Emotions Effect on Psychophysiology:
According to this article people’s emotional response to music is dected by two positions. One being emotional (emotive) .This position detects people’s emotions that they recognize in their music. The other position relates to peoples memory or judgement, or reasoning to what they feel with the music. As stated in this article booth of these positions generate three emotions sadness, fear, and happiness. While some testees who were experimented experienced huge changes in their three moods. As mentioned in this article these changes have to do with a variety of functions in the body, For example related to the hearing and other functions. The people who were saddened by the music produced the largest changes in their heart rate, body temperature, and skin tone. The people who feared what they heard in the music experienced a change in their blood and circulatory system. Lastly the ones that were happy with their music experienced changes in their heart rate and breathing. According to the results of this experiment the emotive emotion was generally supported because no matter their reactions were to the music, it had to do with their emotion and changes in body functions.
As you have read in my last paragraph that music elicits allot of emotions. According to the people who have studied music. People’s emotional responses are a big factor in their state of listening to music (pansepp 1995).Even though music is linked to psychological and emotional reactions. According to this article psychologists who study music and emotion, rarely link music to one’s emotional responses, because psychologist who study such link it to hearing, or something visual such as watching movies. Most of how we react to music is reflected upon by our past emotions or antecedents. According to this article how you perceive emotions is related the environment around you, and emotional reactions such as aggressiveness and withdrawl.Also self-respect and Pride (Schweder 1993).If people become more emotionally involved in the music. It would have an effect on their body mobility. But in reality the person wellbeing is not effected. But of how the person stimulates to the music being physical while listening to the music is not addressed towards the music, which is usually related to one emotion. Music does not always have to be related to one’s emotion not involving music is usually related to ones interactions with humanity. Or what we understand related to ones diverseful ways, such as language, symbols, values, ideas etc. But even though some music is listened to in a socialized setting. It doesn’t simultaneously occur with everyone emotions in that social setting. Therefore emotions to music don’t depend on the song listened to.
According to this article Goldstein conducted a research on extreme responses to ones experienced with musicians or non muscians.According to this research music was the main reason behind their extreme impulses. Which there for show music causes people to react upon their emotions. According to pansepp (1995), these impulses are more common in people who listen to sad genre of music. Another source sloboda(1991) did a questionnaire test on reported music and emotion. His questionnaires results detected that people really high in people who studied music reported responses to the music. Such as those of sadness, tearing etc. With instrumental music the responses varied. Each emotion such as tears, shivers, and heart racing was associated with different melodies within the music. According to the article these examinations support Meyers claim that these emotions depend on the person outlook of the music.
The psychological aspect of the study by Henver (1936) is related to how two dimensions of music correspond with non-musical emotions. The blue sounds of music were in major vs minor mode. Firm vs following the rhythm of the music. Complexed harmonies vs Related to drums,bass,guitar.A study done by Tergot and Grinsven (1991)studies how children and adults responses to instrumental music was related to their facial expressions .Similar studies conducted by Cunningham and sterling (1988) showed the same results stating that responses such as nonverbal or vocal or facial expressions, does not lag far behind individual differences in the strength of musical perferances.Dolgin and andelson (1990)tested weather acoustic music relation to speech are linked in music. In order to test this theory .They composed pieces of variety of musical pieces and instruments such as motion and tempo. Their results showed that emotional reactions to music can be linked to early development of an adolescence linked together with facial and vocal expressions.
However according to the study done by Brown (1991)show six graders were to listen to a musical piece containing a piece linked to sorrow,romance,and mystery. Neither musicians nor non-musicians could understand the genre of the music. But when they were presented with the explanation of the music they were listening to, they could accurately descript the genere.More accurate descriptions were formed from people who were familiar with the musical genere.results of this study indicate musical emotions and basic emotions are realative.Another study conducted by Gregory and Varney (1996).Did a study on people of the western culture and their music. Just to test their emotion as relative to the music. The emotion judgements indicated sad, fear, similar emotions to music in the western culture. Goldstein (1980) tried to test emotion responses to music as related to time of reaction. During the course of the experiment, as mentioned by the expert. The responses to music remained stable for one testee.Until he was injected with morphine related drug. After the experiment was over the person related most to an emotional response. In deveries used a technique developed by clyness.Did an experiment to measure figure responses linked to emotion, the amplitude of the finger pressure related to emotion was that of how the finger was placed on the finger rest.
