B

B.E. PROJECT ON
AUTOMATION OF IRRIGATION SYSTEM USING IOT
Submitted by
ABHISHEK KUMAR (408IC13)
ARUN YADAV (437IC14)
DEEPAK KUMAR JHA (447IC14)
GAURAV BHARDWAJ (458IC14)

( In partial fulfillment of B.E. (Instrumentation and Control Engineering) degree
of University of Delhi )

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Under the Guidance of
ASSOCIATE PROF. PIYUSH SAXENA

DIVISION OF INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL ENGINEERING
NETAJI SUBHAS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOL0GY
UNIVERSITY OF DELHI, DELHI

JUNE 2018

DEDICATION

We dedicate this thesis to our teacher and Indian farmers.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It gives us a great sense of pleasure to present the report of the B.E Project
undertaken during B.E. Final Year. We owe special debt of gratitude to our supervisor ASSO.Prof. PIYUSH SAXENA, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, NETAJI SUBHAS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY for her constant support and guidance throughout the course of our work. Her sincerity, thoroughness and perseverance have been a constant source of inspiration for us. It is only her cognizant efforts that our endeavors have seen light of the day.
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DECLARATION

This is to certify that the project entitled, “Automation of Irrigation System Using IOT” by ABHISHEK KUMAR, ARUN YADAV, DEEPAK KUMAR JHA and GAURAV BHARDWAJ is a record of bonafide work carried out by us, in the Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, University of Delhi, New Delhi, in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Instrumentation and Control Engineering, University of Delhi in the academic year 2018-2019.
The results presented in this thesis are original and have not been submitted to any other university in any form for the award of any other degree.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled, “Automation of Irrigation System Using IOT” by ABHISHEK KUMAR, ARUN YADAV, DEEPAK KUMAR JHA and GAURAV BHARDWAJ is a record of bonafide work carried out by them, in the Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, University of Delhi, New Delhi, under our supervision and guidance in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Instrumentation and Control Engineering, University of Delhi in the academic year 2018-2019.
The results presented in this thesis are original and have not been submitted to any other university in any form for the award of any other degree.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled, “Automation of Irrigation System Using IOT” by ABHISHEK KUMAR, ARUN YADAV, DEEPAK KUMAR JHA and GAURAV BHARDWAJ is a record of bonafide work carried out by them, in the division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, University of Delhi, New Delhi, in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Instrumentation and Control Engineering, University of Delhi in the academic year 2018-2019.

Prof. SMRITI SRIVASTAV
Head of the Division(ICE)
Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering
Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (NSIT)
Azad Hind Fauj Marg
Sector-3, Dwarka, New Delhi
PIN – 110078

PLAGIARISM REPORT

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ABSTRACT

Technology has always been great help to the society for reducing the work load and bring comfort to the lifestyle. We have come along with an novel idea that provide Automatic irrigation system to almost all types of crops and Gardening systems. Hence our project is an attempt to reduce the manpower in irrigation systems and make it Automatic. Currently the system is working for Rice crop but just by changing the values of set point of moisture and level it can work for any crop and plant.
The system is also capable of doing monitoring of the field by using the NODEMCU module
And show the values of output of sensors on the monitor screen. The Heart of the system is Arduino UNO R3 which is responsible of sending and receiving data from sensors an d NodeMCU.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Different Arduino Boards 28
Table 2.2:Atmega 328P pin description 36
Table 2.3:Features of Atmega 328P 38
Table 3.1:Pin description of FC-28 45
Table 5.1: ESP8266 pin description 72
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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Basic block diagram 17
Figure 1.2:Drip irrigators 21
Figure 1.3:Monitoring process waveform 24
Figure 2.1: Arduino board 29
Figure 2.2:Atmega 328P pin diagram. 35
Figure 2.3: Arduino architecture. 41
Figure 3.2:Soil moisture sensor FC-28. 47
Figure 3.3: Silver aluminium probe. 49
Figure 3.4: Soil sensor pin layout. 51
Figure 3.5: Soil sensor connection diagram. 52
Figure 3.6:Female jumpers wire 53
Figure 3.7:FC-28 installation diagram. 55
Figure 4.1:Sonar senor 58
Figure 4.2:Working of ultrasound. 62
Figure 4.3:HC-SR04 pin layout. 65
Figure 5.1:ESP8266 68
Figure 5.2:ESP8266 pin diagram 70
Figure 5.3:NODEMCU DEV KIT. 72
Figure 5.4:ESP8266 types 74
Figure 5.5:NODEMCU development board pin layout 75

