Bengal Tiger

Bengal Tiger, also known as the Panthera tigris tigris, has been around for millions of years. It has a geographic distribution and biomes that spreads across the Earth but is mainly found in the subcontinent of India. Abiotic relationships are the nonliving parts of the ecosystem that can affect the Bengal Tigers. Biotic relationships are between the Bengal Tigers and the other living organisms in the ecosystem. The Bengal Tigers have a similar life history and evolution history to other mammals that live on the Earth. Being the Alpha predators that the Bengal Tigers are they still have their niche that contributes to the ecosystem and the organisms that live within it. Even though the Bengal Tigers are on the endangered species list they still have a substantial effect on the environment around.
Geographic distribution of the Bengal Tiger is mainly found in different parts of Southeast Asia. The habitats they can be found in are the subtropical woodlands, temperate forests, evergreen forests, and reed beds. Yet the Bengal Tigers prefer to be in deciduous forest habitats. Biomes that they live in are the tropical deciduous forest and grassland biomes which are spread across China, India, Siberia, Bangladesh, and Indonesia. These tigers will not be found outside these biomes because the abiotic and biotic relationships that they have here is proficient enough for them to be able to survive and reproduce.
Abiotic and biotic relationships that the tiger has in its ecosystem is extremely diverse and vast. There is a vast number of abiotic factors that have a relationship with the Bengal Tiger some are soil, rock, water, temperature, and climate. There is a large amount of biotic relationships that the Bengal Tiger has with the other living organisms in the ecosystem. Some of them are the food that the tiger preys on, the food that their prey eats, trees for climbing, humans, plants, and grasses used for stalking prey (Weber and Rabinowitz, 1996). Abiotic and biotic relationships are extremely important to all living organisms in an ecosystem because they help them have a habitat that allows them to survive and reproduce.
They fall into the slow life history category also known as K-selection due to the few offspring produced, high paternal investment, take a long time to reach sexual maturity, and have a life expectancy of 18 to 25 years of age. Males reach sexual maturity between the ages of four to five years while the females reach it between the ages of three to four years. Female tigers come into heat about every three to nine weeks and willing to take on mates between three to six days making them iteroparity. The gestation period is about three and half months in which the female will produce between one to four cubs in each litter. Cubs are altricial and will stay with their mother for about two to three years before they slowly start leaving the family to live on their own. Tigers have been evolving and adapting for about 12 million years and originated from the Indian subcontinent. They evolved from a similar ancestor that is shared by the Jaguars, Leopards, and Lions (Mazák, 1981). It is believed that their closest ancestor is the Lion in which they both are in the same genus Panthera which allows them to produce offspring. The offspring is known as Ligers, but they cannot reproduce on their own. Today tigers are much smaller than their ancestors because of their prey becoming smaller over the years. This helped them to run faster which made them able to catch their faster smaller prey, able to climb trees, and become capable swimmers.
Being a heterotroph, the Bengal Tiger needs to consume other living organisms to obtain the energy required to live and reproduce. They are also endothermic organisms which makes them warm-blooded. The stripes on the tigers is used to help camouflage themselves in the tall grasses till they are ready to attack their prey. Since the tiger’s hunt is usually only successful about every nine days they need to make sure that their prey is large enough for them to survive on till the next hunt (Morell, 2007). They choose to go after the bigger prey like the bulls, buffalo, and deer. In order to efficiently kill their prey, they use their sharp claws to catch it and sharp teeth to tear into the flesh of the prey. Bengal Tigers are usually nocturnal hunters because of their night vision and that they sleep about 18 hours a day.
Bengal Tigers can be found in diverse biomes, yet they prefer to be in a tropical deciduous forest biome. They have a complex biotic and abiotic relationship with their surrounding environment. Even though the tigers are different animals from the Jaguars, Leopards, and Lions they share a similar life history including their evolution history. In their ecosystem the tiger has an important niche in helping control their prey population so that the prey does not become overpopulated.