ATTITUDE OF BACHELOR OF SECONDARY EDUCATION STUDENTS IN LEYTE NORMAL UNIVERSITY TOWARDS RELIGION In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Social Studies De San Miguel

ATTITUDE OF BACHELOR OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
STUDENTS IN LEYTE NORMAL UNIVERSITY
TOWARDS RELIGION
In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the
Degree Bachelor of Secondary Education
Major in Social Studies
De San Miguel, Mariel
Malaque, Ronabel
Nerviol, Angel Nicole
Reazon, Ma. Pinky
Saliling, RizamaeApril 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS (be mindful of the pages; separate the research into different files if needed to accommodate the i,ii,iii pages and the 1,2,3 pages)
ACKNOWLEDGMENT i ABSTRACT ii
TABLES iii
Table 1…………………………………………………..

Table 2…………………………………………………
Table 3………………………………………………….

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Table 4…………………………………………………..

Table 5…………………………………………………..

Table 6………………………………………………….

Figures
Figure 1……………………………………………….

Appendices
Appendix A………………………………………….

Appendix B…………………………………………..

Appendix C………………………………….

CHAPTER I
THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . … 1
Background of the Study/Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Theoretical Framework/Conceptual Framework. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Significance of the Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ………… 7
Scope and Delimitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . 8
Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . 8
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Literature……………………………………………………….

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
Research Design……………………………………………….

Data Gathering Procedure…………………………………………
Research Locale…………………………………………………
Respondents of the Study…………………………………………
Research Instrument…………………………………………….

Data Analysis…………………………………………………..

Method of Scoring……………………………………………….

CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS………………………………………………
CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………..
RECOMMENDATION……………………………………………
REFERENCES…………………………………………………….

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This study would not come to fruition if not with the help of certain people who helped the researchers to pursue this paper. The researchers would like to take this opportunity to thank the following:
To Dr. Generoso N. Mazo, chair of the Social Science Unit and the research professor for imparting his knowledge and expertise on how to generate a successful paper and for the undying patience in listening to the researchers’ concerns during the conduct of the research.
To Mr. Jan Gresil Kahambing, the research adviser, for guiding the researchers every step of the way by giving comments, suggestions, and references to make this paper both informative and presentable.
To Mr. Ryan G. Destura, Ms. Vima-Lyn Aborque, and Mr. Allan Abiera, chairman and panel members for their useful suggestions and advice which made this study successful.
To Ms. Rosalinda N. Oreo and Mrs. Luzviminda F. Alcober, the university and graduate school librarians for allowing the researchers to utilize the library as references.
To the respondents of this study, the students of Leyte Normal University taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education who accommodated the researchers and scrupulously accomplished the survey questionnaires despite their busy schedules.
To the researchers’ families, friends, and classmates for the unwavering moral, financial, emotional, and spiritual support in pursuing this study.
Sad and dull moments also took place during the conduct of this study but there were always persons to talk to and moved the researchers’ spirits up so that the feeling of loss and the gloom on our faces were replaced by hope, faith, humility, and eagerness to finish this study.
And above all, to the Almighty God for the guidance, strength, and blessing us with these people who served as instruments who helped the researchers all the way. The researchers offer this study to Him.
To God be the glory!
The Researchers

ABSTRACT
The research study is entitled “Attitude of Bachelor of Secondary Education Students towards Religion in Leyte Normal University.” This study attempted to find out the attitude of secondary education students towards religion. Particularly, the study composes (1) the profile of secondary education students in terms of age, specialization, and their affiliated religion, (2) the perspectives of students about religion in a secular society, the relevance of religion in education, and the perspectives and beliefs that affect student’s behavior which leads to unravel the attitude of secondary education students towards religion.
This study used Descriptive Survey Design using quantitative data to find out the purpose of this study. Survey questionnaires were used as the tool of this study in gathering data. It was given to 126 respondents who form as 10% of the population of secondary education students. The researchers gave it personally to the respondents to get the 100% retrieval of the questionnaires. The gathered data was tallied and analyzed carefully and honestly by the researchers to get the mean rating of every response of the respondents. With the aid of Likert Scale, the results were presented and interpreted with the use of tables.
The results revealed that most of the respondents aged around 15-20 years old, the uttermost respondents are specializing Filipino and in terms of the affiliation of religion, Roman Catholic was dominant which means that more Catholics are enrolled in Leyte Normal University.