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

If you do not have any symbols, abbreviations, or specific nomenclature in your thesis, you do not need to fill out this table.

Symbol Definition

V Frequency

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INDEX OF EQUATIONS

Equation Caption Page

Equation 4.2 Capacitence level measurement 54
Equation 4.3.3.2 Distance calculation from ultrasound 57

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION 1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 2
DECLARATION 3
CERTIFICATE 4
CERTIFICATE 5
ABSTRACT 7
LIST OF TABLES 8
LIST OF FIGURES 9
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS 10
INDEX OF EQUATIONS……………………………………………………………… 11
CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………… 74
RESULT…………………………………………………………………………………75.
APPENDIX………………………………………………………………………………79
REFERENCES 83
TABLE OF CONTENTS 12

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 16
1.1: Introduction 16
1.1.1 Block Diagram……………………………………………………………..17
1.1.2 Description of Block Diagram……………………………………………..17
1.1.3 calculation of Transfer Function……………………………………………18
1.2 Types of Irrigation system…………………………………………………………….20
1.2.1 Drip irrigators…………………………………………………………………21
1.3 Monitoring and measurement process…………………………………………………22
1.4 Equipments used………………………………………………………………………..23
1.4.1 Hardware used……………………………………………………………….23
1.4.2 software used…………………………………………………………………24
1.5 Installation………………………………………………………………………………24
CHAPTER 2: ARDUINO…………………………………………………………………..26
2.1 introduction……………………………………………………………………………..26
2.1.1 Meaning of term arduino………………………………………………………..27
2.1.2 Arduino boards………………………………………………………………….27
2.2 Boards used……………………………………………………………………………..28
2.2.1 Reasons to choose arduino uno R3…………………………………………….28
2.2.2 components of Arduino………………………………………………………..29
2.3 Arduino Advantages……………………………………………………………………38
2.4 Arduino Archetecture……………………………………………………………………40
2.5 programming of Arduino…………………………………………………………………41
2.6 Making of Arduino………………………………………………………………………42
CHAPTER 3: MOISTURE MEASUREMENT……………………………………………..43
3.1 soil moisture sensor……………………………………………………………………..43
3.1.1 Features………………………………………………………………………..43
3.1.2 Abbrevations…………………………………………………………………..44
3.1.3 Specifications…………………………………………………………………44
3.2 Using the sensor…………………………………………………………………………44
3.3 working………………………………………………………………………………….45
3.4 High sensitvity moisture sensor…………………………………………………………46
3.4.1 Description…………………………………………………………………….46
3.4.2 Features………………………………………………………………………..48
3.4.3 Pin definitions…………………………………………………………………50
3.5 Examples……………………………………………………………………………….52
CHAPTER 4: WATER EVEL MEASUREMENTS……………………………………….55
4.1 Basic level measurements……………………………………………………………….55
4.2 capacitive level measurements………………………………………………………….55
4.3 Ultrasonic water level sensor……………………………………………………………56
4.3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………56
4.3.2 About Ultrasound……………………………………………………………..57
4.3.3 Distance calculation…………………………………………………………..58
4.4 Types of ultrasonic sensors…………………………………………………………….59
4.4.1 Proximity Detection…………………………………………………………..59
4.4.2 Ranging Measurements………………………………………………………..59
4.4.3 Migration in ultrasonic sensing……………………………………………….59
4.5 Migration Advantage……………………………………………………………………59
4.6 Typical Applications…………………………………………………………………….60
4.6.1 Tank level…………………………………………………………………….60
4.6.2 Production line sensor……………………………………………………….60
4.6.3 Distance Measurements……………………………………………………..61
4.6.4 Application using Migration Ultrasonic sensor……………………………..61
4.7 Use of ultrasonic sensor in Industry……………………………………………………..62
4.7.1 Use in medicine………………………………………………………………63
4.8 Pin Description…………………………………………………………………………..64
CHAPTER 5: NODEMCU…………………………………………………………………..65
5.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………65
5.1.1Definition of Node MCU…………………………………………………….65
5.1.2 Esp8266……………………………………………………………………..65
5.2 Nodemcu Development Board………………………………………………………….69
5.2.1 Arduino with IOT……………………………………………………………70
5.2.2 Development board…………………………………………………………71
5.2.3 Differnce between first and second nodemcu development board…………72
5.2.4 nodemcu development kit used in IOT project…………………………….72
5.3 Nodemcu Development kit version 1.0 pin layut………………………………………73
5.4 Nodemcu DEV it version 1.0pin Description……………………………………………73
5.5 Programming of Nodemcu Development Board …..74

