Ameses II (also may be pronounced as “Ramesses” or “Ramses” , most often referred to as Ramses the Great ) – the third Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty of the New Kingdom era, who was born in 1303 BC, died in June or August 1213 year BC and reigned in the period from 1279 to 1213 years. BC. It is often considered as the greatest and most powerful pharaoh in the Egyptian chronology. His successors and later Egyptians called him “Great Ancestor” . Pharaoh Ramses II carried out several military expeditions to the Levant, thus establishing Egyptian control over the lands of Canaan. He also made trips to the south, to Nubia, which is imprinted in the inscriptions in the churches of Calabsha and Gerf-Hussein.
One of the four sedentary statues of Ramses II in his temple in Abu Simbel
At the age of fourteen, Ramses II was appointed Prince Regent of his father, Seti I. Having occupied the royal throne at a young age, he is known to have ruled the Egyptian empire for 66 or 67 years. Estimates of the age at which he passed away are different, but the most probable is that at the time of death, Pharaoh was 90 or 91 years old. For Ramses II witnessed the unprecedented in ancient Egyptian history of the number of festivals “heb-sed”(the jubilee celebration, which was celebrated on the 30th year of the reign of the monarch, and then every 3 years) – fourteen, i.?. more than any other pharaoh. After death, the ruler was buried in his tomb in the Valley of the Kings, but later his body, along with other mummies of Egyptian monarchs, was moved to the royal rocky hiding place, where it was discovered in 1881. At present, the mummy of Ramesses the Great is kept in the Cairo Museum.
A significant part of the Pharaoh’s reign was dedicated to the construction of new cities, temples and monuments. He laid a new capital in the Neel Delta – the city of Pi-Ramses – as the main outpost for his aggressive campaigns in Syria. In Greek sources, Ramses is known as “Ozymandia” or “Ozymandis” , which was derived from the transliteration of a part of the throne name of the pharaoh “Usermatra Setepenra” , translated as “Strong by the truth of Ra, the Elect of Ra.”