The gathered data uncovered the results where government and church should have a separation of power and they should not intervene with the decision in the church. There are respondents agreed that the government should collaborate with the church in some ways. Religion helps in minimizing the conflict of the society because the respondents believe in the words of God. It has also a significant part of the students’ lives for it keeps them motivated and it brings a positive atmosphere in their studies. The teachings in the religious books are declining because the respondents believe in its teachings but they don’t believe on what is in that book.
This study found out the attitude of secondary education students in Leyte Normal University towards religion.
Chapter 1
The Research Problem
Introduction
In this study, the researchers will determine the attitude of students towards religion. The Leyte Normal University (LNU) is a non-sectarian university. This means that the school is open to any religion and does not exclusively promote the Roman Catholic worldview, the dominant religion in the Philippines. The LNU therefore acknowledges that each religion has its own beliefs, practices, and rituals. The students are aware of these differences, however, this study will focus on the attitude of students in the university on religion per se when, in situating its relevance in an educational setting, it is posed of the wider influence of secularism. This study therefore is embarked with the view in mind that there is a threat to the perspective on religion and that the researchers are motivated to assess the topic given the said backdrop.
Background of the Study/Rationale
The Latin phrase e pluribus unum (out of many, one) is becoming conspicuous in the diversity of worldviews in higher education settings, making possible the coexistence of different voices in a university – a setup where religion in all its diversity can be taken seriously (Waggoner, 2011, p.1). This setup is however seen overall in the influence of secular society where the grand narrative of one religion is regarded as a shibboleth practice in the move for a secular understanding of being human. According to secular humanism, there are no objective or absolute truths defining right and wrong. To secularize (Latin: saecula – world) is to make something worldly. Nash (2011, p. 80) noticed that secular humanism is viewed by fundamentalist Christian believers as the ‘unofficial religion’ of godless schools. Although godlessness does not equate with the diversity of religious orientation, the students’ attitudes toward religion, seen in the light of the backdrop at hand, is constantly informed and positioned against this need to take religion seriously.

The researchers chose to conduct this study because it may help them become aware of the different attitudes the LNU students in terms of religion. Religion as a worldview has been a source of profound comfort and good in the world. It is embedded in culture and it seems to be an integral element to its growth. Learning about religions and religious cultures will contribute to the moral, intellectual, emotional, and even spiritual self-knowledge of students in this most critical time of development (Laderman, 2015).
This need to find out the attitude of students towards religion finds institutional expression in the World Council of Churches (WCC) when it pushed ‘freedom of religion’ as expressed in Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The council believed that it is an important element to have peace and unity in the world. WCC highlighted the religious minorities because they observed that religious minorities are declining or are discriminated. The council then reported instances of denial towards religious freedom in religious minorities.
In the Philippines, there is affluence in religious orientations. Aside from the Catholic orientation which forms a large percentage, there are others as well: some Christian denominations such as The Church of Christ in Latter Day Saints, Protestants, Born Again Christianity, Jehovah’s Witness Assembly, Islam in the southern part of the country, and other churches such as the Iglesia Ni Cristo (INC) to name a few.
Adapting to the Education 2030 Framework for Action (FFA) on the new education agenda’s focus on inclusion and equality (5), the LNU provides equitable access to education irrespective, among others, of sex, age, ethnicity, and most relevantly in this study, religion. In the social scientific study of attitudes or the attitudinal dimension of religion however, the empirical study is (Francis, Brockett, and Village, 2013) attractive for four reasons: (1) because it gets close to the heart of the religion in an individual’s life, (2) because it provides a purer measure of religion than belief or practice, (3) because it finds foundation in the studies of Thurstone (1928), Likert (1932), Guttman (1944), and Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum (1957), and (4) because the statements to measure the attitudes toward religion are equally acceptable from childhood to adulthood.

The first reason draws particular relevance in the background of this study. Accordingly, religion, or the concept of religiosity, enables man to comprehend and genuinely accept the reality in the context of God’s will and plan. Pope Francis (2013) said in his encyclical Lumen Fidei that religiosity is the extent where a person centers his life on the deep relationship with God, Jesus Christ, and other religious icons.
As such, religious people express their faith in rites and practices. For religious Catholics, one should also ask for the intercession of saints like Saint Peter, Saint Therese, and Saint Augustine. Others are positive towards people of other religions, but the proportion of those who are positive varies considerably. In the society, education is one of the important factosr in the acceptance of people toward religion. Thus, people who have a higher educational attainment are more often and tolerant about the views of the world (Australian Survey of Social Studies, 2009). However, these people who are deeply attached to their own religion are less tolerant of other religions. Indeed, some research on young people’s attitudes to religion has suggested that most young people view religion as a personal matter. When they are in troubles and encounter problems, religion is something that believers can turn to.

Seeing these issue about attitudes toward religion, the researchers were motivated to conduct this study for the benefit of the university, students, and the stakeholders.

Theoretical Framework
This study is anchored on the Social Learning Theory of Bandura.