IRRIGATION SYSTEM

1.1 Introduction
Irrigation system is a process to feed required amount of moisture to the plants and crops. In this project the exact amount of moisture Required by an particular crop has been taken as an input parameter to the system.
Reference input moisture is given as second input to the adder subtractor And then both are given to an preinstalled and programmed AND gate which is then feedback to Arduino.
Arduino and microprocessors outputs are then working as an input to pump and motors which in turn controlling the operation of both the sensors.
• Block Diagram of the system.

• Design of process and transfer function.

Both are shown below.

1.1.1 Block Diagram
Figure 1.1 Basic Block Diagram

1.1.2 Description of block Diagram
* First moisture sensor will measure the moisture content of the soil and the compare this value to the threshold value given as set point.
* If the measured value by moisture sensor is less then set point then it will give output 1 to the AND gate.
* Now level sensor will also measure the level of water above the surface of earth andcompare it with threshold value given as set point.
* If the measured value is less then set point then it will give output 1to the AND gate.
* Now if both the inputs received by the AND gate is 1 then it will give input to the Arduino as 1 at the Motor port microprocessor.
* This will make pump to be ON. Now the moment upto which the pump is ON it will send ON signal to both of the sensors.
* The sensors will keep Measuring the values of the parameters till both the measured valuesand set values become Equal.

1.1.3 Calculation of Transfer Function
Both level and moisture sensor have been taken as first order elements and the Arduino is assumed to provide an gain of Ka value.
Also as the input to the pump is an Resultant of AND component of both the sensors so the gain of AND gate is taken as unity.
The pump is behaving as an second order element.
Overall Transfer function is as shown below:

1.2 Types of Irrigation System
Different types of irrigation system are present based on the requirements and design of the fields. But mainly there are only two types of irrigation systems.
• Low flow irrigation system

• High flow irrigation system

• Low flow irrigation system mainly involves micro spray, drip irrigators, And Drip lines.

1.2.1 Drip Irrigators : Drip lines are flexible tubing with emitters evenly spaced along the tubing. Drip lines are also called inline drip or subsurface drip. Some drip lines may be placed on top of the ground with an emitter. A subsurface drip line (underground) can be used to irrigate ground covers. Installation can occur before (inground) or after (above ground) for groundcovers.

For individual emitter layouts, water is delivered just where plants need it. This can reduce the area for, and number of, weeds in the garden. As shown in the figure.

Fig 1.2

Overhead irrigators : In this a uniform amount of water is sprinkled Over a particular specified area. There are certain specifications needed to use it over the field.
• Sprinkler and other devices must have same precipitation rates. Specific sprinklers (gear driven rotors) and sprinkler nozzles (stream rotors, like the Hunter MP Rotator) reduce the amount of water delivered and allow the soil to absorb the water.

