single 22 31.48
Married/Widow/Widower 41 32.28
Total 63
Internal Communication Single 22 28.41
Married/Widow/Widower 41 33.93
Total 63
Empowerment Single 22 31.11
Married/Widow/Widower 41 32.48
Training and Development Total 63
Single 22 31.14
Married/Widow/Widower 41 32.46
Total 63

Mann-Whitney
Motivation Internal Communication Empowerment Training and Development
U 439.500 372.000 431.500 432.000
Z -.186 -1.264 -.307 -.310
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .852 .206 .759 .756
Legend:
sig value > .050 = no significant difference
sig value .050), empowerment (sig .759 > .050) and training and development (sig .756 > .050).
Overall, there is no significant difference in employees’ level of satisfaction on Internal Marketing when grouped according to civil status, thus the null hypothesis is accepted. The result means that the university equally satisfies their employees regardless of their civil status which results to almost equal level of satisfaction.
Lerman et al. (2005), examined the positive association between marriage and single, especially the marriage. Some have looked at the possibility that married men would earn high whether or not they married. Other studies have analyzed the impact of men premium and earnings on marital status. But, very few have estimated the effects of marital status on the commitment to work or distinguished the marriage-induced gains in hours worked from the induced gains in wage rates.
Table 12. Significant Difference on Saint Mary’s University Employees’ Level of Satisfaction on Internal Marketing when grouped according to Employment Status Profile
Variable Employment Status N Mean Rank
Motivation Part-time 4 17.38
Temporary 12 31.13
Probationary 6 19.67
Permanent 41 35.49
Total 63
Internal Communication Part-time 4 19.38
Temporary 12 30.21
Probationary 6 30.83
Permanent 41 33.93
Total 63
Empowerment Part-time 4 26.00
Temporary 12 30.33
Probationary 6 28.42
Permanent 41 33.60
Total 63
Training and Development Part-time 4 28.50
Temporary 12 33.33
Probationary 6 34.42
Permanent 41 31.60
Total 63

Kruskal-Wallis Test
Motivation Internal Communication Empowerment Training and Development
Chi-Square 8.524 3.064 1.270 .427
Df 3 3 3 3
Asymp. Sig. .036 .382 .736 .935
Legend:
sig value ; .050 = no significant difference
sig value .050), empowerment (.736 ; .050) and training and development (.935 ; .050), there is no significant difference between Saint Mary’s University Employees’ Level of Satisfaction on Internal Marketing and the Profile Variables. But in motivation, it is shown that there is a significant difference with a result of 0.36 ; .050.
Overall, there is no significant difference in employees’ level of satisfaction in all the areas of Internal Marketing except for motivation when grouped according to employment status. This implies that part-time and probationary are less motivated as compared to permanent and temporary employees which results to them having a different level of satisfaction. According to the Human Resource Director, all employees regardless of their employment status can be given service awards and recognition (creativity and innovation), service excellence awards (outstanding employees), and academic achievement awards (graduate studies within SMU). However, only the permanent employees are given service awards (based on the number of years they rendered their service).
A research study by Saludo et al. (2015), taking consideration to employee compensation or benefits is not only the bases of motivation of employees of Ajinomoto Corporation but also their families especially their children to finish their schooling and to get stable job. Another two respondents said “the feeling of being motivated is like a powerful man that can do anything in an instance”. Another factor, to motivate employees is by giving recognition for their outstanding performance. There should be a trust between the employees’ and management the feeling of being trusted by the organization is also a source of motivation. The needs of employees must be considered first by the organization by offering them benefits and recognition to boost employee self-esteem.

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter discusses the summary of the study, summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations which are based from the data gathered.
Summary
The research is undertaken to assess Saint Mary’s University Employees’ Level of Satisfaction on Internal Marketing. Particularly, it aimed to determine the profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, civil status, and employment status; determine the level of satisfaction of Saint Mary’s University employees on the internal marketing along the areas of motivation, internal communication, empowerment, and training and development; determine and analyze if there is a significant difference on the level of satisfaction on internal marketing of Saint Mary’s University when grouped according to their profile; and to develop an improved marketing program.
The respondents are randomly selected academic personnel in the different schools of Saint Mary’s University namely, School of Accountancy and Business, School of Engineering, Architecture and Information Technology, School of Health and Natural Sciences, School of Teacher Education and Humanities for the second semester of the school year 2018-2019. The research method employed in this study is a descriptive-quantitative method. The researchers prepared a questionnaire checklist as a primary mode to gather data and to test the difference between the independent and dependent variables of the study. After the research tool was administered to the respondents, their answers were encoded and forwarded to a statistician for the statistical computation. The researchers analyzed and interpreted the data given by the statistician afterwards.
Findings
After the data gathering, the problems raised were given answers based on the gathered data in the study. Hence, the study presents these findings:
1. Profile
The profile of the respondents showed that majority are female. The data also showed that the highest percentage of employees belongs to 30-39 age group. Most of them are married and permanently employed.
2. The Level of Satisfaction on Internal Marketing along the areas of:
2.1 Motivation
The respondents are satisfied in all the items under motivation such as how the mission of SMU makes them feel that their job is important, quantity of work hours given to them, recognition and praises received for doing a good performance, benefits/ rewards provided by the SMU administration, and the pay levels given by the SMU administration.

2.2 Internal Communication
The analysis showed that the respondents are satisfied in some of the items under internal communication such as effectiveness of communicated duties and control responsibilities by the management, adequacy of communication flow across the college (e. g. from department to department) that enables people to discharge their responsibilities effectively, and established communication channels for people to report suspected improper ties. However, they rated slightly satisfied on openness in discussing work problems and concerns.