Albert Bandura (1977) in McLeod (2011 as quoted from Edinyang, 2016, p. 40) stated that behavior is learned through the process of observational learning. Social Learning Theory posits that learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context through the observation of behavior and its consequences. This theory concludes that individuals do not automatically observe the behavior of a model and imitate it. It is when the model is doing the action as a stimulus that the observer thinks if he/she will respond to that stimulus.
In relation to this study, the researchers can identify the attitudes of BSEd students toward religion by observing the respondents on how they interact with other students regarding their religious affiliations. The researchers believe that the religious beliefs of students reflect their behavior and attitude and on how they socialize with other students in the university. The researchers utilized this theory to distinguish the respondents if they communicate to intertwine their beliefs, traditions, and behavior about religion. Through this, the researchers can solidify their attitude towards it.

Conceptual Framework
13132343896144130289732930290016338553448050Attitude of BSEd Students of Leyte Normal University toward Religion
00Attitude of BSEd Students of Leyte Normal University toward Religion
1313234328271900583565026510020057101362651003
Fig 1: Conceptual Framework

This conceptual framework is the flow of this study and it guides the researchers regarding the attitude of BSEd students toward religion. In Leyte Normal University, there are several affiliations or religions present. Let’s focus more on the Secondary Education students who may have different religions that have its own perspective based on being in a non-sectarian university that will configure its attitude in a wider influence of secularism.
Statement of the Problem
This study examined the attitude of BSEd students toward religion. Specifically, this study answered the following questions:
What is the demographic profile of BSEd students in terms of:
Name (Optional);
Specialization;
Age;
Year and Section?
What are the religious affiliations of the selected BSEd students?
What is the relevance of religion in education?
What are the perspectives of BSEd students in a secular society?
What are the practices and beliefs that affect student’s behavior?
What is/are the attitude/s of BSEd students towards religion?
Significance of the Study
This study sought to perceive the attitude of BSEd students toward religion. As is observed from different religions, it is noticed that others have peculiar beliefs, practices, and rituals. This is happening in Leyte Normal University since it has students affiliated with different religions. The researchers believe that this study will be most beneficial to the following:
Students. The conduct of this research will be beneficial to the students who are the direct recipients that will benefit the findings of this study. They may gain insights and deep understanding about students who have other religious groups.

Teachers. The researchers hope that this study will be significantly useful to the teachers in a way that they will be more careful and sensitive in dealing with the students who have diverse religious affiliations.

Future Researchers. To provide references and evidence-based information to the future researchers that will lead them to further studies.

Scope and Delimitations
Because the study is to seek the attitude of religion in an educational setting, the scope of investigation centers on the attitude of BSEd students toward religion. The respondents will be asked some questions specifically demographic profile, religion, the relevance of religion in education, their perspective in a secular society that will lead to forming the attitude of BSEd students towards religion.

This study is limited only for undergraduate students of Leyte Normal University, taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education with a specialization of Biological Science, English, Filipino, MAPEH, Mathematics, Physical Science, TLE and Social Studies. The information was gathered this 2nd semester, SY 2017-2018. The researchers use Quantitative Descriptive Survey Design which yields quantitative information that can be summarized through statistical analyses.

Definition of Terms
For a better understanding of this study, the following terms are defined:
Attitude. In this study, it refers to the degree of positive or negative efforts, feelings, thoughts and actions which are associated with some situations, objects, and symbols.

Attitude towards Religion. To assess attitude toward religion is to get close to the heart of religion in an individual’s life. Attitudes provide a purer measure of religion than either belief or practice. The affective dimension with which attitudes are concerned is able to transcend the divisions between denominational perspectives while beliefs tend to polarize such divisions. The attitudinal dimension of religion, being deep seated, is less likely to be distorted by personal and contextual factors, while practice tends to be subject to all kinds of personal and social constraints (Astley, 2012).

Descriptive Survey Design. In this study, it refers to the method which yields quantitative information that can be summarized through statistical analyses.
Interconnected belief. Interconnected is part of the terminology of a worldview which sees a oneness in all things. Belief is something that is accepted, considered to be true, or held as an opinion.
Likert Scale. It refers to a scale commonly utilized in research that employs questionnaires. It is the most widely used approach to scaling responses in survey research.

Quantitative Research. It refers to a type of research that employs objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. It focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across of people or to explain a particular phenomenon.
Religious Organization. It refers to the groupings of religious individuals that have a variety of different goals and purposes.

Secularism. It refers to the view that public education and other matters of civil policy should be conducted without the introduction of a religious element.
Chapter 2
Review of Related Literature
Every individual has its own stand or view on how religion affects his or her attitude. McQuillan and Gerhmann (2017, p. 7) viewed religion as a significant determinant of demographic behavior. As to McCullough and Willoughby (2009, p. 69), religion “is a potent social force that can influence the outcomes of the individual human.”
“The far-reaching promises of secularism, in which each citizen is guaranteed both freedom of conscience and equality of respect, face the reality of an increasingly diverse world where citizens may have alternative and conflicting worldviews (Maclure and Taylor, 2011, p.20).” This means that this not only requires the school to acknowledge the fact that such conflict exists but also the reflection regarding the role of public institutions in the promotion of civic values.

