A Standard operating procedure is an approach and system record which portrays the general repeating exercises proper to quality tasks. On the off chance that it is Critical to Quality (CTQ) at that point it is a possibility for a standard working system. Consistency is the objective or reason for a Standard operating procedure, to do all activities accurately and dependably in a similar way.
Job analysis is one of the most important activities of human resource management. A regular or proactive job analysis practice help to identify factors that shape the employee’s motivations and job satisfaction.
Job analysis was conceptualized by two of the founder of Industrial /Organizational psychology, Frederick Taylor and Lilian Moller Gilbreth in the early 20th century. Since then, experts have presented many different systems to accomplish job analysis that have become increasingly detailed over the decades. However, evidence shows that the root purpose of job analysis, understanding the behavioural requirements of work, has not changed in over 85 years.
Job analysis provides useful tools for those working in human resource management, human factors, and industrial and organizational psychology. Although job analysis has been with us since the dawn of scientific management, it still provides valuable guidance for those who wish to develop new programs or improve existing ones that enhance the contributions of people in the organizations.
1.2. Problem statement of the study
Employees don’t perform their duties according to their job descriptions and employee performance agreement. Reason being that the job description is so outdated. Every day when employee come to work, they perform different duties. New task has been allocated to the employees and that lit to more stress for employees as they wake up everyday to go to work but not knowing what is expected of them.
1.3. Aim of the study
To use job analysis technique as a tool to compile job descriptions and use the information written on the job description to set a standard operating procedure for employees. Ensure that all employees perform the job that are align with Manitou Southern Africa goals.
1.4. Justification of the study
Job analysis plays a more important role in shaping human resource strategies in organizations where human resources management is viewed as a fundamental part of corporate planning and strategic decision making. The job analysis helps to pinpoint the potential drawbacks of the organizations and provide information of job-related that can help managers to understand the workflow.
1.5. The significance of the study
This study is significant to the field of Human Resource Management. from a scientific management perspective, the study is integrated to read or understand the behaviour requirement of work. Job analysis cover a host of activities, all of which are directed towards discovering, understanding, and describing what people do at work. JA is so important because they form the basis for the solution of virtually every human resources problem. Standard operating procedure. Standard operating procedure give a description of who does what and when. A SOP portrays connections and control measures. It characterizes the jobs and obligations to enable labourers to know their obligations Averting process mistakes is the primary explanations behind composition strategies. Technique or work guidance go about as controls or countermeasure for recognized dangers that can make imperfections, wounds, or non-conformances. The standard working systems shield procedures from deformities and consistently prompts less remedial activities.
1.6. Research questions
• What is the main purpose of performing the job?
• Describe the main duties and responsibilities?
• What is the fitness for the job into the structure of the organization?
• What are the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform the job given?
• Which tools and equipment needed to effectively perform the job?
• What is the relationship between organization performance and job descriptions?
1.7. Research Objectives
• To define the purpose of the job.
• Determine the main duties and responsibilities.
• To define the fitness of the job into the structure of the organization.
• Define the knowledge, skills and ability required to perform /carry out the job.
• To list tools and equipment needed.
• Define the level of accountability.
• To examine the relationship between organisation performance and job descriptions.
1.8. Limitations of the study
Even this research has achieved its aim, there were some uncontrollable and unavoidable limitations.
The following setbacks were faced during this study:
Some of the respondents were unavailable for interviews reason being that their where so busy held up by their duties and some were not available they when to for agent business trip.
Study ran only 3 days each week in 4 months. That not enough for the researcher to observe all Manitou Southern Africa Aftermarket employees.it would be better if it was done in longer time.
Research is conducted only in Aftermarket department, therefore further research need to be extended to other departments.
Even though the researcher before distributing the questionnaire, she explains its purpose and went through all the questions with them. Those participants that don’t know how to read and write they asked their colleague to assist them with completing the questions. colleagues they tend to answer the question according to their own experience. This make the questionnaire biased because some of the participants completed more than one questionnaires while some didn’t even participate in questionnaire.
During interview most of the participants didn’t want to take part as they felt that it’s a way for management to find excuses of firing them. They don’t trust the researcher as they thought she is there to spy on them, they felt unease around her and when she was busy observing their work they thought she is here to see who doesn’t do the work. If management full introduced the researcher and explain to the employees that she is here to study the work and not individuals.
