Among all senses

Among all senses, vision is considered one of the most important and significant sense. Any abnormality or disability related to vision greatly influence an individual’s life and development (Angelopoulou-Sakantami, 2002). In addition, visual function is important for optimal orientation in functional and social life, and has an effect on physical and emotional well-being (Franke, Esser, Reimer, ; Maehmer, 2001). According to and Andreou (2004), visually impaired individuals suffered numerous hardships in nearly every domain of their life. Therefore, visual impairment leads to restriction in all areas of life and in particular, their quality of life. (Bekibele ; Gureje, Impact of self reported visual impairment on quality of life in The Ibadan Study of Ageing, 2008)
Blindness and visual defects lead to a number of public health issues, social as well as economic problems, particularly in developing countries (Shahriari H. , Izadi, Rouhani, Ghasemzadeh, ; Maleki, 2007). The World Health Organization has declared that blindness and visual impairment affect 37 million and 124 million individuals worldwide, respectively (World Health Organization, 2006). Over 90% of individuals with blindness and low vision live in developing countries (Tabbara, El-Sheikh, ; Shawaf, 2005). Furthermore, World Health Organization (WHO) defined total blindness as “the person’s incapacity to count one’s hand’s fingers from a distance of ten feet” while ‘partial blindness is the incapability of person’s with visual defect to calculate hand’s fingers from a distance equal to or less than twenty feet” (Polychronopoulou, 2003)
According to (Bekibele & Gureje, 2008) visual impairment causes restraints in nearly every aspect of daily life, particularly their life’s quality. Harding (2001) noted that quality of life can cover various characteristics of an individual’s well-being, for instance, social, psychological, physical, and environmental along with his standard of living. Furthermore, the quality of life explained by World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL, 1995)’s group as “the perception of an individual about his course of life especially in the form of values, morals as well as the society where he lives his life and connected to his expectations, activities, demands, standards goals and worries” (Group, 1995) (Bonomi, Patrick, Bushnell, ; Martin, 2000).
A number of literature suggested that visual impairment has debilitating consequences on quality of life, resulting in decreased motor activity (Rubin, et al., 2000 ; 1999)poorly rated self health (Wang, Mitchell, ; ; Smith, 2000), diminish emotional functioning (Rovner, Zisselman, ; ; Shmuely-Dulitzki, 1996) (Scott, Smiddy, Schiffman, Feuer, ; Pappas, 1999) and inadequate socialization. (Wang, Mitchell, Smith, Cumming, ; Attebo, 1999) (Scott, Smiddy, Schiffman, Feuer, ; Pappas, 1999)
Recent studies have shown that visual disability affects a person’s Quality Of Life by limiting social interactions and independence (Klein, Klein, Lee, & Cruickshanks, 1998) (West, et al., 1997). Thus, evaluation of the influence of visual impairment on daily activities, emotional state, social participation, and mobility is very valuable. Research in this will facilitate better provision of services for individuals with blindness and impaired vision. The mobility domain of quality of life is reduced in patients with low vision or blindness when compared to normal individuals (Koohpayezade, Eftekhar, & Nojoomi, 2001).
The relevance of this research is exemplified because if anyone should judge and evaluate the quality of life is good or not; it is the disabled individual. Many stigmas and affirmations are said about these people and, unfortunately, in most cases, by individuals who do not have such disabilities or are unaware of the reality faced by these individuals, limiting and often distorting the information regarding this population (Interdonato & Greguol, 2011).
Therefore, knowledge and assessment of the quality of life of visually impaired people is important and can help to elaborate nursing interventions during the rehabilitation process to maintain or improve both health conditions such as welfare, favoring the increase in quality of life of individuals.
The present study is anchored to the quality of life theory; thus, attempts to investigate the quality of life of blind people and construct a paradigm based on the data gathered.