1.3 Monitoring and Measurement Process
Monitoring is an Integral part of any Instrumentation system for its establishment and
improvement. In earlier systems the Monitoring was done by the plant designer directly
from the process.
But now Monitoring of any process can be done by using web services and that is called
as IOT based Monitoring Process.
By using ESP8266 module the output Data of sensors can be directly send to server.
The monitoring process is depicted in this figure.

So first output from both moisture sensors and level sensors are taken and then directly
transmitted to ESP8266 module.
Then IOT( ESP8266) module will read the data in digital form due to preinstalled analog to digital converter in it and then then by using the internet service provided the user of the instrument the module will send the data to the Web.
The web address provided will also be stored in the microprocessor unit Of IOT module.
The web address used here is of online Matlab platform. Hence all the data will be sent to the same web address.

The monitoring process done over here is Time based that is one can easily observe the values of the sensor outputs at any time as shown below :

Fig 1.3
(At any point of time both the sensors output can be monitored)

1.4 Equipments used
For the designing and working of Automation Irrigation system with monitoring process using IOT both Hardware and software are used thathas been Listed below.

1.4.1 Hardware used
* Soil Moisture sensor fc-28
* HC-SR04 Ping sensor for water level measurement
* Arduino Uno
* ESP8266 IOT module
* Breadboard
* Relay Sequencer
* Motor Pump
* Connecting wires

1.4.2 Software used
*Arduino IDE
* Matlab

1.5 Installation
Installation refers to setting of parameters and other variable terms of the system according to the plant or field. The project can work for all types of crops but the parameters required need to be adjusted according to the field and particular type of crop.
Installation of monitoring part becomes difficult in extreme rural areas due to unavailability of Internet Network services.
In this project Installation is mainly done in three steps:

• Placing the Hardware components at the Requisite position on Field.

• Adjusting the parameters like moisture and level Required for

particular plant.

• Connecting the system with Internet Network for Monitoring

process.

Chapter Two: ARDUINO

2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Meaning of Term Arduino
Arduino is a platform used for making electronics projects. Arduino consist of two
units in whole , one is the physical or hardware programmable circuit board (often
referred to as microcontroller) and second is the piece of software, or IDE (Integrated
development environment) that runs on computer used to write and upload computer code to the physical board.
Arduino works as brain of the projects made on it ,and act as the controller of the project.
Arduino was first made at Ivera interaction Design Institute as an easy tool for fast
connections for students without a background in electronics and programming.
Unlike most older programmable circuits boards the arduino does not require a separate
partof hardware in order to program a new code onto board you can just use a USB cable.
Arduino uses a basic version of c++ , making it simpler to learn the program. Arduino
boards offers a typical form factor that breaks out the function of microcontroller into a
more variable package.

2.1.2 ARDUINO BOARDS
There are different types of arduino boards available according to the processor,
memory, digital I/O, analog I/O used in these boards.

The list of arduino board include :
*Arduino Uno(R3) *Lilypad Arduino *Red Board *Arduino Mega(R3)
*Arduino Leonardo
Arduino Board Processor Memory Digital I/O Analogue I/O
Arduino Uno 16Mhz ATmega328 2KB SRAM, 32KB flash 14 6 input, 0 output
Arduino Due 84MHz AT91SAM3X8E 96KB SRAM, 512KB flash 54 12 input, 2 output
Arduino Mega 16MHz ATmega2560 8KB SRAM, 256KB flash 54 16 input, 0 output
Arduino Leonardo 16MHz ATmega32u4 2.5KB SRAM, 32KB flash 20 12 input, 0 output

TABLE 2.1(Different Arduino Boards)

The term “open source hardware” in defining of arduino means that these arduino boards
can be modified further for more form factors and functionality. There can be more
derivatives of these boards.

