CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Overview
This chapter analyses previous research on definition fruits and vegetables intake, definition of factors influencing: socio environmental factors, personal factors, psychosocial factors. Thus, this study focus more on personal factors. It will discusses each elements on the definition of socio support for healthy eating, availability of fruit and vegetables, taste preference, health or nutrition attitudes, weight or body concern, dietary intention and self- efficacy to make healthy food choice. In addition, there are various published articles and theses that related to the factors influencing fruits and vegetables intake were also studied in this section to develop theoretical framework. The framework is presented, based on the literature review, to guide this study in details.

2.1 Definition fruits and vegetables intake

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Based on previous researches, fruits and vegetables intake can be defined as a design of healthy eating in their life and correlated to lower risk of non-communicable chronic disease (NCCD) prevention (Pessoa, Mendes, Gomes, Martins, & Velasquez-Melendez, 2015). This aspects very crucial in our life because when adults consume a lot of fruits and vegetables, it can give benefits for their human health body. Sinley & Albrecht (2016) stated that, if students consumes more fruits and vegetables, it may displace intake of energy-dense of food itself. It also can give more impact prevalence of obesity in the world.
According to the US Department of Agriculture Food Patterns, one of the dietary patterns consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, adults need to consuming 2 until 3 cup equal of vegetables and also 1.5 until 2 equal of fruits in their routine life based on their metabolism needed such age and sex (Moore et al., 2015). According to National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2011 stated that only 15.5% and 13.7% of Malaysian adults need recommended daily intake of at least two servings of fruits, and three servings of vegetables respectively (Yen, Shariff, Kandiah, & Taib, 2014).
Previous studies have reported, fruits and vegetables intake was influenced based on personal features in daily life in term of sex, age, health condition, taste preference, or environmental factors like availability of fruits and vegetables (Badurally Adam, Mahomoodally, Subratty, & Ramasawmy, 2012). Some study Neville et al. (2015) has shown that ways to boost and sustain the behaviors of students in short and long term as a big challenge need to be consider. It is because a lot of factors can influence them to consume more fruits and vegetables.
According to Mikolajczyk, El Ansari, & Maxwell (2009), if lack dietary habit of people in the world, it also have connected with depressive system and can lead to the consumption of better food while eating. Each people need to follow the rule of eating based on recommendation given by authorities in Malaysia.
Moreover, other factor that discourage people to consume fruits and vegetables is about neophobia factors. This factors is temporarily dislike and rejection about new food and familiar foods. They have some feelings to accept both of that food in their life because have connection with concept of ‘picky or fussy’ eating (Perry et al., 2015).

2.2 Definition of factors influencing
2.2.1 Socio environmental factors

Human social environmental factors was covered in term of physical environment, social associations, and also culture a group of people in one area. This were include a lot of factors in terms of physical environment, modern landscapes, properties of water, and also other properties arranged by human social practices. This known as an active factors that influence and will give rapid changes of some results for the human in the world (Casper, 2001).

2.2.1.1 Socio Support for Healthy Eating

Socio support for healthy eating can be defined as the capability to create relationship among people such as students, family, and career person for develop their knowledge, emotional support and also to improve support behavior change (Spahn et al., 2010). For instance, socio support can be relate with perceived social support, value and scope of social network among populations in this world such as from children, adult and elderly level.

2.2.1.2 Availability of Fruit and Vegetables

According to Jago, Baranowski, & Baranowski, (2007), availability of fruit and vegetables most stimulate for people to consume it in their life. It also can produce positive impacts for their health. For example, if adults have adequate money, they can easily to get and purchase fruits and vegetables in the market or shopping mall.

2.2.2 Personal factors
In a study conducted by De Bourdeaudhuij et al., (2008), it was shown that personal factors as suggested in social cognitive theories Armitage and Conner, (2000) in terms of awareness, attitude, favorite, perceived barriers and also taste. The entire of this aspects have relationship between each other.

2.2.2.1 Taste Preference

According to Feeney, O’Brien, Scannell, Markey, ; Gibney, (2011), taste preferences give effect on eating behavior and directly related with taste perception. It depends on each individual genetic differences in taste receptor genes. For instance, when human taste of monosodium glutamate, it can give four basic taste like sweet, bitter, umami and sour to them.

2.2.2.2 Health or Nutrition Attitudes

Dietary habits of people can influence the intake of fruits and vegetables and also can reduce several types of disease such as Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer and Stroke. This is crucial in term of healthy eating pattern and also healthy behavior to avoid it from happen in our life (Faught, Vander Ploeg, Chu, Storey, ; Veugelers, 2015). In previous study Howe, Black, Eiin, Parnell, ; Skidmore (2013) stated that, dietary pattern have relationship between food choice and body composition. It was measure through food groups or single nutrients intake in whole diet’s result of each people.
In recent years, a lot number of technology in this world. It is known as a positive impact to the consumer to use it like Mobile Application. It can help to promote health when consume fruits and vegetables (Mummah et al., 2017). This ways to attract consumer to eat more and consume it every day without use more energy to prepare it from farm to table. It can save more time to prepare it, by using Mobile Application to order the fruits and vegetables.

2.2.2.3 Weight or Body Concern

Weight have a relation with the behaviors that can affect physical and mental abilities of people to growth in their life (Som & Mukhopadhyay, 2015).

2.2.2.4 Dietary Intention

2.2.2.5 Self- efficacy to Make Healthy Food Choice

According to Reyes Fernández, Warner, Knoll, Montenegro Montenegro, & Schwarzer, (2015), self- efficacy is referred initial motivational stages of performance change related with development to create new objective.

2.2.3 Psychosocial factors

According to Erinosho et al., (2015), psychosocial factors and adults fruits and vegetables have connection with each other’s. For example, it is influence because of adult’s attitude with fruits and vegetables intake, have knowledge about it, knowing the importance about health such as in terms of their taste and also self- efficacy during eat. This factors can be relate with perceived benefits and perceived barrier in our life.
According to Rosenstock, (1974), perceived barrier can be defined as getting of a person’s tendency towards the disease as well is believed to be seriously thought to empower that leads to action, but does not specify specific actions that may occur taken. Based on previous research, it also cannot give more influence towards on eating fruits and vegetables.

2.2.4 Summary
As a summary for Chapter 2, it has covered previous study or research on definition of personal factors towards influencing fruits and vegetables intake among undergraduate students.

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