Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in developing countries

Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in developing countries. Microorganisms responsible for diarrhea, urinary tract infection, septicemia, bacteremia specifically E. coli. Escherichia coli is very important organism for the development of modern molecular biology and it is used as a model organism in scientific research. The results obtained in this study concluded that the water and meat available for consumer have a high fecal bacterial contamination. The high rate of ESBL contamination of retail meat in Dhaka city, which involves many of the ESBL genes present in colonized and infection human. E. coli often associated with production of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases and most of the ESBL-producing organisms were showed resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics because they destroy cephalosporin beta-lactam ring. All the ESBL producer were found sensitive to imipenem. High prevalence 52.4% and presence of variety of beta-lactamase genes in ESBL-producing E. coli in Bangladesh that reflects the overuse and misuse of antibiotics. This is confirming that environment can be one of the major and potential reservoirs for the antimicrobial ESBL resistant genes which could spread into the food chain. The correct identification of antibiotic resistance may lead to appropriate antibiotic prescription, which may in turn select for new resistance genes. Phenotypic tests for ESBL detection only confirm which is ESBL produced but cannot detect the ESBL subtype and those genes whose expression is hidden or masked. Therefore, a method is suggested as the genotypic method of choice for detection of ESBL-producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae. Molecular methods are sensitive. Those methods are expensive and require specialized equipment and expertise. There is some limitation to genotypic methods that can only detect those genes with known sequences. To get best results, phenotypic methods of ESBL detection should be improved. Estimating the possible impact for human such information could play an importance.
Further investigations need to the points of ESBL E. coli producing gene such as CTX, TEM, SHV and OXA types. A relationship with their verotypes which determined what type of pathogenic virulence genes they possessed. The phylogenetic group determined what type of verotypes they will belong.