Many people still argue the evident conflict between science and religion. “US adults still believe that Bible is the instrument used for God’s word and they refuse and do not allow scientific findings that intervene to it (NORC, 2007, as quoted from Macionis, 2010, p. 507).” As we look at religious change, people disagree about what is good or bad. Progressives view secularization as liberation from the all global beliefs of the past, giving people more choice about what to believe. Secularization has also helped bring some practices of many religious organizations.

“A secular state seeks to protect the freedom of conscience and religion of all citizens (Hickman, 2009, p. 21).” The human mind cannot be coerced into believing because true faith cannot be imposed, as it requires acceptance and sincerity. Students are not forced what or who to believe, it is their right to choose because they have their own religious beliefs.
Secularism can actually provide a safe harbor for religious diversity (Hickman, 2009, p.21). Secularism means that no religion has to underestimate other religions and over any other sphere of education. Secularism is by no means identical with an assault on religion.

Tariq Modood (2010; Maclure, 2017, p.25) believes that neither separation nor neutrality is a necessary condition of political secularism. A school that has an established church can still ensure the freedom of conscience and religion of the non-adherent as well as recognize other religious communities
According to Kocet and Stewart (2011, p. 3), “it is appropriate and necessary for student affairs professionals in higher education to return to conscious and intentional consideration of spiritual development as part of seeing the whole student.” In higher education it is important to engage issues of faith and belief, considering what skills and knowledge should impart to the students in such a way that religion cannot be reached.
According to Bautista (2016, p. 5), “the educational institution forms, transforms and enhances the character of the people. Every educational institution, engaged in the formation of persons towards becoming professionals in the country looks forward to producing the best products as it could possibly do.” The basic education implemented that the values education subject will be one of the subjects in the curriculum that students will take. This subject aims to shape, develop, and transform the student to be a better person in the society.
The decline of moral standards, therefore, is partly attributed to the rise of secularism and the decline of the organized religion (Zuckerman, 2008; Bautista, 2016, p. 26). Students, therefore, who study religion education are at an advantage of understanding many aspects and the connection of religious education with what is moral. The parents should promote religious awareness to their children at home. At school, it is not enough to teach the students religious education and values education but most importantly, they must set themselves as an example. Students must be aware of the fact that religious awareness is not something that comes from outside but also comes from within.
“The relationship between freedom of religion and freedom of conscience has been at the heart of the scholarly disputes and public controversies over laicite and state education, a republican institution meant to mould French pupils into French citizens (Mattei and Aguilar, 2016, p. 2).” Public schools formed in France have the freedom from the intervention of the church in the education of the students. The laicite or secularity was formed to protect the state against any religious institution planning to intervene in the freedom of conscience.

“Religion as a component of family background may transmit values that positively affect children’s educational achievements (Aldieri and Autiero, 2013, p. 15).” Religious beliefs and values influence children’s attitudes and motivation towards education. It emphasizes the importance of school performance and educational achievement. Any type of religion may promote hard work, discipline, and responsibility and will help students gain learning.

Chapter 3
Methodology
This chapter presents methods and procedures that are employed in the conduct of this study including the research design, data gathering, research locale, respondents of the study, research instrument and data analysis.

Research Design
This study is quantitative as it uses a questionnaire to conduct a survey on the attitudes of Leyte Normal University BSEd students toward religion. This study references the respondents’ demographic profiles, their affiliated religion, their thought about the relevance of religion in education, their perspective about religion in a secular and their attitudes towards religion. The gathered data was cautiously tallied and interpreted by the researcher.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researchers conducted a pre-testing of survey questionnaire among 5 BSEd students. They were chosen as the respondents of the pre-testing since they are directly involved of this study. Through the pre-testing, comments and suggestions were gathered and served as the basis in the revisions of vague statements.