2.2 Board Used (Arduino Uno R3)

2.2.1 Reason To Choose Arduino Uno :
The Arduino Uno R3 is a best choice for us because it is the best for the students to get started initially in this field of Arduino.
It has got everything which are useful for initial start such has 14 digital input/output
pins out of these 14 pins, 6 can be used as PWM output pins. 6 Analog input pins, a
USB connection , Power Jack, Reset Button , Power Led Indicator, TX RX Leds, Main
IC, Voltage ,Regulator.
2.2.2 Components of Arduino
FIGURE 2.1(ARDUINO BOARD)
1) Power USB (USB Connector)
Power USB acts as a way to connect the power source with Arduino . If the power supply is coming from the USB then we use power USB as a connector.
It is also used to load code into Arduino board.
2) Barrel Jack (Power Connector)
Barrel Jack is also used as a way to connect power source with Arduino . If the power
supply is coming from wall power then we use Barrel Jack as a connector.
Do not use the power supply greater than 20 volts. If the supply is greater than 20 volts there is overpowering of Aduino and due to this Arduino can destroy.
Suitable operating voltage for most Arduino boards is between 6 and 12 volts.
PINS
The pins are the places on Arduino where we connect the wire coming from breadboard
in order to implement a circuit.
Made up of black plastics headers that allows you to just plug a wire right into the board.
3) Ground Pins (GND)
There are two ground pins on Arduino which are used to ground the circuit we are
making on breadboard.
4) 5V Pin
The 5V pin supplies a power of 5 volt which is used to drive different components
such as sensors.
5) 3.3V Pin
The 3.3V pin supplies a power of 3.3 volt which is used to drive different components
such as sensors.
6) Analog Pins
The Analog pins as shown in Arduino given by “Analog In” from pin A0 to pin A5 on
UNO used only as Analog input pins.
The pins are used to read signal/values from the the Analog sensor and convert it to a digital value that is understandable by microcontroller of Arduino.
Each of analog input pins provide 10 bits of resolution(i.e 1024 different values of sensor).
By default they measure from ground to 5 volts though it is possible to change upper end of this range by using AREF pin.
A4 and A5 are also known as SDA(Serial data) and SCL(Serial clock) pins for TWI
communication using wire library. These are the two wires for communicate using I2C
bus between I2C master and I2C device , and hence communication is know as Two
wire interface.

7) Digital Pins
The Digital pins as shown in Arduino given by “Digital (PWM~)” from pin 0 to pin
13 on UNO can be used in both ways as Digital input pins or Digital output pins. Out of
these 14 pins some are also used as PWM output pins, Interrupts pins(2 and 3) to trigger
interrupt at low values or rising edge or falling edge or due to change in value, pin 13 an
inbuilt led and TX RX pins(used for serial communication).

8) PWM Pins
The PWM output pins denoted by the symbol of “~” with the some of the Digital pins on UNO. These pins are 5, 6, 9, 10, 11 on UNO.
These pins normally acts as Digital pins but can also be used as PWM pins. The pulse
width modulation allow us to vary how much time the signal is high in analog fashion.
The PWM pins are able to simulate analog output.

9) Analog Reference(AREF)
AREF pins used to set an external refrence voltage as an limit for the Analog input
pins.

10) Reset Button
The Reset Button on Arduino will act as a switch. When the switch is pressed it will
temporarily connects the Reset pin to the ground and restart any code that is loaded in
arduino at that time.
This pin can be very useful if your code does not repeat but you want to test it multiple
times.
Reset button will reset microcontroller when low.
11) Power Led Indicator
The Power led indicator is the small led located just below the point on the Board
where UNO is written.
This led always light up whenever we plug the Arduino to the Power source. If this light
does not turn on there is a good chance that there is a fault in the circuit.
12) TX RX LEDs
The word TX stands for transmitter and RX stands for receiver. These types of
definition of TX and RX are frequently used in electronics to indicate pins responsible
for serial communication.
In this Arduino board there are two times these TX and RX appear i.e one time by the
digital pins 0 and 1 , and second times on the indicator leds.
These Leds will provide the information when the Arduino is transmitting data or
receiving data by glowing that Led at the moment (for ex : when we are loading new
program onto the board RX led will glow).

