According to Simon Monk in his book of Programming Arduino: Getting Started with Sketches, the heart of Arduino is a microcontroller. Anything in the board of Arduino hardware is concerned by giving the board a power and permitting it to communicate with the desktop computer. Microcontroller is a tiny computer on a chip. It also have the systems and parts same to computer such as processor, a kilobyte or two of random access memory (RAM) for storing the data, a few kilobytes of erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) or a flash memory for storing and holding the programs and also a peripherals pins. These peripherals connect the microcontroller to the other electronics components.
Input can read both digital and analog. This ability is for connecting different types of sensor for light, temperature, sound, and etc. While output can either be analog or digital. By this, it can be used to control higher power devices like motors. It can also deliver an analog output voltage, allowing to control the speed of a motor. (Monk, 2012)
According to Massimo Banzi and Michael Shiloh in the book of Make: Getting Started with Arduino, the other major parts of Arduino is its hardware which is the Arduino Integrated Development Environment or the Arduino IDE. This is a small board with a breadboard and other electronics components to be used in programming the Arduino. It is a small circuit on the board that includes a complete computer-like on a tiny chip. Interactive device is an electronic circuit which is capable in sensing the environment with the use of sensors, electronic components that can transform the actual measurements into electrical signals. The device will process the inputted information from the sensors that is programmed in the software and this device will be able to work together with the use of actuators, electronic components that can convert an electric signal into physical action. (Banzi & Shiloh, 2015)
According to (Tawil, 2016), Understanding Arduino Uno Hardware Design, A good understanding of the electronic design of Arduino hardware will help the user learn how to embed an Arduino in the design of a final product, including what to keep and what to omit from the original design. The PCB design of the Arduino UNO uses SMD or the Surface Mount Device components. After the code is compiled using the Arduino IDE, it should be uploaded to the main microcontroller of the Arduino UNO using a USB connection. It is because the main microcontroller do not have a USB transceiver, the user need a bridge to convert signals between the serial interface or UART interface of the microcontroller and the host USB signals. If the user wants to reset the board, the user must use a push button in the board or open the serial monitor from Arduino IDE.
According to (Makerspaces.com, Copyright 2014-2018), Arduino for Beginners, There are different types of Arduino boards. The boards with the name Arduino on them are the official boards. If the user want to create a wearable electronic project, the user might want to consider the LilyPad board. It is designed to be easily sewn into e-textiles and wearable projects. If the project has a small form factor, the user might want to use the Arduino Pro Mini which has a very small footprint compared to other boards. The popular Arduino board is the Arduino UNO. It remains to be the most actively used and most widely documented on the market. The components that make up an Arduino board are the reset button, AREF or the Analog Reference used to set an external reference voltage, Ground Pin, Digital Inpit/Output, PWM that can simulate the analog output, USB Connection, TX/RX or the transmit and receive data indication LEDs, ATmega Microcontroller, Power LED Indicator, Voltage Regulator, DC Power Barrel Jack, 3.3V Pin, 5V Pin, Ground Pins, and Analog Pins.
According to (Gibb, 2010), New Media Art, Design, and the Arduino Microcontroller: Malleable Tool, the Arduino microcontroller itself is based on other open source tools for artists. The most influential to the Arduino are the Processing language and the Wiring microcontroller. Processing is a Java base visual language for artists and the Wiring microcontroller is an input/output board for arts, media and education. Due to new tools such as these and the Arduino microcontroller, artists and designers are capable of completing tasks traditionally completed by electrical engineers. Beneath the relationship between the Arduino and art lies an alliance of engineers, artists and designers. May cross disciplinary team efforts revolve around the Arduino with learning environments, work spaces and online. Often a team consisting of an engineer and an artist or designer will create works together, drawing on one another’s strengths. The skill sets of the teams expand by collaborating with people of diverse backgrounds on the common platform which the Arduino microcontroller provides. The Arduino community threads together borrowed code, inspires new ideas, provide examples and starting points for non-technical users. The Arduino microcontroller proves to be instituted the way it was intended by its developers. It is an easy-to-use, adaptable open source, and used in art and design.