After the pre-testing, the researchers coordinated with the 10% of the BSEd students’ population in Leyte Normal University to answer the questionnaire with truthfulness and veracity. The respondents were informed about the purpose of the study and discussed to them the statements stated in the questionnaire to have a better understanding.
The questionnaires were administered personally by the researchers to guarantee a 100% retrieval of the questionnaires. The responses were scored, tallied and tabulated in order to complete the quantitative process. The gathered data were analyzed and interpreted by the researchers.
Research Locale
The study was conducted at Leyte Normal University, Tacloban City where the respondents are currently enrolled and taking their academic courses.
Respondents of the Study
The respondents of the study were the students of Leyte Normal University in Tacloban City, taking up a course of Bachelor of Secondary Education. In the aforementioned university, it offers eight (8) specializations which are Biological Science, Physical Science, Mathematics, English, Filipino, Social Studies, MAPEH, and TLE. The researchers didn’t get the target to get 10% of the population of every specialization due to some reasons. Although the overall population of BSEd students is 1, 261 where 10% of them served as the respondents.
Research Instrument
Questionnaires were used to obtain facts, views, and opinions from the respondents. The data gathering tools used in this study were partly researcher-made and partly adopted from the study of Bautista (2016). The gathered information is measured through the applications of the scientific method by critically analyzing and examining the source materials, by analyzing and interpreting data, and by arriving at generalization and prediction (Salaria, 2012, p.1). The survey questionnaires were made up of statements relating to the attitude of students towards religion. It also includes religious components such as rituals, belief or doctrine, knowledge, and behavior. The respondents will answer the questionnaire by rating their answer from number one (1) to five (5).
Data Analysis
This study presents the respondents’ answers, the analysis and interpretation of data were focused on the attitude of Leyte Normal University students towards religion. The researchers used statements that call for ratings of the agreement. The 1-5 scale has a corresponding value: 5 for Strongly Agree, 4 for Agree, 3 for Uncertain, 2 for Disagree and 1 for Strongly Disagree. Gathered information was analyzed by the researchers. All interview questions were listed and the answers provided by respondents were recorded, tallied, and grouped.
Method of Scoring
After gathering the data, the results were tallied and the mean rating for the attitude of BSEd students toward religion was tabulated. The results were interpreted with the use of a Likert Scale and were presented through the use of tables:
Scale Interpretation Range in Score
5 Strongly Agree 4.21-5.00
4 Agree 3.41-4.20
3 Uncertain 2.61-3.40
2 Disagree 1.81-2.60
1 Strongly Disagree 1.00-1.80
Formula:
S=n/N
where:
n=sum total number of items
N=number of respondents
Chapter IV
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
This chapter describes the analysis and the interpretation of gathered data. The findings relate to the research questions which guided the study. The data were analyzed to measure the attitude of Bachelor of Secondary Education students toward religion in Leyte Normal University.
Demographic Profile of Respondents
The respondents were asked to provide their demographic profile according to their personal (name (optional), age, year, section and specializations and their affiliated religion).

Age
Age Frequency Percentage
15-20 87 69%
21-25 27 21%
26-30 7 6%
31-35 5 4%
Total 126 100%
Table 1: Age of the Respondents
In terms of age, it can be seen in the table that most of the respondents’ age are ranging from 15-20 years old which have the frequency of 87 and got the highest percentage of 69%. The researchers also found out that there are still students aged from 31-35 which the least number with 5 respondents and has a percentage of 4.
Specializations No. of Respondents Percentage
English 11 9%
Math 12 9%
Filipino 21 17%
Biological Science 9 7%
Physical Science 11 9%
TLE 14 11%
MAPEH 13 10%
Social Studies 19 15%
BSED 1 16 13%
Total 126 100%
Specialization
Table 2: Specialization of each respondent

This table presents the specializations of the respondents. As revealed in the table, 21 out of 126 or equivalent to 17% of the respondents are majoring Filipino. The least number of the respondents came from Biological Sciences major with the frequency of 9 out of 126 which is 7%.

Affiliated Religion
Religion Frequency Percentage
Roman Catholic 61 49%
Born Again 18 14%
Iglesia in Cristo 11 9%
Jehovah’s Witness 8 6%
Evangelical Christian 4 3%
Church of God 6 5%
Baptist 10 8%
Latter Day Saints 3 2%
Seventh Day Adventist 5 4%
Total 126 100%
Table 3: Affiliated Religion

Table 3 provides the affiliated religions of the respondents. As tabulated, researchers found out that the respondents’ affiliated religion is dominated by Roman Catholic with 61 from 126 respondents which has 49% whereas the least number are affiliated to Latter Day Saints having 3 respondents with only 2%.
Data Analysis and Interpretation of Data
Students’ Perspectives about Religion
in a Secular Society Mean Interpretation
I believe that there should be a separation
of power between church and government. 4.06 Agree
Religion minimizes conflict in the society. 3.63 Agree
My religion molded myself to become a
good citizen. 4.13 Agree
I believe that God’s word is more
important than government laws. 4.04 Agree
Church and government should
collaborate. 3.67 Agree
Church should not intervene
government policies and decision. 3.19 Uncertain
Religion makes people united. 3.62 Agree
Table 4: Student’s Perspective about Religion in a Secular Society
The table shows the students’ perspectives about religion in a secular society. As the table revealed, the respondents believe that there should be a separation of power between church and government and the church should not intervene government policies and decision. However, the respondents also believe that there are some instances that church and government should collaborate. According to Sherkat (2007, p. 3) there are more religious college students today than previous generations. There are studies that claim religious students are better than those who are not. He added that religion helps them develop healthy social engagements just like the respondents agreed that religion molded them to become good citizens, minimizes conflict in the society and makes people united.