Limited access to employees
Before entering workshop, researcher must be granted permission by workshop manager, she should wear safety equipment and given access card. But due to the fact that workshop uses strong chemicals like paints to spray machines. Researcher was denied access reason being it’s for her own health and safety. Researcher used lunch and tea times to talk with employees. she didn’t have a chance to observe them.
2.1. Standard operating procedure
Standard operating procedure consist of clearly documented, step-by-step procedures and checklist that are easy for employees to follow and greatly reduce the chance of mistake. Sop provide easy work routine for employees to follow. It’s an idea of documenting all employee’s responsibilities and compiling a manual.
A composed strategy for controlling a training as per foreordained determinations to acquire a coveted result. SOPs are composed strides to clarify great assembling rehearses, plant wellbeing schedules, money related controls to anchor resources, or IT safety efforts that workers are to pursue. SOPs are well ordered techniques on the most proficient method to accomplish something that is basic to quality, basic to safe activities, or basic to security.
Many tend confuse Systems and Work Instructions. Systems portray a procedure, while a work guidance depicts how to play out the transformation itself. Process portrayals incorporate insights about the information sources, what transformation happens (of contributions to yields), the yields, and the input important to guarantee steady outcomes. The PDCA procedure approach (Plan, Do, Check, Act) is utilized to catch the pertinent data
2.2. Job analysis
According to Brannick, Levine and Morgan (2007:17) job analysis is the systematic process of discovery of the nature of a job by dividing it into smaller units, where the process results in one or more written products with the goal of describing what is done in the job or what capabilities are needed to effectively perform the job.
As a technique, job analysis incorporates a movement of choices, including the sort of information to be accumulated, and the wellspring of the data. The specific choice made, will depend upon the inspiration driving the job analysis. Job analysis can be led for different purposes, including the accompanying:
• Developing job delineations that depict the essential thought of the job.
• Classifying jobs into groups of related job.
• Establish accumulation of frameworks in which the job analysis is utilized to portray the learning, aptitudes, capacities and other unmistakable required for effective assignment execution.
• Developing execution evaluation frameworks, in which the job analysis is utilized to pinpoint the key errands and work practices performed at work.
• Evaluating the estimation of various jobs for remuneration purposes.
• Designing or upgrading jobs to make them more pleasant or effective to perform.
• Developing preparing programs in which the job analysis is utilized to feature the key undertakings that laborers must have the capacity to perform.
Job analysis is the premise of human asset administration, the nature of its analysis for module of human asset administration has a basic effect. It’s likewise characterized as a precise strategy that help with recognizing the abilities expected to play out the work, and is viewed as an essential and general human asset administration procedure. The information produced by job investigations have a critical use in about each part of human asset organization, outlining jobs and reward frameworks, staffing and preparing, execution control and that’s only the tip of the iceberg.
Given the centrality that job analysis play in the administration of human capital. It’s astonishing that job analysis isn’t viewed as a more basic action occupied with by modern hierarchical clinician. This subject is treated in many course readings in a way which recommend that any trick can do it and as an errand which can be assigned to the most reduced level workers. Tragically, the circumstance has very little changed, and this basic limit isn’t given the best possible level of consideration and regard either by a clinician or HR professionals.
Job analysis data is fundamental to the foundation of execution standards. Through it a comprehension of what the worker should do is gotten. Without JA, satisfactory levels of execution can’t be resolved or precise estimation of genuine execution got.
Job analysis cover a large group of exercises, which are all coordinated towards finding, understanding, and portraying what individuals do at work. JA is so critical on the grounds that they shape the reason for the arrangement of for all intents and purposes each HR issue. JA is so important because they form the basis for the solution of virtually every human resources problem.
JA is used for a large number of purpose including job description, job classification, job evaluation, job, team, and system design and redesign, human resources.in this study the focus will be on JD only as it’s the main reason of doing this study.
2.3. job description
Brannick, Levine and Morgan (2007) “Job description is a brief written description of work-it’s a snapshot intended to communicate the essence of the job. Job description is an extensive documentation of the degree, obligations, assignments, duties and working conditions identified with the activity posting in the association through the procedure of occupation investigation. It’s normally incorporates identifiers (job title, working hours, work outline, obligations and duties, it might contain other data, for example, detailed report, responsibility, aptitudes, experience and capabilities expected to carry out the activity. JD is so imperative as the apparatus for conveying the idea of the activity to somebody who doesn’t comprehend what the activity is.”