13) MAIN IC (Microcontroller IC ATMEGA328)
The black thing with metal legs is know as the main IC also known as ATmega328 is a microcontroller which is the Brain of arduino. The IC is made by ATMEL.
Main focus to understand that the Arduino board includes a microcontroller, and this
microcontroller is what executes the program instruction. If you know this the there is
a difference between Arduino and ATmega328.
The ATmega328 microcontroller is the microcontroller used in Arduino UNO as a
controller. ATmega328 belongs to family AVR , it is an 8-bit device means it has data
bus of 8 bit, internal registers are designed to handle 8 parallel data signals.

ATmega328 has three types of memory:

*Flash memory: 32KB nonvolatile memory.(for storing codes)

*SRAM memory: 2KB volatile memory.(for storing variables used at time of running the code)

*EEPROM memory: 1KB nonvolatile memory.(for storing data that will be needed Arduino is switched on)

?Pin diagram of Atmega328

FIGURE 2.2(ATMEGA 328P PIN DIAGRAM)
Pin Number Description Function
1 PC6 Reset
2 PD0 Digital Pin (RX)
3 PD1 Digital Pin (TX)
4 PD2 Digital Pin
5 PD3 Digital Pin (PWM)
6 PD4 Digital Pin
7 Vcc Positive Voltage (Power)
8 GND Ground
9 XTAL 1 Crystal Oscillator
10 XTAL 2 Crystal Oscillator
11 PD5 Digital Pin (PWM)
12 PD6 Digital Pin (PWM)
13 PD7 Digital Pin
14 PB0 Digital Pin
15 PB1 Digital Pin (PWM)
16 PB2 Digital Pin (PWM)
17 PB3 Digital Pin (PWM)
18 PB4 Digital Pin
19 PB5 Digital Pin
20 AVCC Positive voltage for ADC (power)
21 AREF Reference Voltage
22 GND Ground
23 PC0 Analog Input
24 PC1 Analog Input
25 PC2 Analog Input
26 PC3 Analog Input
27 PC4 Analog Input
28 PC5 Analog Input

TABLE 2.2(ATMEGA 328P PIN DESCRIPTION)
?Features Of Atmega328

CPU 8-bit AVR
Number of Pins 28
Operating Voltage (V) +1.8 V TO +5.5V
Number of programmable I/O lines 23
Communication Interface Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface(17,18,19 PINS) Can be used for programming this controller
Programmable Serial USART(2,3 PINS) Can be used for programming this controller
Two-wire Serial Interface(27,28 PINS)Can be used to connect peripheral devices like Servos, sensors and memory devices
JTAG Interface Not available
ADC Module 6channels, 10-bit resolution ADC
Timer Module Two 8-bit counters with Separate Prescaler and compare mode, One 16-bit counter with Separate Prescaler,compare mode and capture mode.
Analog Comparators 1(12,13 PINS)
DAC Module Nil
PWM channels 6
External Oscillator 0-4MHz @ 1.8V to 5.5V
0-10MHz @ 2.7V to 5.5V
0-20MHz @ 4.5V to 5.5V
Internal Oscillator 8MHz Calibrated Internal Oscillator
Program Memory Type Flash
Program Memory or Flash memory 32Kbytes10000 write/erase cycles
CPU Speed 1MIPS for 1MHz
RAM 2Kbytes Internal SRAM
EEPROM 1Kbytes EEPROM
Watchdog Timer Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
Program Lock Yes
Power Save Modes Six ModesIdle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby and Extended Standby
Operating Temperature -40°C to +105°C(+105 being absolute maximum, -40 being absolute minimum)

TABLE 2.3(FEATURES OF ATMEGA 328P)
14) Crystal Oscillator

The silver colour plate behind barrel jack is known as crystal oscillator. Crystal
oscillator is available with a frequency of 16 MHZ.
In Our project we have main use of this oscillator in calculating time taken by the
level sensor signal in twice leg travel ,first leg before deflection from object and
second leg after deflection from the object.