Relevance of Religion in Education
Relevance of Religion in Education Mean Interpretation
Religion subject should be added in
every school curriculum. 3.75 Agree
Students should pray before and after
class. 4.21 Strongly Agree
Attending mass/service helps me as a
student. 4.20 Agree
Religion makes me motivated in my studies. 4.05 Agree
Praying in school enlightens me as a
student. 4.38 Agree
Table 5: Relevance of Religion in Education
This table provides data regarding on the relevance of religion in education. Table 5 shows that the religion subject should be added to every school curriculum. It also displays that the students should pray before and after class. For the respondents, it helps them as students when they attend mass/services. They keep motivated because of their religion and they got enlightened when they pray in school.
Broderick and Fosnacht (2017, p. 3) believe that religious and spiritual climate that students experience in the college campuses must be understood by scholars and practitioners because it gives a positive campus climate to the students where they gain more learnings. In connection with the responses of the respondents, it is identified that there is a relevance of religion in education where the respondents keep motivated when they are doing religious activities and it helps them create positivity. It can also be seen in the table that religion holds a significant place in the lives of the respondents.

Practices and Beliefs that affect Student’s Behavior
Practices and Beliefs that Affect Student’s Behavior Mean Interpretation
I believe that God exists. 4.82 Strongly Agree
I believe that Satan and hell exist. 4.37 Strongly Agree
I believe that we will be judged according to
our deeds. 4.53 Strongly Agree
I believe that religion can save us. 3.06 Uncertain
I believe that wearing clothes should be in accordance with our religious beliefs. 3.13 Uncertain
I believe that interacting with other people
should be in accordance with our religious beliefs. 2.85 Uncertain
I believe in purgatory. 3.36 Uncertain
I believe in the teachings of a religious book. 4.23 Strongly Agree
Table 6: Practices and Beliefs
Table 6 provides the data on the practices and beliefs of the students. The respondents do believe in God. They believe that Satan and hell exist and they also believe that we will be judged according to our deeds and these are all based on the teachings of religious books. However, they’re uncertain about wearing clothes in accordance with religious beliefs, they believe that the way we wear clothes should not be based on what religion we have. The respondents are also uncertain in interacting with other people that should be in accordance with the religious beliefs. This means that diversity of religion shouldn’t be considered in interacting with the other people, we should be united despite having differences of religious beliefs and practices. They are also uncertain about the existence of purgatory whether the religion can save us. It shows that Roman Catholic nowadays has different beliefs and it is in accordance on how they practice their religion at home, school or in the society and there are certain practices that are not practiced by the majority of Roman Catholics.

This table shows that even if the respondents believe in the teachings of religious books they are still in the state of uncertainty if they will believe on the texts written in the religious books. This implies that they have their own cognition of what they really believe and what they practice. It consists of interior and subjective states and freely construed. Hanneggraaff (1999, p. 146) referred that New Age Religion can be defined as a form of “secularized esotericism” which he analyzed it from fundamental ideas of New Age Religion and interpreted from a historical perspective. Esotericism exists in primordial tradition so as the religious philosophy where the religious teachings have begun however the teachings in the religious books varies as time goes by and it affects the believers nowadays.

CHAPTER V
Summary of Findings, Conclusion, and Recommendations
This chapter summarizes the study, presents the findings, states the conclusion, and offers recommendations for the research study.
Summary of Findings
This study attempted to find out the attitude of BSEd students toward religion in Leyte Normal University.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions to meet the objectives of the study:
What is the demographic profile of the BSEd students with the specialization of Math, Physical Science, Biological Science, Social Studies, English, TLE, and MAPEH in Leyte Normal University in terms of the following?
Specialization
Age
Year and section
What is the affiliated religion of the selected BSEd students?
What is the relevance of religion in education?
What are the perspectives of BSEd students in a secular society?
What are the practices and beliefs that affect students’ behavior?
What is/are the attitude/s of BSEd students toward religion?
The study adopted the descriptive survey design. The respondents were 126 BSEd students of Leyte Normal University, Tacloban City. In gathering the necessary data, a 20-item survey questionnaire was constructed by the researchers.
Based on the presentation and interpretation of data, this study revealed the following:
The majority of the respondents belong to the age range of 15-20 years’ old which is the 69% of 126 respondents. In terms of specialization of courses in BSEd, the majority of the respondents are majoring in Filipino and finally, in terms of religious affiliation, the majority of the respondents are Roman Catholic which is the 47% of 126 respondents.