2.3 Empowerment
It was presented that the respondents are satisfied in all the items under empowerment such as opportunity given in suggesting improvement, accessibility of information needed to make good decisions, improvement in making decisions that affect their work, and participation in setting goals and objectives of their job.
2.4 Training and development
Based on the data presented, the respondents were satisfied in the items such as professional development programs (trainings, seminars, orientation programs, etc.), availability of the job aids (resources and technology) that supports what the employee learned from the training, training and orientation program they experienced and existing spiritual development programs (masses and recollections). However, they rated slightly satisfied on the items such as existing physical development programs (SIGLA), existing psychological development programs (emotional and psychological counseling) and existing social development programs (team building, socialization events, etc.).
3. The significant difference between the Profile of the Respondents and their Level of Satisfaction on Internal Marketing
Based from the data, there is no significant difference on employees’ level of satisfaction on internal marketing along the areas of motivation, internal communication, empowerment and training and development when grouped according to age.
The data showed that there is no significant difference on employees’ level of satisfaction on internal marketing along the areas of motivation, internal communication, empowerment and training and development when grouped according to sex.
The data presented that there is a significant difference on employees’ level of satisfaction on internal marketing under motivation when grouped according to civil status. However, there was no significant difference all other areas such as internal communication, empowerment and training and development.
On the data presented, there is no significant difference on employees’ level of satisfaction on internal marketing along the areas of motivation, internal communication, empowerment and training and development when grouped according to employment status.
Conclusion
Based on the findings and results of the study, the following conclusions were derived:
1. Majority of the respondents are permanently employed married teachers and most of them are female who belong to the age bracket 30-39.
2. It connotes that SMU gives importance to their employees by giving them fair quality of work loads and providing them benefits, rewards, recognition and praises for a job well done. SMU also gives importance to their employees by communicating to them the duties and control responsibilities and there are adequate communication channels that enables people to discharge their responsibilities effectively and to report suspect improper ties. However, the institution needs to provide further attention on openness in discussing work problems and concerns. SMU as well gives importance to their employees by considering their suggestions, giving them opportunity to get enough information and to participate in setting goals and objectives. SMU, in pursuit of excellence continually invests in the professional growth of the employees, provides technology for learning and involve employees in spiritual formation but the institution needs to provide further attention on the physical, psychological, and social development of their employees.
3. The university provides equal opportunities to all their employees regardless of their age. It also provides equal treatment to all their employees regardless of their sexual orientation. The university equally satisfies their employees irrespective of their civil status which results to almost equal level of satisfaction. Nonetheless, the part time and probationary employees are less motivated compared to permanent and temporary employees which result to them having a different level of satisfaction.
4. A proposed internal marketing program consist of different activities that improve the level of employees’ satisfaction and trust to the university. As a result, the external customers will be satisfied through the good performance of the employees.
Recommendation
Based on the results and conclusions, the study forwards the following recommendations:
To the Administration
The university should continue to give recognition to their loyal and outstanding employees. It should also offer additional benefits especially for single employees so that they will be willing to exert extra effort for their tasks.
They must strengthen their communication between the employees so that they will feel that their contributions to the organization are given importance. The concerns, suggestions and complaints of the employees should be heard so that they will know their shortcomings and which aspect to improve. They should let their employees be more involved in decision making and employees should have greater involvement in the organization. They must also give updates, notices, announcements, memorandums and etc. on time so that the employees are updated immediately.
As a result, the level of satisfaction of the employees will be increased and they will be more committed with their jobs and put more effort in serving external customers.
To the Deans
A team building should be conducted so that the employees will be more effective in cooperating in terms of achieving goals as a team.
In every department, it is essential that they are provided with sufficient trainings and seminars related to their job. During seminars and trainings, the rightful and willing employee should be the one to attend because the knowledge will be more useful to them.
To the Guidance Office
Increase the employees’ awareness towards the psychological programs and services they offer to them.
To the VP for Finance
The VP for finance should have a thorough research regarding employees’ salary and fringe benefits to keep abreast with the current trends on employee needs and motivation.
To the Future Researchers
They should assess the level of satisfaction of the students on the service quality of their teachers and relate it to the level of satisfaction of those teachers on the internal marketing of Saint Mary’s University.
They should also determine the reasons why those employees stayed in the university for more than 10 years.

Key Result Area Strategic Action Timeline Person Involved
Motivating employees Sending appreciative or motivating notes or messages to the employees. This would somehow give the employees a positive feeling throughout the day. Every day: Morning Deans/ HR Department
Communicate often / Keep employees informed Open communication is most important in workplace. Speaking with an employee frequently shows that you care about them. Also keep information flowing to each employee; let them know what the organization is doing. Let each of employees knows the information they needed on time. VP for Administration/ Deans
Empower them: Give Employees a Voice Give employees a chance to regularly contribute ideas, and suggestions, it makes them feel important and gives meaning to their jobs. You should also give them the authority to make their own decisions, like providing service for a client up to a certain point without needing to get prior approval. Every Semester VP for Administration/ Deans
Provide Performance Metrics It is essential to set specific quantitative metrics to help an employee understand where they need to be or what they can realistically achieve. Then, as these performance metrics are met, the bar can be raised so the employee feels a continued sense of accomplishment. Every Semester VP for Administration/ Deans
PROPOSED INTERNAL MARKETING PROGRAM

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