14) Voltage Regulator
The work of voltage regulator is similar as it name suggest. It will fix the voltage
entering the Arduino. If the voltage greater thanvoltage given by voltage regulator trys to
enter Arduino , it will be stopped by this Voltage regulator.

15) Icsp pin
Icsp pin generally consist of MOSI, MISO, RESET, VCC, GND, SCK all these
things together makes icsp pin which is nothing but AVR (small program header for
arduino).
The oher name given to iscp pin is SPI(serial peripheral interface). SPI can be taken as
expansion of the output. The output device is a slave to the master of SPI bus which is
used for programming this microcontroller.

2.3 Arduino Advantages
1) Inexpensive: Due to this less cost of Arduino can be used by students easily to make DIY PROJECTS.
2)Less hardware: During the period of code uploading it does not require extra
hardware, uses a boot loader of 0.5 kb of space which allow program to burn directly to
ckt.
3)Compatibility : Can be used with all types of operating system such as windows, linux etc.
4)Open Source Hardware : This is the thing which help the user to make their individual kit by taking guide with available kit.
5)Open Source Software : This is the thing which help the programmers to merge the
Arduino code with existing programming language libraries.

6)Convenient : All the peoples who are using arduino for the first time it is easy to
understand and people get used to it in less time due to this quality.
Therefore people who are starting from their first project are generally advised to work on Arduino than any other microntroller.

7)Easy Connections : The uno can be connected easily with the computer cpu by using the usb port of cpu and can transfer code by using serial communication.
The serial communication is decided by the transmitter and receiver pins on the Arduino.

2.4 Arduino Architecture

FIGURE 2.3(ARDUINO ARCHITECTURE)
Arduino processor uses the architecture in which the program code and program data
have individual separate memory. There are two memories one is program memory and
the other one is data memory.

The code is stored in the memory which is known as flash program memory and the
data is stored in the data memory.
Atmega 328 has 32kb of flash memory for storing code out of this 32kb , 0.5kb is used
for the storing code by the bootloader, 2kb of SRAM, 1kb of EEPROM and operates
with clock speed of 15MHZ.

2.5 Programming of Arduino
In Arduino is the program can be directly loaded to the device without usng any
hardware programmer to burn the program, this all is done by 0.5kb bootloader which
makes the program to burn into the circuit directly.
All we need for direct loading is Arduino software IDE on which code is written.

?STEPS TO PROGRAM ARDUINO
1) Declaration of variables.
2) Inialization: written in setup() function.
3) Control code: written in loop() function.
4) Sketch is saved with .ino extension.(in sketch book directory).
5) Choose the proper board from tool menu and the serial port number. And then click
6) on the upload button then code uploaded by bootloader onto the microcontroller.
?Arduino Basic Functions
• digitalRead(pin): Reads the digital value at the given pin.

• digitalWrite(pin, value): Writes the digital value to the given pin.

• pinMode(pin, mode): Sets the pin to input or output mode.

• analogRead(pin): Reads and returns the value.

• analogWrite(pin, value): Writes the value to that pin.

• serial.begin(baud rate): Sets the beginning of serial communication by setting the bit rate.

2.6 Making of Arduino

Parts needed to make an Arduino are Breadboard, a Led, a Power Jack, a IC socket, a Microcontroller atmega328, few resistors , 2 capacitors, 2 regulators.

?STEPS TO MAKE

1) First of all put Power Jack and IC socket on board by soldering.

2) Then by using capacitor and regulators make 5v and 3.3 v regulator ckts.

3) Make power connection to MCU pins.

4) The reset pin of IC socket attached with 10k resistor and then to reset puch button.

5) Attach crystal oscillator to pins 9, 10.

6) Connect the Power led.

7) Attach the pins with female headers.

8) Alternative should be kept with 6 male headers to upload program.

9) Upload the code on MCU of readymade Arduino.

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