In the 1-15 statements in the survey questionnaire, the majority of the respondents out of 126 strongly agreed. Statement one (1) has 67 respondents, second statement (2) with 40 respondents, statement three (3) with 62 respondents, statement four (4) with 66 respondents, statement five (5) with 42 respondents, statement six (6) with 27 respondents. Meanwhile statement seven (7) has 40 respondents who strongly agreed, statement eight (8) with 45 respondents, statement nine (9) with 70 respondents, statement ten (10) with 59 respondents, statement eleven (11) with 49 respondents and statement twelve (12) has 71 out of 126 respondents. Statement thirteen (13), almost all of the respondents have agreed in the statement with 110 out of 126 respondents same goes on in statement fourteen (14) which has 80 percent and in statement fifteen (15) with 76 respondents. In statement sixteen (16), strongly agreed and agreed to have the same number of 28 respondents each. In statement seventeen (17), the majority are uncertain with 39 respondents, in statement eighteen (18) has also a majority of uncertain with 31 respondents while in statement nineteen (19), the majority agreed with 34 respondents and strongly agreed in statement number twenty (20) with 55 respondents.
Findings
The respondents believe that there should be a separation of power between church and government, however, they agree that church and government should collaborate. The government and church should collaborate in terms of religious activities that are important and sacred. The government should declare a suspension of classes and nonworking holidays especially for the celebration of Holy Week and Christmas for the Catholics and Ramadan for the Muslims. This is to show that government respects religion.

The respondents agree that religious subjects should be added in school curriculum, however adding religious subjects in school curriculum is not applicable especially in public schools, state and universities because those schools are open to any kind of religions and it may cause chaos if teachings of particular religious practices and beliefs will be added to the curriculum.

The respondents strongly agree that God exists but they are doubtful that religion can save them. They believe in the teachings of religious books but they are not sure about the existence of the purgatory. Their answers are contradictory and it only shows that they believe in God but have different views when it comes to life. It only shows that 21st century Catholics have different views and they are not considering all the teachings in the bible.

Conclusions
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were derived.

The research reveals that most of the student’s perspective about religion in a secular society believes that there should be a separation of power between church and government. It also concludes that the religion minimizes the conflict in the society and religion can mold every student’s attitude to become a good citizen. Most of the students also believe that God’s word is more important than the government laws. Majority of the students also agreed that the church and government should collaborate and religion also makes people united. But, some of the respondents are in their uncertainty if the church will intervene the government policies and decisions.

Findings also uncovered the fact about adding religion subject in every school curriculum, praying before and after the class was concurred through the responses of the respondents, attending mass/service helps them as a student, that religion is one factor of keeping them motivated in their study and praying enlightens them as a student. This concludes that religion has significant relevance in education.
Apparently, the findings of the respondents’ practices and beliefs that affect students’ behavior were discovered that God does really exist, that there is the existence of Satan and hell, that deeds will be the bases of judgment, and that the majority of the respondents believed in the teachings of religious books and there are also respondents that believed in purgatory. It is unpredictable that wearing clothes should be in accordance with their religious belief. Interacting with other people according to their belief is not necessary. Most responses of the respondents coincide to believe that religion cannot save them.

Recommendations
Based on the conclusions that were obtained, the following recommendations are hereby suggested:
It is further recommended that same study should be conducted including other courses in the university.

Schools should involve in some religious activities in order for the students in secular society to realize and bring back the importance of religion.

The school and the teachers should respect every students’ religious beliefs and practices.

It is recommended that students and teachers should not be biased in the two sectors of society: Church and State.

Since only three (3) factors were considered in relating the criterion variables, this study can be replicated by using other variables such as gender and socio-economic status and other factors that might affect students’ attitude toward religion.

REFERENCES
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Astley, Jeff, Leslie Francis, and Mandy Robbins (2012). Assessing Attitude Towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude Towards Theistic Faith. British Journal of Religious Education 34, 183-193
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APPENDICES
Appendix A
ATTITUDE OF BACHELOR OF SECONDARY EDUCATION STUDENTS IN LEYTE NORMAL UNIVERSITY TOWARDS RELIGION
Dear Respondents,
Greetings!
We are Bachelor of Secondary Education Social Studies majors and currently working on our research entitled, “Attitude of Bachelor of Secondary Education Students in Leyte Normal University Towards Religion.”
In connection to this, we have chosen you as one of our respondents. We fervently hope that you will help us by answering the questions below. We assure you that this survey will be treated with utmost confidentiality.

Anticipating your kind cooperation and patience. Thank you very much.

Sincerely yours,
Mariel B. De San Miguel
Ronabel L. Malaque
Angel Nicole Nerviol Ma. Pinky Reazon Rizamae M. SalilingNoted:
JAN GRESIL KAHAMBING, Ph. L, SThB Research Adviser
GENEROSO N. MAZO, Ph. D
Research Professor
Appendix B
QUESTIONNAIRE
Name (optional): __________________________________ Specialization: ____________
Religion: ______________________ Age: _________________
Instruction:
For each statement, please check the number of your corresponding answer.
The value of each number is shown below the table.

