A model of stress was measured by Cohen et al (1983).The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is developed to measures the degree to which a person experiences his or her life as unexpected, uncontrollable and overloaded (Cohen et al., 1983). To operationalize this model to measure its influence, Cohen et al (1983) created the PPS. Furthermore, there are 14-item scale and each item has five point scale from “never” (0) to “very often (4)”, with (3) as the midpoint of each scale item (Cohen et al., 1983). Higher scores on this measure indicate greater level of Perceived Stress; the maximum score is 56 and it more likely individual will perceive the demand from environment exceed their ability scope (Cohen et al, 1983). The psychometric properties of the scale have been well documented. Good internal consistency has been shown, as indicated by Cronbach’s alpha values of 0.84, 0.85, and 0.86 in three samples (Cohen et al., 1983). The Swedish version of PSS also has demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=0.82) (Eskin and Parr, 1996). Cronbach’s alpha for the PSS in the present study was 0.83 (Cohen et al, 1983).
Other measures of stress are Wheaton’s Chronic Stress Scale. Job stress was measured using a sub-scale of Wheaton’s (1991, 1994) chronic stress scale. This measure is used to assess a person’s perception of ongoing and enduring sources of stress in their life conditions. Chronic stress is measured through self-reports of whether a set of stressful conditions describe the individual’s situation. Speci?cally, the survey included ?ve items pertaining to general work-related stress (?=.63). Items include: ‘My supervisor is always watching what I do at work’ and ‘My work is boring and repetitive’. Response categories for all work stress items were recorded on 4-point scale, ranging from 1=strongly disagree to 4=strongly agree. Therefore, higher values indicate greater levels of perceived work stress. Because one of the work stress items (My job often leaves me feeling both mentally and physically tired) is potentially confounded with the organizational climate indicator of emotional exhaustion, sensitivity analyses were conducted to test for this possibility. Replicating all analysis without this item in the work stress scale revealed no substantive differences in results (available upon request). Thus, the ?ndings include the complete ?ve-item measure, which was calculated using the average score across all ?ve items.
The Workplace Stress Scale
Workplace stress was measured using the 8-item Workplace Stress Scale. This scale was selected for its brevity, succinctness, and applicability to all professions. A sample item is, “I find it difficult to express my opinions or feelings about my job conditions to my superiors.” Items are scored on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (never) to 5 (very often). The scores were summed. Scores ranged from 8 to 40, with a low score which is less than 15 indicating low workplace stress, and a high score which more than 26 indicating severe stress. The Cronbach’s alpha in this study is 0.76.