Weather it be Nielson in 1983 conducting an analysis using tongs to show musical tension. Or Krumhansl and schneck in 1997.Studying musical tension by using using computer displays to test musical melodies and harmony, and musical predictions. Or Lerdhal (1988, 1996).Linking music and dance together to cause similar emotion responses. To summarize the point of all of these studies. The test subjects show, music can cause strong responses in a person. Even though differences are observed through cultural background of emotional reactions. The emotional judgements are similar for musicians who are quite frank with learning music. However the judgements of musical emotions are steady in basic emotions such as angry, happy, sad, and fearful. Emotional influence to music can change overtime. It also shows how music can effect speech and mobility. But more likely so the focus of musical studies has been on how people’s emotions related to the melody of the music, or the speed at which the music is played at, or the piece of the music ex) notes played on a piano. According to Kivy (1990) those who hold the view that emotions perceived while listening to music, are quite similar to regular emotions. the emotive position should be rejected stating that music is relative to emotional responses one experiences, except to believe that people are usually more expressive of the emotion recognize within the music itself. But to believe that musical responses to the music are distinctive among individuals. According to this article Meyer (1956) Emotions are related to lyrics within the music, not with encounter of personal nature. Meyer also dismisses the claim that music effects one’s body mobility and functions, because according to Myers psychological changes rarely are relative to music, but of the influence the music as upon an individual. Later on Myers states that music is mostly based on ones expectation on how the music plays an important role in tensions, according to Myers tensions are released and given from music. Davis and Thaut (1989) concluded that music induced responses in one’s heart rate, temperature, related to the nervous system. Studies done by Standley (1991) and Davis and Cunningham (1987) stated that musical patterns are the root cause of improvement in one’s mental state.
On the mental side, According to William James (1890) states that the emotional value to ones psychological change during music is relative to a physiological response to the music. But a study done by Schater and singer (1962) argued against this response by stating that the response was related to the release of one’s external life events. Studies done by Ekman Crastenson,Frienson,and Levenaon(1990-1995)Mental results of ones outlet of emotions is related ones expressions ,and another task is relative to release of memories from ones past life related to emotion. Later on however Boiten (1996) related this study to the effort of producing a facial expression, rather than a response to ones emotions. According to Hugdahl (1995, p8.)The responses to one’s emotional response to music is related to the mind. They are also relate it to the functions of the body (CNS) system related to the functions of the brain and, body movemnets,and other functions associated with the body. The present day study related to functions of systems such as Lungs, organs, etc. On the same spectrum of emotional music ability. A study was done on six individuals. Each individual was given an hour and thirty minutes to test, their emotional responses in the hour and thirty minute of silence done while listening to the music. The experiment was conducted by university students. According to the experimental group which involved 10 subjects, reported their emotional value .Each subject was an expert on the music and had taken years of instrumental musical lessons, or had played music for quite some time.Simmilar students from the University of California Berkley also participated in the experiment too measuring the same experts as the one above.
The measure of the results were recorded by computer systems and graph. Heart rate which was measured in a millisecond indicated at a higher level of arousal related to the cardiovascular system. Also measuring pulse time to finger (fptt).Finger Pulse amplitude (FPA) used to measure blood flow and activity. Another thing pulse was measured to the sound of music to the ear, which also measured ones blood flow. The amount of air inhaled and exhaled. Any other function you can think of. Music that was used included according to my research was mostly instrumental. Two people were chosen to represent sadness, tow to represent happiness, and two to represent fear. Each group was given an hour and thirty minutes to collect emotional measures, and another hour and thirty minutes in which they wrote the results. Ten subjects kept a variable to move up and down to indicate sadness, then ten subjects to judge fear, and so on. The questionnaire they had to fill out included a rating scale from 0-8, and included each emotion respectively. Graph one shows the emotion of six people measured .AL BB were chosen to represent sadness,(HT)and (My) to represent happiness and Vivaldi and Alfoven to also represent happiness. As looking at the data on the graph. The results are as indicated, as this graph measures emotional judgements, and body functions. The probality value was greater than .97, P