Students’ Perspectives about Religion
in a Secular Society 5 4 3 2 1
I believe that there should be a separation of power between church and government. Religion minimizes conflict in the society. My religion molded myself to become a good citizen. I believe that God’s word is more important than government laws. Church and government should collaborate. Church should not intervene government policies and decision. Religion makes people united. Relevance of Religion in Education 5 4 3 2 1
Religion subject should be added in every school curriculum. Students should pray before and after class. Attending mass/service helps me as a student. Religion makes me motivated in my study. Praying in school enlightens me as a student. Practices and Beliefs that
affect Students’ Behavior 5 4 3 2 1
I believe that God exist. I believe that Satan and hell exist. I believe that we will be judged according to our deeds. I believe that religion can save us. I believe that wearing clothes should be in accordance with our religious belief. I believe that interacting with other people should be in accordance in accordance with our religious belief. I believe in purgatory. I believe in the teachings of religious books. The 1-5 scale has corresponding values:
5 – Strongly Agree3 – Uncertain1—Strongly Disagree
4 — Agree 2 – Disagree
Appendix C (straighten the colons, and observe strict formatting for all)
389375617446000Mariel De San Miguel

Address: Brgy. Pagsulhugon Babatngon, Leyte
Contact Number: 09304663441
E-mail Address: N/A
______________________________________________________________________________
PERSONAL PARTICULARS
Date of Birth : November 13, 1998
Place of Birth : Dulag, Leyte
Nationality : Filipino
Gender : Female
Civil Status : Single
Father : Ronaldo De San Miguel
Mother : Thelma De San Miguel
EDUCATIONAL OF BACKGROUND
Elementary : Pagsulhugon Elementary School
Babatngon, Leyte
Secondary : Pagsulhugon National High School
Babatngon, Leyte

Collegiate : Leyte Normal University
Tacloban City, Leyte
420179515397600Ronabel L. Malaque
Address: Brgy. Libtong,
San Miguel, Leyte
Contact Number: 09953348078
E-mail Address: [email protected] PARTICULARS
Date of Birth : June 20, 1998
Place of Birth : San Miguel, Leyte
Nationality : Filipino
Gender : Female
Civil Status : Single
Father : Noel E. Malaque
Mother : Renalyn L. Malaque
EDUCATIONAL OF BACKGROUND
Elementary : San Miguel Central School
San Miguel, Leyte

Secondary : San Miguel National High School
San Miguel, Leyte

Collegiate : Leyte Normal University
Tacloban City, Leyte
409892511436400Angel Nicole Nerviol
Address: Brgy. Gumamela
Sta. Rita Samar
Contact Number: 09265578306
E-mail Address: [email protected] PARTICULARS
Date of Birth : January 16, 1998
Place of Birth : Brgy. Gumamela, Sta. Rita, Samar
Nationality : Filipino
Gender : Female
Civil Status : Single
Father : William R. MagayonMother : Janelle J. NerviolEDUCATIONAL OF BACKGROUND
Elementary : V&G dela Cruz Memorial School
Tacloban City

Secondary : Sta. Rita National High School
Sta. Rita, Samar

Collegiate : Leyte Normal University
Tacloban City, Leyte
right970400Ma. Pinky ReazonAddress: Brgy. Sta.Cruz
Jaro, Leyte
Contact Number: 09365488538
E-mail Address: [email protected] PARTICULARS
Date of Birth : December 14, 1996
Place of Birth : Brgy. Sta. Cruz Jaro, Leyte
Nationality : Filipino
Gender : Female
Civil Status : Single
Father : Lito F. Fat
Mother : Minerva G. ReazonEDUCATIONAL OF BACKGROUND
Elementary : Sta. Cruz Elementary School
Jaro, Leyte
Secondary : Teofilo Macaso National High School
Jaro, Leyte
Collegiate : Leyte Normal University
Tacloban City, Leyte
Rizamae M. Saliling39655751206500
Address : Brgy. 64, 365 P1 B6 L3, Bliss,
Sagkahan, Tacloban City
Contact Number : 09109264095
E-mail Address : [email protected] PARTICULARS
Date of Birth : March 15, 1993
Place of Birth : Princess Urduja Narra, Palawan
Nationality : Filipino
Gender : Female
Civil Status : Single
Father : Rolando L. Saliling Sr.
Mother : Marilyn M. SalilingEDUCATIONAL OF BACKGROUND
Elementary : Pricess Urduja Elementary School
Narra, Palawan
Secondary : San Jose National High School
Puerto Princesa City, Palawan
Collegiate : Leyte Normal University
Tacloban City, Leyte

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