Job analysis and job descriptions are firmly interrelated. The data assembled on each job through job analysis is in this way sorted out and aggregated in job description. The capability of the job description along these lines depends to a great extent upon the degree of the data got through job analysis. Job description is characterized as a short composed description of work. It comprises of job review, job rundown (mission or target proclamation), obligations and duties, and may contain other data, for example, aptitudes, least capabilities and working conditions.
Research conducted by Siddique (2004) during which he examined the impact of job analysis on organizational performance among 148 companies in United Arab Emirates (UAE), a Gulf-region country. The results indicated that a proactive job analysis was strongly related to organizational performance. His research proved that job analysis is indeed a cornerstone of human resource activities and vital strategic management proactive to gain competitive advantage. Companies that view job analysis as a serious policy matter might achieve more concrete results by improving human resource involvement in strategic decisions and corporate planning activities.
According Thompson (2017) during which he studied Walmart, a retail store successfully implemented job analysis and design in human resource through the company’s organizational structure, which is a hierarchical functional structure. The company has a clear and distinct definitions for every job position and level of the structure. Two Method used are work-oriented and worker-oriented job analysis. Work-oriented purpose is to provide information about the task and outcomes. They applied this method in the form of interviews and direct observations. On the other hand, the worker-oriented job analysis method provides information on interpersonal, cognitive and perceptual abilities. Walmart used this method to analyse managerial jobs. A specific application of this method is through the Work Profiling System (WPS), which is designed for managerial positions. This method enabled Walmart’s human resource management to pinpoint the necessary capabilities of managers, such as store managers and corporate managers. The human resource management used the position, functions, duties, performance standards, job factors and job knowledge variables as criteria for job description.
method study the efficient account and basic examination of getting things done with the end goal to make change. work study as a process of doing work analysis incorporate determination of agent positions and occupations to be investigated. this might be vital when there are numerous representatives in a solitary employment and when various comparative occupations are to be dissected in light of the fact that it would be excessively tedious making it impossible to investigate each position and occupation. Pareto analysis ought to be utilized to organize the obligations and duties of the workers. the analyst should utilize a Gantt chart to timetable and gauge the time expected to play out the study. by utilizing observation poll meeting and writing ponders as the principle system to accumulate realities about the activity. the specialist will acquire more top to bottom data about the activity. while watching representatives utilize the process chart a graphical introduction of the grouping of all exercises occurring in a process. every one of the insights about the current method and process are recorded and spoken to in chart. the chronicle of the actualities about the activity and task in a process chart is finished utilizing the accompanying standard image:
Research methodology is a plan of systems and rules to encourage the gathering and investigation of information. It gives the beginning stage to picking a methodology made up of speculations, thoughts, ideas and meanings of the subject. This study draws simultaneously from various strategies for examination. In this examination, both quantitative and qualitative research configuration will be utilized. This is typically alluded to as mixed method research design. The mixed strategy approach is utilized with the end goal to answer the exploration inquiries and in addition the research objectives.
Qualitative research is defined as a statistical surveying technique that spotlights on acquiring information through open-ended and conversational correspondence. This technique isn’t just about “what” individuals think yet in addition “why” they suspect as much. The qualitative research strategy considers in-depth and further examining and addressing of respondent’s dependent on their reactions, where the questioner/researcher likewise attempts to comprehend their inspiration and sentiments.
Like all the research method qualitative research also has its drawbacks is that is time consuming and need money.
Quantitative research is the data that takes the forms of numbers. It’s the use of secondary or pre-existing data that was long developed or is always available. This practice safe time and money and avoid unnecessary duplication of research afford.
3.1. Sample Size
The study was collected at Manitou Southern Africa Aftermarket Department were by all employees from top management to cleaners participated on the study. The sample size drawn was 50 participants. Out of 50 participants 7 of them hold managerial position,41 general workers and 2 cleaners. Note that the concept of Job analysis in for this study is that the analysis is going to was conducted on the job, not on the person performing it.